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Hudson County is in New Jerseymarker, United Statesmarker. Its county seat is Jersey Citymarker.

Geography and topography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 62 square miles (162 km2), of which, 47 square miles (121 km2) is land and 16 square miles (41 km2)(25.21%) is water. It is the smallest of New Jersey's 21 counties.

Hudson is located in the heart of New York metropolitan areamarker Tri-State Region.It is bordered by the Hudson River and Upper New York Baymarker to the east; Kill van Kullmarker to the south; Newark Baymarker and the Hackensack River or the Passaic River to the west; its only land border is shared Bergen Countymarker to the north and west.

The topography is marked by New Jersey Palisadesmarker in the north with cliffs overlooking the Hudson to the east and less severe cuesta or slope to the west. They gradually level off to the southern peninsula, which is coastal and flat. The western region, around the Hackensack and Passaic is part of the New Jersey Meadowlands.

Meadowlands
The highest points at 260 feet (79 m) above sea level is in West New York;. the lowest point is sea level.

Ellis Islandmarker and Liberty Islandmarker, opposite Liberty State Parkmarker, lie entirely within Hudson County's waters, which extend to the New Yorkmarker state line. Liberty Island is wholly part of New York. Ellis Island is jointly administered by the states of New Jersey and New York. Nine-tenths of its land is technically part of Hudson County, with the remainder being part of New York. Shooters Islandmarker, in the Kill van Kullmarker, is also shared with New York. Robbins Reef Lightmarker sits atop a reef which runs parallel the Bayonne and Jersey City waterfront.
The Hudson and the Palisades
Given its proximity to Manhattan, it is sometimes referred to as New York Citymarker's sixth borough.

Counties adjacent to Hudson are New York County, New Yorkmarker and Kings County, New Yorkmarker to the east; Essex County, New Jerseymarker and Union County, New Jerseymarker to west; Richmond County, New Yorkmarker to the south; and Bergen County, New Jerseymarker, the only one with which it shares a land border, to the north and west.

Much of the county lies between the Hackensack and Hudson Rivers on geographically long narrow peninsula, (sometimes called Bergen Neck), that is a contiguous urban area where it's often difficult to know when one's crossed a civic boundary. These boundaries and the topography-including many hills and inlets-create very distinct neighborhoods. Kennedy Boulevard runs the entire length of the peninusla.



Demographics

See Latino Presence in Hudson County, New Jersey

As of the United States 2000 Census, the population was 608,975. It is part of the New York Metropolitan Areamarker. There were 230,546 households and 143,630 families residing in the county. The population density was 13,044 people per square mile (5,036/km²). It is the sixth-most densely populated county in the United States, trailing only four of New York City's boroughs (all except Staten Islandmarker) and San Francisco County, Californiamarker. There were 240,618 housing units at an average density of 5,154 per square mile (1,990/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 55.58% White, 13.48% Black or African American, 0.42% Native American, 9.35% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 15.48% from other races, and 5.63% from two or more races. 39.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to Census 2000 9.9% were of Italian and 6.7% Irish ancestry.

By 2005, 34.6% of the population was non-Hispanic whites. 15.1% of the population was African-American. 11.0% of the population was Asian. 2.1% of the population reported two or more races. 41.0% of the population was Latino.

There were 230,546 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.80% were married couples living together, 16.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.70% were non-families. 29.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.27.

In the county the population was spread out with 22.60% under the age of 18, 10.40% from 18 to 24, 35.60% from 25 to 44, 20.00% from 45 to 64, and 11.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 96.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $40,293, and the median income for a family was $44,053. Males had a median income of $36,174 versus $31,037 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,154. About 13.30% of families and 15.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.00% of those under age 18 and 15.70% of those age 65 or over.

Hudson County is the most densely populated county in the state.
  • The only city in Hudson that is among the one hundred most populous cities in the United States is Jersey Citymarker at sixty six. US Census
  • Of municipalities with over 50,000 people, Union City, New Jerseymarker is the most densely populated in the United States.
  • North Bergenmarker is the city with the second most hills per square mile in the United States behind San Franciscomarker.
  • North Hudson has the second largest Cuban American population in the United States behind Miamimarker.
  • Jersey Citymarker is the twenty first most ethnically diverse city in the United States and the most ethnically diverse on the East Coast of the United States.
  • Hudson has three communities on the list of the 100 cities (population 5,000 and up) with the highest percent of foreign-born residents: West New York (65.2%), Union City (58.7%), and Guttenberg (48.7%)


Municipalities

Index map of Hudson County municipalities (click to see index key)
Numbers correspond to map at right.

