is a brand
of off-road vehicles
sold by General Motors
(GM). The original Hummer H1
was based on the military High Mobility
Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle
(HMMWV, or Humvee
However, the Hummer H2
and the Hummer H3
were based on other, smaller
were originally built by AM General
Corporation, which was formerly AMC
Jeep's General Products division, in its
Indiana assembly plant.
They were created under a
contract for the United
States armed forces
. The first model, the Hum-Vee, was built in
a variety of military-based equipment and versions. These included
troop carriers, gun turrets and radar. The U.S. military, on
receiving their quota, have adapted some of the vehicles, including
modifications to facilitate a directional microwave crowd control
beam (Active Denial
AM General had planned to sell a civilian version of the Hum-Vee as
far back as the late 1980s.In 1990, two matching white Hum-Vees were
driven from London to Beijing over the rough roads of central
The Hummers made the trip with ease, for
they were built to drive on off-road terrain. The highlights of
this journey were broadcast in the United States on ESPN
. This publicity would pale in comparison to the
attention that the Hum-Vee received for its service in Operation: Desert Storm
following year. Also, a privately-owned Hum-Vee was modified into
the first Snow-Vee, including the addition of caterpillar tracks, a
new rear compartment and a new engine. This vehicle was designed
for use in and just below the Arctic Circle, and the
In 1992, AM General began selling a civilian version of the M998
Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle
(HMMWV or Hum-Vee) vehicle to the
public under the brand name "Hummer".
In 1998, AM General sold the brand name to General Motors, but
continued to manufacture the vehicles. GM is responsible for the
marketing and distribution of all Hummers produced by AM General.
In the next few years, GM introduced two new homegrown models, the
renamed the original vehicle H1. AM General continued to build the
H1 until it was discontinued in 2006, and is contracted by GM to
produce the H2. The H3 is built in Shreveport, LA alongside the
and GMC Canyon
pickups, with which it shares the GMT-355
platform (custom modified
and designated GMT-345).
By 2006, the Hummer also began to be exported and sold through
importers and distributors in 33 countries. On October 10, 2006,
GM began producing the Hummer H3 at its Port Elizabeth plant in South Africa for international
The Hummers built there at first were only
left-hand drive, but right-hand drive versions were added and
exported to Australia and other markets.
The H2 is
also assembled in Kaliningrad, Russia, by Avtotor, starting in June 2004.
The plant produces a few hundred vehicles annually, and its output
is limited to local consumption (five dealers in Russia
On Tuesday June 3, 2008, one day prior to GM's annual shareholder
meeting, Rick Wagoner, GM's CEO at that time, said the brand is
being reviewed, and has the possibility of either being sold,
having the production line completely redesigned, or being
discontinued. This is due to the decreasing demand for large SUVs
as a result of higher oil prices. Almost immediately after the
announcement, a pair of Indian automakers, including Mahindra & Mahindra
interest in purchasing all or part of Hummer.
On February 17, 2009, GM announced that it would decide by March
31, 2009, whether to sell off or eliminate the Hummer. However, the
announcement has been delayed. As of April 2009, the company has no
plans to continue the nameplate after the 2010 model year.
GM President Fritz Henderson stated several interested parties
approached GM regarding the Hummer business.
On April 5, 2009, Société de Participation
Financière Eidos Canada Inc.
made an unsolicited bid for
On June 1, 2009, as a part of the General Motors bankruptcy
announcement, the company revealed that the Hummer brand would be
discontinued. However, the following day GM announced that instead
it had reached a deal to sell the brand to an undisclosed buyer. On
June 2, 2009, CNN identified the buyer of the Hummer truck unit as
Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Company
Ltd. Earlier that
day, GM announced the sale of Hummer to an undisclosed Chinese
company. The New York Times reported that day that the buyer would
be the Sichuan
Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Company Ltd
., a machinery
company in western China, and later that day, Sichuan Tengzhong
itself posted it on their own website.The transaction is expected
to close in the third quarter of this year and is subject to
customary closing conditions and regulatory approvals. Financial
terms of the agreement will not be disclosed at this time. Credit
Suisse is acting as exclusive financial advisor and
Shearman&Sterling is acting as international legal counsel to
Tengzhong on this transaction. Citi is acting as financial advisor
There are three current and possibly two future models in the
- Production models
- Concept vehicles
- Modified vehicles
Civilian model details
The first car in the Hummer Range, was the Hummer H1
based on the High Mobility
Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle
(Hum-Vee). Originally released in
1992, this vehicle was designed by American Motors
' AM General subsidiary for
the U.S. Military. Five years previously, AMC had been bought by
The Hummer H2 is the second vehicle in the Hummer range. There are
two models available: H2 SUV and H2 SUT.
of Utah wants
to use technology similar to that in the Chevy Volt
to make the HUMMER a 100 MPG fuel
sipper. Details are sketchy, as Raser plans to debut
the prototype on April 20–23 at the Society of Automotive Engineers
World Congress in Detroit.
Raser is saying that using their E-REV
(Extended-Range Electric Vehicle) powertrain technology, the HUMMER
plug-in hybrid will run up to 40 miles per day on its battery
alone, then a small 4 cylinder combustion engine will kick in to
generate more electricity.
