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The House of Bourbon-Parma ( ) is a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon. It is thus descended from the Capetian dynasty in male line. The name of Bourbon-Parma comes from the main name (Bourbon) and the other (Parma) from the title of Duke of Parma.The title was held by the Spanish Bourbons as the founder was the great-grandson of Duke Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma.

Duchy of Parma

The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milanmarker south of the Po Rivermarker, as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered on the city of Parmamarker.In 1556, the second Duke, Ottavio Farnese, was given the city of Piacenzamarker, becoming thus also Duke of Piacenza, and so the state was thereafter properly known as the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza.

The Farnese family continued to rule until their extinction in 1731, at which point the duchy was inherited by the young son of the King of Spain, Charles, whose mother Elisabeth was a member of the Farnese family. He ruled until the end of the War of the Polish Succession in 1735, when Parma was ceded to Emperor Charles VI in exchange for the Two Sicilies.

Temporary Habsburg rule

The Habsburgs only ruled until the conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when it was ceded back to the Bourbon in the person of Philip, Charles's younger brother. As duke Philip, he became the founder of the House of Bourbon-Parma.

In 1796, the duchy was occupied by French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte. In the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1801, duke Ferdinand formally agreed to cede the duchy to Napoleon. The territories were integrated into the Cisalpine Republicmarker until 1802, the Italian Republicmarker, from 1802 until 1805, and the Kingdom of Italy, from 1805 until 1808, until in 1808 the French Empire annexed them and formed out of them the Département of Taro.

In 1814, the duchies were restored under Napoleon's Habsburg wife, Marie Louise, who was to rule them for her lifetime. The duchy was renamed duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, the name that it retained until the end.

Return to the Bourbons

After Marie Louise's death in 1847, the Duchy was restored to the Bourbon-Parma line, which had been ruling the tiny duchy of Lucca. The Bourbons ruled until 1859, when they were driven out by a revolution following the Sardinian victory in their war against Austria.

The duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla and the duchy of Lucca joined with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the duchy of Modena to form the United Provinces of Central Italy in December 1859, and were annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia in March of 1860.The House of Bourbon continues to claim the title of duke of Parma to this day. Carlos-Hugo (Carlist pretender to the Spanish throne in the 1970s) has held the title since 1977.

The Dukes

House of Bourbon-Parma 1731–1735

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles, Duke of Parma
1731–1735
20 January 1716
Madridmarker
son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma

Maria Amalia of Saxony
1738
13 children

14 December 1788
Madridmarker
aged 72



House of Bourbon-Parma 1748–1803

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Philip, Duke of Parma
1748–1765
15 March 1720
Madridmarker
son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma

Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon
25 October 1739
3 children

18 July 1765
Alessandriamarker
aged 45

Ferdinand, Duke of Parma
1765–1802
nominal since 1796

20 January 1751
Parmamarker
son of Philip, Duke of Parma and Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon

Archduchess Marie Amalie of Austria
19 July 1769
7 children

9 October 1802
Fontevivomarker
aged 51



During the French ownership of the Duchy of Parma, the title of Duke of Parma was used as an honorary form and style. From 1808, the title was used by Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès. He kept the style of Duc de Parme till 1814. Only in 1847 the actual title was restored to the Bourbons after a period of being held by Marie Louise of Austria, wife of Napoleon I who was a Habsburg.

House of Bourbon-Parma, 1847–1860

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles II, Duke of Parma
1847–1848
22 December 1799
Madridmarker
son of Louis of Etruria and Maria Louisa, Duchess of Lucca

Maria Teresa of Savoy
5 September 1820
2 children

16 April 1883
Nicemarker
aged 84

Charles III, Duke of Parma
1848–1854
14 January 1823
Luccamarker
son of Charles II, Duke of Parma and Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy

Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France
10 November 1845
4 children

27 March 1854
Parmamarker
aged 31

Robert I, Duke of Parma
1854–1860
20 January 1848
Florencemarker
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France

Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
5 April 1869
12 children
Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal
15 October 1884
12 children




16 November 1907
Pianore
aged 59



Nominal Dukes of Parma (since 1860)

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Robert I, Duke of Parma
1860–1907
titular

9 July 1848
Florencemarker
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Louise Marie Thérèse of France

Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
1869
12 children

Maria Antonia of Portugal
1884
12 children





16 November 1907
Viareggiomarker
aged 63

Henry, Duke of Parma
1907–1939
titular

13 June 1873
Wartegg
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies

never married 16 November 1939
Pianore
aged 66

Joseph, Duke of Parma
1939–1950
titular

30 June 1875
Biarritzmarker
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies

never married 7 January 1950
Pianore
aged 75

Elias, Duke of Parma
1950–1959
titular

23 July 1880
Biarritzmarker
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies

Maria Anna of Austria
25 May 1903
Viennamarker
8 children


27 June 1959
Friedberg
aged 79

Robert II, Duke of Parma
1959–1974
titular

7 August 1909
Weilburgmarker
son of Elias, Duke of Parma and Maria Anna of Austria

never married 25 November 1974
Viennamarker
aged 65

Xavier, Duke of Parma
1974–1977
titular

- 25 May 1889
Viareggiomarker
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal

Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset
12 November 1927
Lignières
6 children


7 May 1977
Zizersmarker
aged 87

Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma
since1977
titular

- 8 April 1930
Parismarker
son of Xavier, Duke of Parma and Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset

Princess Irene of the Netherlands
29 April 1964
Romemarker
4 children


incumbent


Ancestry of the Bourbons of Parma



See also



External links




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