A hot dog
) is a moist sausage
of soft, even texture and flavor, often made from advanced meat recovery
or meat slurry
. Most types are fully cooked,
. It is often placed hot
in a special purpose soft, sliced hot dog
. It may be garnish
mustard, ketchup, onion, mayonnaise, relish, cheese, chili or
. The flavor can be
similar to a range of meat products from bland bologna to spicy German bockwurst varieties. Kosher
hot dogs may be
made from beef, chicken or turkey. Vegetarian hot dogs
made from meat analogue
Unlike other sausages which may be sold uncooked, hot dogs are
always cooked. Hot dogs can be eaten without cooking, although they
are usually warmed before serving. Since even the unopened packaged
hot dog can have bacteria it is safer to cook them (especially
important for pregnant women).
Claims about the invention of the hot dog are difficult to assess
because various stories assert the creation of the sausage, the
placing of the sausage (or another kind of sausage) on bread or a
bun as finger food, the popularization of the existing dish, or the
application of the name "hot dog" to a sausage and bun
frankfurter comes from Frankfurt, Germany, where
sausages in a bun originated, similar to hot dogs, but made of
pork; wiener refers to Vienna, Austria, whose German name
is "Wien", home to a sausage made of a mixture of pork and beef
, whose name also
derives from a German-speaking city). In German speaking
countries, except Austria, hot dog
sausages are called Wiener or Wiener Würstchen
(Würstchen means "little sausage").
In Swiss German
, it is called Wienerli
while in Austria the terms Frankfurter
of Vienna traces the lineage of the hot dog to the
Wienerwurst or Viennese sausage, the city of Frankfurt to
the Frankfurter Wurst, which it claims was invented in the
1480s and given to the people on the event of imperial coronations,
starting with the coronation of Maximilian II, Holy Roman
Emperor as King; the hot dog has also been attributed to Johann
Georg Lahner, a 18th/19th century butcher from the Bavarian city of
Coburg who is said to have invented the "dachshund" or "little-dog" sausage and brought it
from Frankfurt to Vienna.
1870, on Coney
Island, German immigrant Charles Feltman began selling
sausages in rolls.
Others have supposedly invented the hot dog. The idea of a hot dog
on a bun is ascribed to the wife of a German named Antonoine
Feuchtwanger, who sold hot dogs on the streets of St. Louis,
Missouri, in 1880, because his customers kept taking the
white gloves handed to them for eating without burning their
hands. Anton Ludwig Feuchtwanger, a Bavarian sausage
seller, is said to have served sausages in rolls at the World's Fair either the 1893 World's
Columbian Exposition in Chicago or the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition
in St Louis again allegedly because the white gloves he gave to
customers so that they could eat his hot sausages in comfort began
to disappear as souvenirs.
The association between hot dogs and baseball began as early as
1893 with Chris von der Ahe
German immigrant who owned not only the St. Louis Browns
, but also an amusement
Harry M Stevens Inc., founded in 1889, serviced major sports venues
with hot dogs and other refreshments, making Stevens known as the
"King of Sports Concessions" in the US.
In 1916, an employee of Feltman's named Nathan Handwerker
was encouraged by
celebrity clients Eddie Cantor
to go into business in
competition with his former employer.Handwerker undercut Feltman's
by charging five cents for a hot dog when his former employer was
charging ten.At an earlier time in food regulation the hot dog
suspect, Handwerker made sure that men wearing surgeon's smocks
were seen eating at Nathan's Famous
to reassure potential customers.
Hot dog vendor in Amsterdam
The term "dog" has been used as a synonym for sausage since 1884
and accusations that sausage makers used dog
date to at least 1845.
to a myth, the use of the complete phrase "hot dog" in
reference to sausage was coined by the newspaper cartoonist
Thomas Aloysius "TAD" Dorgan around
1900 in a cartoon recording the sale of hot dogs during a New York Giants baseball game at the
Grounds.However, TAD's earliest usage of "hot dog"
was not in reference to a baseball game at the Polo Grounds, but to
a bicycle race at Madison Square Garden, in the The New York Evening Journal
[December 12, 1906], by which time the term "hot dog" in reference
to sausage was already in use.
In addition, no copy of the
apocryphal cartoon has ever been found.
The earliest usage of hot dog in clear reference to sausage found
by Barry Popik
appeared in the 28
September 1893 The Knoxville Journal
. Another early use of
the complete phrase "hot dog" in reference to sausage appeared on
page 4 of the October 19, 1895 issue of The Yale Record
: "they contentedly
munched hot dogs during the whole service."