The H3 is the smallest of the Hummer models and is based on the
the Chevrolet Colorado
compact pickup trucks.
As of April 2009, Hummer is the only brand in the United States
whose entire model range lineup comes standard with a low-range
transfer case, relatively high-ground clearance, and off-road
tires. Additionally, no two-wheel drive Hummers are offered at this
Team Hummer Racing was created in 1993 and showcases the Hummer's
abilities. Led by off-road racer Rod
, Team HUMMER competes in the Stock classes of both BitD
and SCORE, which feature production-based vehicles with stock
frames, stock suspension designs, and production-based engines.
Specialized racing shock absorbers, tires, and other minor
modifications are allowed, along with the required supporting
components and mandatory safety equipment. Team Hummer stock-class
H3 driven by Hall finished first in class with the H3 in the 2005
Team HUMMER has tallied one of the most impressive records in
production-class racing, earning 11 class wins at the Baja 1000.
A highly modified, two-wheel drive Hummer was raced by Robby Gordon
in the 2006, 2007 (8th place) and
2009 Dakar Rally
GM has been active in licensing the Hummer. Various companies have
licensed the Hummer trademarks for use on colognes
, flashlights, bicycles, shoes,
coats, hats, laptops, clothing, CD players and other items.
Starting in the early-1990s, when AM General started selling to the
civilian market, Hummers began making appearances in the Film and
Television industry. Some earlier and noticeable appearances
include seaQuest DSV
used the Hummer H1
in place of Humvees
a large, "solar-powered
Concept truck as their main mode of conveyance. More recently
noticeable appearances include CSI:
, being driven by the chief of the crime lab Lt.
(played by David Caruso
), during the 6th season of
, they received all new 2008 H2's with
redesigned interior and in the 2007 Transformers
movie the Autobot
known as Ratchet
transforms into a search and rescue Hummer
- Avtotor Kaliningrad, Russia – licensed version of H2 starting
Since all Hummer vehicles have heavy-duty capabilities, they have
been employed by owners for aid in large disaster situations.
Prepared for Emergencies (HOPE)
was created by the efforts of
The Hummer Club, INC. and the American Red Cross. Together, the two
organizations train Hummer owners with CPR
First Aid skills, and basic off-highway skills so that they may
assist victims during a disaster situation. GM paid the Red Cross
$4 million to participate in the organization.
Criticism of Hummers includes the criticism of SUV
in general, although at a higher
degree. Specific extra criticisms of Hummers include:
- Size: Hummers are significantly bigger than other SUVs; this
can cause problems parking, driving and fitting in a garage.
- Safety and ecology: Safety and ecological perceptions from
other road users has attracted a lot of criticism. The Hummer
(usually the H2) has been singled out and attacked as a symbol of
ecological irresponsibility, sometimes using violent means.
- Poor fuel economy: Even compared to other heavy passenger
vehicles, Based Hummers without alternate Duramax V8 engine have very poor Fuel economy. Because the H2 is
built to the over-8500-lb GVW class, its fuel economy is neither
published by the EPA nor counted toward Corporate Average Fuel
Economy. For instance, H2 in one engine configuration averages
about on highways, in the city, and has a
curb weight of over , making it
technically illegal for use on some streets.
- Safety: Crash data for Hummers is less complete than for other
SUVs. Because of its weight, it takes longer and further to stop in
emergency braking situations. As a Class 3 truck, Hummers are
exempt from many DOT safety regulations. The H1 lacks standard
safety features, including child safety locks, child seat tethers,
side air bags and stability control. Large blind spots make parking
difficult and possibly dangerous.
- The History of AM General
- Page expired - MSN Money
- '"HUMMER Sustains Steady, Upward Sales Trend In
North America And Overseas" GM Media Online, October 10, 2006,
retrieved on February 23, 2009.
- GM Closing 4 Truck and SUV Plants in North America
- Indian Automakers Eyeing Hummer?
- Owners of Saturns, Hummers grapple with threat of demise -
- "Hummer H2 Gets "All Stretched Out" To Become the
H6" Edmund's Inside Line, date posted: March 16, 2006,
retrieved on August 25, 2008.
Laptops. This product has been decomissioned
- HUMMER Owners Become Unique Disaster Volunteers
- Hummer Cons: The Downsides Of Owning a Hummer H1 or
- Drive.com.au review, with statements such as
'The mere mention of its name gets many people incandescent with
- H2 Hummer: Do You Need Attention This Badly? - The
Car Family Reviews - National Motorists Association
- Eco T-shirts: Anti-Hummer, anti-4x4
- Eco-Terrorists Vandalize Hummer » Outside The
Beltway | OTB
- Hummer Owner Gets Angry Message -
- "Road Test: 2003 Hummer H2: a tweaked Tahoe or the
real thing?", Motor Trend magazine, retrieved on June 23,
- "Road Test: 2003 Hummer H2, Overview", Motor Trend
magazine, retrieved on June 23, 2008.
- Hummer FAQ - Little Known Facts About Hummer H1 and