  1. Bayonnemarker (city)
  2. Jersey Citymarker (city)
  3. Hobokenmarker (city)
  4. Union Citymarker (city)
  5. West New Yorkmarker (town)
  6. Guttenbergmarker (town)
  7. Secaucusmarker (town)
  8. Kearnymarker (town)
  9. Harrisonmarker (town)
  10. East Newarkmarker (borough)
  11. North Bergenmarker (township)
  12. Weehawkenmarker (township)


Government and administration

The County Executive is elected by a direct vote of the electorate. The executive, together with the Board of Chosen Freeholders in a legislative role, administer all county business. Nine members are elected concurrently to serve three-year terms as Freeholder, each representing a specified district which are equally proportioned based on population. Each year, in January, the Freeholders select one of their nine to serve as Chair and one as Vice Chair for a period of one year.

Hudson County's County Executive is Thomas A. DeGise. Hudson County's Clerk is Barbara A. Netchert.

Hudson County's Freeholders, , are:

Three federal Congressional Districts cover the county, including portions of New Jersey's 9th congressional district, represented by Steve Rothman (D), New Jersey's 10th congressional district, represented by Donald Payne (D) and New Jersey's 13th congressional district, represented by Albio Sires (D).



The county seat of Hudson County is located near The Five Corners on Newark Avenue in Jersey Citymarker. northeast of Journal Square. The Hudson County Courthousemarker, is at Newark and Baldwin Avenues. . The Hudson County Administration Building, at 595 Newark Avenue, is home to many county agencies and departments. The Hudson County court system consists of several municipal courts, including the busy Jersey City Court, plus the Hudson County Superior Court.

Many county offices are located at Hudson County Plaza at 257 Cornelison Avenue.The Hudson County Sheriff headquarters are located at the foot of Duncan Avenue. The Hudson County Correctional Facility is located in South Kearny. The Hudson County Meadowview Psychiatric Hospital is on County Avenue, Secaucus.

Politics

Edwin A.
Stevens Building
Hudson County is very favorable for the Democratic Party.

Education

Each municipality has a public school district. All but two have their own public high schools. East Newark students attend Harrison High Schoolmarker and Guttenberg students attend North Bergen High Schoolmarker. Hudson County Schools of Technology is a public secondary and adult vocational-technical school with locations in North Bergen, Jersey City, Union City and Harrison. Colleges and universities are Hudson County Community College, New Jersey City Universitymarker, Saint Peter's Collegemarker, all in Jersey City, and Stevens Institute of Technologymarker in Hoboken. The University of Phoenix and Rutgers Universitymarker offer classes within the county. There are private and parochial elementary and secondary schools located throughout Hudson, many of which are members of The Hudson County Interscholastic Athletic Association.

Transportation

NASA image of the lower Hudson
NASA image of the lower Hudson
The confluence of roads and railways of the Northeastern U.S. megalopolis and Northeast Corridor passing through Hudson County make it one of the Northeast's major transportation crossroads and provide access to an extensive network of interstate highways, state freeways and toll roads, and vehicular water crossings. Many long distance trains and buses pass through the county, though Amtrak and the major national bus companies – Greyhound Lines and Trailways – do not provide service within it. There many local, intrastate, and Manhattan-bound bus routes, an expanding light rail system, ferries traversing the Hudson, and commuter trains to North Jersey, the Jersey Shore, and Trentonmarker. Much of the rail, surface transit, and ferry system is oriented to commuters traveling to Newarkmarker, lower and midtown Manhattanmarker, and the Hudson Waterfront. Public transportation is operated by a variety of public and private corporations, notably New Jersey Transit, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, and NY Waterway, each of which charge customers separately for their service.

Hubs

Hoboken Terminalmarker, Bergenline Avenue at 32nd Street, 48th Streetmarker, and Nungesser's in North Hudson, and Journal Square Transportation Centermarker and Exchange Placemarker in Jersey City are major public transportation hubs. The Port Authority Bus Terminalmarker and Penn Stationmarker in midtown Manhattan, the World Trade Centermarker in lower Manhattan, and Newark Penn Stationmarker also play important roles within the county's transportation network. Secaucus Junctionmarker provides access to eight commuter rail lines.

Rail

Bergenline Station at 48th Street.




Water

CRRNJ Terminal in Liberty State Park, Ellis Island and Statue of Liberty ferry slips in foreground.


