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Hurricane Ike ( ) was the largest hurricane ever observed in the Atlantic basin and the third most destructive hurricane to ever make landfall in the United States. It was the ninth named storm, fifth hurricane and third major hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season.It was a Cape Verde-type hurricane, as it started as a tropical disturbance near Africa at the end of August. On September 1, 2008, it became a tropical storm west of the Cape Verdemarker islands. By the early morning hours of September 4, Ike was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) and a pressure of . That made it the most intense Atlantic storm of 2008. Ike passed over the Turks and Caicos Islands as Category 4, with winds 135 mph (217 km/h) on September 7. Moving west along Cuba, it made 2 landfalls as a Category 4 hurricane on September 7 and a Category 1 hurricane on September 9. Ike made its final landfall over Galvestonmarker, Texasmarker as a strong Category 2 hurricane, with Category 5 equivalent storm surge, on September 13, 2008 at 2:10 a.m. CDT. Hurricane-force winds extended 120 miles (193 km) from the center.

Ike was blamed for at least 195 deaths. Of these, 74 were in Haitimarker, which was already trying to recover from the impact of three storms earlier that year: Fay, Gustav, and Hanna. In the United States, 112 people were killed, and over 300 are still missing. Due to its immense size, Ike caused devastation from the Louisianamarker coastline all the way to the Kenedy County, Texasmarker region near Corpus Christi, Texasmarker. In addition, Ike caused flooding and significant damage along the Mississippimarker coastline and the Florida Panhandle Damages from Ike in US coastal and inland areas are estimated at $24 billion (2008 USD), with additional damage of $7.3 billion in Cuba, $200 million in the Bahamas, and $500 million in the Turks and Caicos, amounting to a total of $32 billion in damages. Ike was the third costliest Atlantic hurricane of all time, behind Hurricane Andrew of 1992 and Hurricane Katrina of 2005. The hurricane also resulted in the largest evacuation of Texans in that state's history. It also became the largest search and rescue operation in U.S. history.

Meteorological history

Hurricane Ike can be traced to a westerly wave leaving western Sudanmarker on August 19, which moved westward through Nigeriamarker and Malimarker and reached the coastal country of Senegalmarker on August 28. Moving into the Atlantic Ocean, the wave slowly intensified over subsequent days while moving generally towards the west-northwest. On September 1, the wave developed a sufficient amount of convection and was designated Tropical Depression Nine. The depression had developed a large amount of convection as well as cyclonically curved bands. Satellite estimates were already indicating that the depression was a tropical storm; the National Hurricane Center did not classify it as such, however, because the convection was newly formed. The depression continued to intensify as it became better organized and at 5:00 p.m. EDT (21:00 UTC), it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Ike. Ike was located in an environment which was supportive of intensification and the forecast showed Ike becoming a hurricane within 36 hours of its upgrade.


During the overnight hours of September 1, Ike stopped intensifying as part of the eastern band began to erode as northerly wind shear began to impact the system. By late morning on September 2, Ike began to intensify again as shear relaxed a little on the system. Throughout the day, deep convection developed around the center of Ike indicating that the storm was still strengthening. Ike also quickened its movement to 18 mph (29 km/h) due to a strengthening mid-level high located to the north-northeast of Ike. Again intensification stopped during the overnight hours as the structure of Ike remained mostly unchanged.

Ike remained at the same intensity and structure through the early morning hours of September 3. However, by the late morning, Ike began to intensify again. Microwave satellites depicted an eye beginning to form and Ike strengthened just below hurricane status. The eye continued to become better defined and by mid-afternoon Ike was upgraded to a hurricane. Ike was in an area that lacked vertical wind shear and intensification was likely. Due to the lack of wind shear, Ike began to undergo explosive intensification and was upgraded to a major hurricane with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) only three hours after being upgraded to a hurricane. During the three hour span, it is estimated that the pressure dropped . Ike continued to intensify and was further upgraded to a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale three hours later with winds of 135 mph (215 km/h) and an estimated pressure of . It should be noted, however, that those were satellite estimates, not actual measurements (as it was still too far from land for reconnaissance aircraft to reach).