Grilled hot dogs
A hot dog is distinguishable from other sausages by its smaller
size and relative lack of spicing. The hot dog at sporting events,
and available in supermarkets, is commonly 6 in (15 cm) long.
Common hot dog ingredients:
- Meat and fat
- Flavorings, such as salt, garlic, and paprika
- Preservatives (cure) - typically sodium erythorbate and sodium
In the US, if variety meats, cereal or soy fillers are used, the
product name must be changed to "links" or the presence must be
declared as a qualifier.
Pork and beef are traditional meats. Less expensive hot dogs are
primarily chicken or turkey, due to the low cost of mechanically separated
. Hot dogs have high sodium
content, ingredients linked to health problems. Due to changing
dietary preferences, manufacturers have turned to turkey, chicken,
or vegetarian meat substitutes
lowered salt content.
If a manufacturer produces two types of hot dogs, "wieners" tend to
contain pork and are blander, while "franks" tend to be all beef
and more strongly seasoned.
Common hot dog condiments include mustard, ketchup, pickle relish,
cole slaw, saurkraut, onion, mayonnaise, lettuce, tomato, cheese
and chili peppers. They are served in a bun.
The National Sausage and Hot Dog Council US in 2005 found mustard
to be the most popular condiment (32 percent). "Twenty-three
percent of Americans said they preferred ketchup....Chili (chili con carne
) came in third at 17
percent, followed by relish (9 percent) and onions (7 percent).
Southerners showed the strongest preference for chili, while
Midwesterners showed the greatest affinity for ketchup."
Hot dogs are prepared commercially by mixing the ingredients
(meats, spices, binders and fillers) in vats where rapidly moving
blades grind and mix the ingredients in the same operation. This
mixture is forced through tubes into casings for cooking. Most hot
dogs sold in the US are "skinless" as opposed to more expensive
"natural casing" hot dogs.
Natural casing hot dogs
As with most sausages, hot dogs must be in a casing to be cooked.
Casing is made from the small
. The products are
known as "natural casing" hot dogs or frankfurters. These hot dogs
have firmer texture and a "snap" that releases juices and flavor
when the product is bitten.
Kosher casings are expensive in commercial quantities in the US, so
kosher hot dogs are usually skinless or made with reconstituted
Skinless hot dogs
One of the more recent developments in
hot dog preparation: The hot dog toaster.
"Skinless" hot dogs must use a casing in the cooking process when
the product is manufactured, but the casing is usually a long tube
of thin cellulose that is removed between cooking and packaging.
Skinless hot dogs vary in the texture of the product surface but
have a softer "bite" than natural casing hot dogs. Skinless hot
dogs are more uniform in shape and size than natural casing hot
dogs and less expensive.
For a list of regional differences in hot dog preparation and
condiments, see Hot dog
Hot dogs may be grilled, steamed, boiled, barbecued, pan fried,
deep fried, broiled, or microwaved. While hot dogs are cooked
before packaging, they should not be eaten cold from the package.
Hot dogs and their packaging fluid are sometimes contaminated with
the bacterium Listeria
, which causes listeriosis
, a serious foodborne illness
Institute for Cancer Research
report found that consuming one
50-gram serving of processed meat — about one hot dog — every day
increases risk of colorectal
by 20 percent. The Cancer Project group filed a
class-action lawsuit demanding warning labels on packages and at
sporting events. Hot dogs are high in fat and salt and have
preservatives sodium nitrate
, believed to cause cancer. According
to the AICR, the average risk of colorectal cancer is 5.8 percent,
but 7 percent when a hot dog is consumed daily over years.
Hot dogs in the United States
Hot dog restaurants
Restaurants may have hot dogs on children's menu that are not on
the regular menu. Hot dog stands
trucks sell hot dogs at street and highway locations. At
convenience stores hot dogs are kept heated on rotating grills.
Wandering hot dog vendors sell in baseball parks. Some parks have
signature hot dogs, such as Fenway Franks at Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts and Dodger
Dogs at Dodger
Stadium in Los
The Fenway signature is that the hot dog is
boiled and grilled Fenway-style, and then served on a New
England-style bun, covered with mustard and relish. Often during
Red Sox games, vendors traverse the stadium selling the hot dogs
plain, giving customers the choice of adding the condiments.
The World's Longest Hot Dog
created was 60m (196.85 ft), and rested within a 60.3 m bun. The
hot dog was prepared by Shizuoka Meat Producers for the All-Japan
Bread Association, which baked the bun and coordinated the event,
including official measurement for the world record. The hot dog
and bun were the center of a media event in celebration of the
Association's 50th anniversary on August 4, 2006, at the Akasaka
Prince Hotel, Tokyo, Japan.
sells the most grilled hot dogs in
North America, 100 million yearly.