Towns in Hudson County.




Road and Surface

Major highways include New Jersey Routes 3, 7, 139, 185, 440, 495, Interstates 78, 95, and 280, and U.S. Routes 1 and 9, as well as the New Jersey Turnpike and the Pulaski Skywaymarker. Automobile access to New York Citymarker is available through the Lincoln Tunnel (via Weehawkenmarker to midtown Manhattanmarker) and the Holland Tunnelmarker (via Jersey City to lower Manhattan), and over the Bayonne Bridgemarker to Staten Islandmarker. County Route 501 runs the length of Hudson as Kennedy Boulevard.

New Jersey Transit bus routes 120 -129 provide service within Hudson and to Manhattan. New Jersey Transit bus routes 1-89 provide service within the county and to points in North Jersey. Additionally, private bus companies, some of which operate dollar vans (mini-buses or carritos) augment the state agency's surface transport.

Air

Most airports which serve Hudson County are operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey

Parks

Hudson has many county parks, including Hudson County Park, Mercer Park, Lincoln Park, Washington Park, Columbus Park, and North Hudson Park, West Hudson Park and the newest, Laurel Hillmarker.


There are many municipal parks and plazas, some of which were developed as "city squares" during the 19th century, such as Hamilton Park, Church Square Park and Ellsworth (locally known as Pigeon) Park.

The German-American Volksfest has taken place annually since 1874 at Schuetzen Parkmarker This private park and the many nearby cemeteries-Flower Hill Cemeterymarker, Grove Church Cemetery, Hoboken Cemeterymarker, Macphelah Cemetery and Weehawken Cemeterymarker that characterize the western slope create the "green lung" of North Hudson County.

Pershing Field and the adjacent reservoir constitute one of the largest "green spaces" in the county. The reservoir, no longer in use, is site of a planned recreation area/nature preserve. Hackensack Number Two, the other remaining reservoir in Weehawken Heights, is not accessible to the public. Extensive athletic fields opened in 2009 in Weehawken and Union City, the latter on the site of the former Roosevelt Stadiummarker.

Promenades are being developed along the rivers. The Hudson River Waterfront Walkway and Hackensack RiverWalk. Sections of the Secaucus Greenway are in place and eventually will connect different districts of the town including the North End, site Schmidts Woods (which contains an original hard wood forest) and Mill Creek Point Park, and Harmon Meadow Plazamarker. The future of the Harsimus Stem Embankmentmarker is uncertain, though many community groups hope the landmark will be opened to the public as elevated greenway, possibly as part of East Coast Greenway.

Liberty State Parkmarker, the county's largest, is sited on land that had once been part of a vast oyster bed, was landfilled for industrial, rail, and maritime uses, and was reclaimed in the 1970s. Ellis Islandmarker and Liberty Islandmarker, a national protected area and home to the Statue of Liberty National Monumentmarker, lie entirely within Hudson's waters across from Liberty State Parkmarker, from which ferry service is available.

The New Jersey Meadowlands Commission has designated several areas within its juridisction as wetlands preservation zones including the Riverbend Wetlands Preserve, Eastern Bracish Marsh, and Kearny Marsh an extension of De Korte Park, home of the Meadowlands Environment Centermarker.

National Registered Historic Places

See List of Registered Historic Places in Hudson County, New Jersey

Cemeteries

See Hudson County Cemeteries

Exhibitions

There are several museums and other exhibitions spaces throughout the county, some of which maintain permanent collections. Other are focused on local culture, history, or the environment. There are events throughout the year where architecture, local artists or ethnic culture are highlighted. There are also private galleries. The venues include:



History

Lenape

At the time of European contact in the 17th century, Hudson County was the territory the Lenape or Lenni-Lenape, namely the bands (or family groups) known as the Hackensack, the Tappan, the Raritan, and the Manhattanmarker. They were a seasonally migrational people who practiced small-scale agriculture (companion planting) augmented by hunting and gathering which likely, given the topography of the area, included much (shell)fishing and trapping. These groups had early and frequent contact with the by Europeans, with whom they engaged in trade. Their Algonquian language can still be inferred in many local place names such as Communipaw, Harsimus, Hackensack, Hoboken, Weehawkenmarker, Secaucusmarker, and Pamrapomarker.

