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Root of the horseradish plant
Prepared horseradish
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana, syn. Cochlearia armoracia) is a perennial plant of the Brassicaceae family, which also includes mustard, wasabi, broccoli, and cabbages. The plant is probably native to southeastern Europe and western Asia, but is popular around the world today. It grows up to 1.5 meters (five feet) tall and is mainly cultivated for its large white, tapered root.

The intact horseradish root has hardly any aroma. When cut or grated, however, enzymes from the damaged plant cells break down sinigrin (a glucosinolate) to produce allyl isothiocyanate (mustard oil), which irritates the sinuses and eyes. Once grated, if not used immediately or mixed in vinegar, the root darkens and loses its pungency and becomes unpleasantly bitter when exposed to air and heat.

History

Horseradish has been cultivated since antiquity. According to Greek mythology, the Delphic Oracle told Apollo that the horseradish was worth its weight in gold. Horseradish was known in Egyptmarker in 1500 BC and has traditionally been used by Jews from eastern Europe in Passover Seders, often representing maror. Cato discusses the plant in his treatises on agriculture, and a mural in Pompeiimarker showing the plant has survived until today. Horseradish is probably the plant mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History under the name of Amoracia, and recommended by him for its medicinal qualities, and possibly the Wild Radish, or raphanos agrios of the Greeks.

Both root and leaves were used as a medicine during the Middle Ages and the root was used as a condiment on meats in Germany, Scandinavia, and Britain. It was taken to North America during Colonial times.

William Turner mentions horseradish as Red Cole in his "Herbal" (1551-1568), but not as a condiment. In "The Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes" (1597), John Gerard describes it under the name of raphanus rusticanus, stating that it occurs wild in several parts of England. After referring to its medicinal uses, he says: "the Horse Radish stamped with a little vinegar put thereto, is commonly used among the Germans for sauce to eat fish with and such like meates as we do mustarde."

Where the English name horseradish comes from is not certain. It may derive by misinterpretation of the German Meerrettich as mare radish. Some think it is because of the coarseness of the root. In Europe the common version is that it refers to the old method of processing the root called "hoofing". Horses were used to stamp the root tender before grating it.

Cultivation

Horseradish is perennial in hardiness zones 2 - 9 and can be grown as an annual in other zones, though not as successfully as in zones with both a long growing season and winter temperatures cold enough to ensure plant dormancy. After the first frost in the autumn kills the leaves, the root is dug and divided. The main root is harvested and one or more large offshoots of the main root are replanted to produce next year's crop. Horseradish left undisturbed in the garden spreads via underground shoots and can become invasive. Older roots left in the ground become woody, after which they are no longer culinarily useful, although older plants can be dug and redivided to start new plants.

Pests and diseases

Imported cabbageworms (Artogeia rapae) are a common caterpillar pest in horseradish. The adults are white butterflies with black spots on the forewings that are commonly seen flying around plants during the day. The caterpillars are velvety green with faint yellow stripes running lengthwise down the back and sides. Full grown caterpillars are about 1 inch in length. They move sluggishly when prodded. They overwinter in green pupal cases. Adults start appearing in gardens after the last frost and are a problem through the remainder of the growing season. There are 3 to 5 overlapping generations a year. Mature caterpillars chew large, ragged holes in the leaves leaving the large veins intact. Handpicking is an effective control strategy.

Commercial production

Although grown in many regions of the world,Collinsville, Illinoismarker is the self-proclaimed "Horseradish Capital of the World" and hosts an annual International Horseradish Festival each June. Collinsville produces 60% and the surrounding area of Southwestern Illinois 85% of the world's commercially grown horseradish. Other major US growing regions include Wisconsin and Tulelake, California. Apart from these US areas, horseradish is also produced in Europe.

Culinary uses

use the terms "horseradish" or "prepared horseradish" to refer to the grated root of the horseradish plant mixed with vinegar. Prepared horseradish is white to creamy-beige in color. It will keep for months refrigerated but eventually will start to darken, indicating it is losing flavor and should be replaced. The leaves of the plant, which while edible are not commonly eaten, are referred to as "horseradish greens". Although technically a root, horseradish is generally treated as a condiment or ingredient.

sauce made from grated horseradish root, vinegar and cream is a popular condiment in the United Kingdom. It is usually served with roast beef, often as part of a traditional Sunday roast, but can be used in a number of other dishes also, including sandwiches or salads. Also popular in the UK is Tewkesbury mustard, a blend of mustard and grated horseradish originally created in medieval times and mentioned by Shakespeare. In the U.S., the term Horseradish Sauce refers to grated horseradish combined with mayonnaise or Miracle Whip salad dressing (such as Arby's "Horsey Sauce"). Kraft Foods and other large condiment manufacturers sell this type of Horseradish Sauce.