New Netherland

Henry Hudson, for whom the county and river on which it sits is named, established a claim for the area in 1609 when anchoring his ship the Halve Maen (Half Moon) at Harsimus Cove and Weehawken Covemarker.The west bank of the North Rivermarker (as it was called) and the cliffs, hills, and marshlands abutting and beyond it, were settled by Europeans (Dutch, Flemish, Walloon, Huguenot) from the Lowlands around the same time as New Amsterdam. In 1630, Michael Pauw received a land patent, or patroonship and purchased the land between the Hudson and Hackensack Rivers, giving it the Latin-ized form of his name, Pavonia. He failed to settle the area and was forced to return his holdings to the Dutch West India Company. Homesteads were established at Communipaw (1633), Harsimus (1634), Paulus Hook (1638) and Hoebuck (1643). Relations were tenuous with the Lenape, and eventually led to Kieft's War, which began as a slaughter by the Dutch at Communipaw and is considered to be one of the first genocides of Native Americans by Europeans. A series of raids and reprisals across the province lasted two years, and ended in an uneasy truce. Other homesteads were established at Constable Hook (1646), Awiehakenmarker (1647), and other lands at Achter Col on Bergen Neck. In 1658, Director-General Peter Stuyvesant of New Netherland negotiated a deal with the Lenape to re-purchase the area named Bergen, "by the great rock above Wiehacken," including the whole peninsula from Sikakesmarker south to Bergen Point/Constable Hook. In 1661, a charter was granted the new village/garrison at the site of present-day Bergen Squaremarker, establishing what is considered to be the oldest self-governing municipality in New Jersey. The Dutch finally ceded control of province to the English in 1674.

The British and early America

By 1675, the Treaty of Westminster finalized the transfer and the area became part of the British colony of East Jersey, in the administrative district of Bergen Countymarker. The county's seat was transferred to Hackensack in 1709. Small villages and farms supplied the burgeoning city of New York, across the river, notably with oysters from the vast beds in the Upper New York Bay, and fresh produce, sold at Weehawken Street, in Manhattan. During the American Revolutionary War the area was under British control which included garrsions at Bulls Ferry and the fort at Bergen Neck. Colonialist troops used the heights to observe enemy movements. The Battle of Paulus Hook, a surprise raid on a British fortification in 1779, was seen as an a victory and morale booster for revolutionary forces. Many downtown Jersey City streets bear the name of military figures Mercer, Greene, Wayne, and Varick among them). Weehawken became notorious for duels, including the nation's most famous between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr in 1804. Border conflicts for control of the waterfront with New York (which claimed jurisdiction to the high water line and the granting of ferry concessions) restricted development though some urbanization took place in at Paulus Hook and Hoboken, which became a vacation spot for well-off New Yorkers. The Morris Canal, early steam railroads, and the development of the harbor stimulated further growth. In September 1840, Hudson County was created by separation from Bergen Countymarker and annexation of some Essex Countymarker lands, namely New Barbadoes Neck. During the 19th century, Hudson played an integral role in the Underground Railroad, with four routes converging in Jersey City.

Boundaries

Most of Hudson County, apart from West Hudson, was part of Bergen Township, created by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798, as one of the first group of 104 townships formed in New Jersey, while the area was still a part of Bergen Countymarker. As originally constituted, Bergen Township included the area between the Hudson River on the east, the Hackensack River to the west, south to Constable Hook/Bergen Point and north to the present-day Hudson-Bergen border. For the next 127 years civic borders within the county took many forms, until they were finalized with the creation of Union City in 1925.

The City of Jersey was incorporated by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 28, 1820, from portions of Bergen Township. The city was reincorporated on January 23, 1829, and again on February 22, 1838, at which time it became completely independent of Bergen Township and was given its present name. On February 22, 1840, it became part of the newly-created Hudson County. As Jersey City grew, several neighboring communities were annexed: Van Vorst Township (March 18, 1851), Bergen City and Hudson City (both on May 2, 1870), and Greenville Township (February 4, 1873).

North Bergen was incorporated as a township on April 10, 1843, by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature, from Bergen Township. Portions of the township have been taken to form Hoboken Township (April 9, 1849, now the City of Hobokenmarker), Hudson Town (April 12, 1852, later part of Hudson City), Hudson City (April 11, 1855, later annexed by Jersey Citymarker), Guttenbergmarker (formed within the township on March 9, 1859, and set off as an independent municipality on April 1, 1878), Weehawkenmarker (March 15, 1859), Union Townshipmarker and West Hoboken Township (both created on February 28, 1861), Union Hill town (March 29, 1864) and Secaucusmarker (March 12, 1900).