In the USA, prepared horseradish is a common ingredient in Bloody Mary cocktails and in cocktail sauce, and is used as a sauce or spread on meat, chicken, and fish, and in sandwiches. The American fast-food restaurant chain Arby's uses horseradish in its "Horsey Sauce", which it offers as a regular condiment, alongside ketchup, mustard, and mayonnaise; this is not a common practice among its major competitors.

There are several manufacturers of prepared horseradish in the United States. The largest is Gold's Horseradish in New York, which sells about 2.5 million jars annually. In Eastern European Jewish cuisine, a sweetened horseradish-vinegar sauce called chrain ( , khreyn) in Yiddish traditionally accompanies gefilte fish. There are two varieties of chrain. "Red" chrain is mixed with red beet (beetroot) and "white" chrain contains no beet. It is also popular in Ukrainemarker (under the name of , khrin), in Polandmarker (under the name of ), in Russiamarker ( , khren), in Hungarymarker ( ), in Romania ( ), and in Bulgariamarker ( , khryan). Having this on the Easter table is a part of Easter tradition in Eastern and Central Europe. A variety with red beet is called or simply in Poland. Red beet with horseradish is used as a salad served with lamb dishes at Easter called 'sfecla cu hrean' in Transylvania and other Romanian regions. Horseradish (often grated and mixed with cream, hard-boiled eggs, or apples) is also a traditional Easter dish in Sloveniamarker and in the adjacent Italianmarker region of Friuli Venezia Giulia.

Horseradish is also used as a main ingredient for soups. In Polish Silesia region, horseradish soup is a main Easter Sunday dish.

Horseradish dyed green is often substituted for the more expensive wasabi traditionally served with sushi, even in Japan. The Japanese botanical name for horseradish is , or "Western wasabi".

Horseradish contains 2 glucosinolates (sinigrin and gluconasturtiin) which are responsible for its pungent taste.

Nutritional value

Horseradish contains potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus, as well as volatile oils, such as mustard oil (which has antibacterial properties due to the antibacterial mechanism of allyl isothiocyanate). Fresh, the plant contains average 79.31 mg of vitamin C per 100 g of raw horseradish.

Research applications

The enzyme horseradish peroxidase, found in the plant, is used extensively in molecular biology for antibody detection, among other things. It is becoming increasingly important in biochemical research fields.

Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is widely used in research for immunohistochemistry labeling of tissue sections, e.g. in biopsies of subjects suspected to have cancer. Usually many molecules of the enzyme are covalently bound to an antibody of preferred specifiation for some other antibody that recognizes a specific biomarker expressed in cells that the tissue sections contain. The HRP will convert 3,3-diaminobenzidin (DAB), that is next added to the sections, to a yellowish brown insoluble compound. This compound is then visible in a photon or electron microscope. For more information see Histochemistry.

Medicinal uses

Known to have diuretic properties, the roots have been used to treat various minor health problems, including urinary tract infections, bronchitis, sinus congestion, ingrowing toenails and coughs. Compounds found in horseradish have been found to kill some bacterial strains.

See also





References

  1. The Encyclopedia of Healing Foods By Michael T. Murray, Lara Pizzorno
  2. ,
  3. Glueck, Michael Arnold : "The Horseradish Chronicles: The Pain of Chrain" [1]
  4. Horseradish Soup Recipe Updated with Photographs - Polish Easter Food
  5. RICHARD H. ArĂ´mes alimentaires Document de cours
  6. Rinzler, Carol Ann: "Book of Herbs and Spices", Wordsworth Editions, Ware, England, 1997 (Pages 82-83), ISBN 1-85326-390-7
  7. D. Purves and J. W. Lichtman: "Cell Marking with Horseradish Peroxidase", 1985. http://8e.devbio.com/article.php?ch=13&id=139.


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