Hoboken was established in 1804, and formed as a township on April 9, 1849, from portions of North Bergen Townshipmarker and incorporated as a full-fledged city, and in a referendum held on March 29, 1855, ratified an Act of the New Jersey Legislature signed the previous day, and the City of Hoboken was born.

Weehawken was formed as a township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 15, 1859, from portions of Hobokenmarker and North Bergenmarker. A portion of the township was ceded to Hoboken in 1874. Additional territory was annexed in 1879 from West Hoboken.

West New York was incorporated as a town by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on July 8, 1898, replacing Union Townshipmarker, based on the results of a referendum held three days earlier.

Kearny was originally formed as a township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 8, 1867, from portions of Harrison Townshipmarker. Portions of the township were taken on July 3, 1895, to form East Newarkmarker. Kearny was incorporated as a town on January 19, 1899, based on the results of a referendum held two days earlier.

Bayonne was originally formed as a township on April 1, 1861, from portions of Bergen Township. Bayonne was reincorporated as a city by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 10, 1869, replacing Bayonne Township, subject to the results of a referendum held nine days later.

Soon after the Civil War the idea of uniting all of the town of Hudson County in one municipality of Jersey City began to gain favor. In 1868 a bill for submitting the question of consolidation of all of Hudson County to the voters was presented to the board of chosen freeholders. The bill did not include the western towns of Harrison and Kearny but included all towns east of the Hackensack River.

The bill was approved by the State legislature on April 2, 1869 and the special election was scheduled for October 5, 1869. An element of the bill provide that only contiguous towns could be consolidated. The results of the election were as follows:

In Favor/AgainstJersey City: 2220 / 911Hudson City: 1320 / 220Bergen: 815 / 108Hoboken: 176 / 893Bayonne: 100 / 250Greenville: 24 / 174Weehawken: 0 / 44Town of Union: 123 / 105West Hoboken: 95 / 256North Bergen: 80 / 225Union Township:140 / 65Totals: 5,093 / 3,251

While a majority of the voters approved the merger, only Jersey City, Hudson and Bergen could be consolidated since they were the only continuous approving towns. Both the Town of Union and Union Township could not be included due to the dissenting vote of West Hoboken which lay between them and Hudson City. On March 17, 1870, Jersey City, Hudson City and Bergen merged into Jersey City. Only three years later the present outline of Jersey City was completed when Greenville agreed to merge into the Greater Jersey City.

Union City was incorporated as a city by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 1, 1925, replacing both Union Hill and West Hoboken Township.

Urbanization and immigration

Hudson Waterfront ca. 1900
During the latter half of the 19th and early part of the 20th centuries, Hudson experienced intense industrial, commercial and residential growth. Construction, first of ports, and later railroad terminals, in Jersey Citymarker, Bayonnemarker, Hobokenmarker, and Weehawkenmarker (which significantly altered the shoreline with landfill) fueled much of the development. European immigration, notably German-language speakers and Irish (many fleeing famine) initiated a population boom that would last for several decades.

Neighborhoods grew as farms, estates, and other holdings were sub-divided for housing, civic and religious architecture. Streets (some with trolley lines) were laid out. Stevens Institute of Technologymarker and Saint Peter's Collegemarker were established.

Before the opening, in 1910, of the Pennsylvania Railroad's North River Tunnelsmarker under the Hudson, trains terminated on the west bank of the river, requiring passengers and cargo to travel by ferry or barge to New York. Transfer to the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad tubes (now PATHmarker) became possible upon its opening in 1908. Hoboken Terminalmarker, a national historic landmark originally built in 1907 by the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad to replace the previous one, is the only one of five major rail/ferry terminals that once dotted the waterfront still in operation. West Shore Railroad Terminal in Weehawken, Erie Railroad's Pavonia Terminalmarker and Pennsylvania Railroad's Exchange Place in Jersey City were all razed.
Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island, 1902
Central Railroad of New Jersey's Communipaw Terminal, across a small strait from Ellis Islandmarker and The Statue of Libertymarker, played a crucial role in the massive immigration of the period, with many newly-arrived departing the station to embark on their lives in America. Many, though, decided to stay, taking jobs on the docks, the railroads, the factories, the refineries, and in the sweatshops and skyscrapers of Manhattan. Many manufacturers, whose names read as a "who's who" in American industry established a presence, including Colgate, Dixon Ticonderoga, Maxwell House, Standard Oil, and Bethlehem Steel.
North Hudson, particularly Union City became the "embroidery capital of America". Secaucus boasted numerous pig farms and rendering plants.It was during this period that much of the housing stock, namely one and two family homes and low-rise apartment buildings, was built; municipal boundaries finalized, neighborhoods established. Commercial corridors such as Bergenline, Central, Newark and Ocean Avenues came into prominence. Journal Square became a business, shopping, and entertainment mecca, home to The Jersey Journal, after which it is named, and movie palaces such as Loew's Jersey Theatermarker and The Stanleymarker.

World Wars and New Deal

Bayonne Bridge at sunset
Stadium entrance circa 1940


Upon entry to World War I the US government took the Hamburg-American Line piers in Hoboken under eminent domain, and Hudson became the major point of embarkation for more than three million soldiers, known as "doughboys". In 1916, an act of sabotage literally and figuratively shook the region when Germanmarker agents set off bombs at the munitions depot in New York Bay at Black Tommarker. The fore-runner of Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was established on April 30, 1921. Huge transportation projects opened between the wars: The Holland Tunnelmarker in 1927, The Bayonne Bridgemarker in 1931, and The Lincoln Tunnel in 1937, allowing vehicular travel between New Jersey and New York City to bypass the waterfront. Hackensack River crossings, notably the Pulaski Skywaymarker, were also built. What was to become New Jersey City Universitymarker opened. Major Works Progress Administration projects included construction of stadiums in Jersey City and Union City. Both were named for President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who attended the opening of the largest project of them all, The Jersey City Medical Centermarker, a massive complex built in the Art Deco Style. During this era the "Hudson County Democratic Machine", known for its cronyism and corruption, with Jersey City mayor Frank Hague at its head was at its most powerful. Industries in Hudson were crucial to the war effort during WWII, including the manufacture PT boats by Elco in Bayonne. Military Ocean Terminal at Bayonne (MOTBY) was opened in 1942 as a U.S. military base and remained in operation until 1999.

Post-war years

After the war maritime and manufacturing industries still dominated the local economy,and union membership provided guarantees of good pay packages. Though some returning service men took advantage of GI housing bills and moved to close-by suburbs, many with strong ethnic and familial ties chose to stay. Baseball legend Jackie Robinson made his minor league debut at Roosevelt Stadium and "broke" the baseball color line. Much of Hudson County experienced the phenomenon of ethnic/economic groups leaving and being replaced by others, as was typical of most urban communities of the New York Bay region. When the big businesses decided to follow them or vice versa, Hudson County's socioeconomic differences became more profound. Old economic underpinnings disintergrated. Attempts were made to stabilize the population by demolishing so-called slums and build subsidized middle-income housing and the pockets of so-called "good neighborhoods" came in conflict with those that went into decline. Lower property values allowed the next wave of immigrants, many from Latin America, to rent or buy in the county. North Hudson, particularly Union City, saw many émigrés fleeing the Cuban revolution take up residence. Riots occurred in Jersey City in 1964.

Pre/post-millennium

[[Image:Jersey City skyline.JPG|225px|right|thumb|Exchange Place as seen from Liberty State Parkmarker. At 781 feet (238 m), the Goldman Sachs Towermarker is New Jersey's tallest building.]]
Pavonia and downtown Hoboken on the Hudson
The county since the mid-1990s has seen much real estate speculation and development and a population increase, as many new residents purchase existing housing stock as well as condominiums in high and mid rise developments, many along the waterfront. What had started as a gentrification in the 1980s became a full-blown "redevelopment" of the area as many suburbanites, transplanted Americans, internationals, and immigrants (most focused on opportunities in NY/NJ region and proximity to Manhattan) began to make the "Jersey" side of the Hudson their home, and the "real-estate boom" of the era encouraged many to seek investment opportunities. The exploitation of certain parts of the waterfront and other brownfields led to commercial development as well, especially along former rail yards. Hudson felt the short and long term impact of the destruction of the World Trade Centermarker intensely: its proximity to lower Manhattan made it a place to evacuate to, many residents who worked there lost their jobs (or their lives), and many companies sought office space across the river. Re-zoning, the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail, and New Jersey State land-use policy of transit villages have further spurred construction. Though very urban and with some of the highest residential densities in the United States the Hudson communities have remain fragmented, due in part to New Jersey's long history of home rule in local government; geographical factors such as Hudson River inlets/canals, the cliffs of the New Jersey Palisadesmarker and rail lines; and ethnic/demographic differences in the population. As the county sees more development this traditional perception is challenged.

See also

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References

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