By the early morning hours on September 4, Ike had reached its peak intensity of 145 mph (230 km/h) with an estimated pressure of , making it the most intense storm of the season.
Ike was now forecast to weaken as the upper-level high to the north of the system continued to strengthen resulting in stronger northerly wind shear affecting Ike. The explosive intensification lasted roughly 24 hours as Ike intensified from a tropical storm to a Category 4 hurricane with a pressure drop of . By the late morning, Ike began to weaken as the cloud tops around the eye began to warm. Models were forecasting Ike to encounter strong wind shear and slowly weaken but maintain major hurricane status. This trend of the clouds warming continued through the afternoon and Ike continued to weaken slowly. By mid-afternoon, Ike was barely a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 135 mph (215 km/h). Ike began to show signs of intensification once more during the late night hours. The eye became more clear and better defined and the clouds around the eye began to deepen and become colder.

The show of possible strengthening did not last long. By the morning of September 5, northerly wind shear began to erode the northern part of the system and the cloud tops around the eye began to warm once more. The structure of the eye became less prominent as microwave satellite imagery showed that the inner structure of Ike was not deteriorating or beginning to undergo an eyewall replacement cycle. A later pass made by the satellite found that the northern eye wall had eroded and most of the convection was in the southern semi-circle of the storm. This indicated that Ike was continuing to weaken as it remained in a hostile environment. Ike slowly weakened to a low-end Category Three by the afternoon hours. A ridge to the north of Ike continued to push the storm towards the southwest, into an area more favorable for intensification.

Ike maintained its intensity throughout the night as its eye briefly reappeared around 8 p.m. EDT, leading the NHC to forecast a slow strengthening trend. Overnight, Ike reformed a 24 nmi (48 km) wide eye, however, it was cloud covered. However, during the late morning hours on September 6, wind shear weakened Ike to a Category Two hurricane. This weakening was short lived and Ike began to undergo another round of rapid intensification, though not as significant as the first. Ike's eye began to clear out again and the system became better organized and based on an Air Force Reconnaissance Aircraft measurement, Ike had intensified into a Category Four six hours after being downgraded to a Category Two. During the afternoon and overnight, Ike had winds sustained at as it approached and passed over the Turks and Caicos Islands by the early morning hours of September 7.


Ike made landfall as a strong Category 3 hurricane in Holguín Province, Cubamarker on the evening of September 7, near Cabo Lucrecia on the northern coast. It passed across the central provinces of Holguin, Las Tunas, and Camagüey, emerging south of Cuba on September 8. It made landfall a second time in Pinar del Río before entering the Gulfmarker in the afternoon of September 9.

During the night of September 10, Ike exhibited a rapid drop in central pressure, falling from to as it passed over the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico. However, this drop was not reflected by wind speed, which only increased from 85 mph (140 km/h) to 100 mph (160 km/h). Multiple wind maxima were noted by the National Hurricane Center, indicating the structure was absorbing and distributing energy over a large area, rather than concentrating it near the center.

Over the next two days, Ike maintained a steady course towards Galveston and Houston. It increased only slightly in intensity to 110 mph (175 km/h) - the high end of Category 2 - but exhibited an unusually large wind field. This caused a projected storm surge of a Category 4 height though the windspeeds were that of a Category 2. As it approached the Texas coast, the inner structure and eyewall became more organized. As it neared landfall, Ike became the largest Atlantic tropical cyclone in recorded history on September 11, 2008 - measuring 900 miles in diameter.

Ike made U.S. landfall at Galveston, Texasmarker, on September 13 at 2:10am CDT (07:10 UTC), as a Category 2 hurricane with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) and a central pressure of . The 2:00 am NHC advisory cited tropical storm and hurricane force winds extending and , respectively, from the center. At about 3am CDT (08:00 UTC), it then passed over San Leon, Texasmarker and made its final landfall near Baytown, Texasmarker at about 4am CDT (9:00 UTC).

On September 13, Ike began a slow turn north, then northeast. After losing strength to tropical-storm force winds near Palestine, TXmarker around 1 p.m., it passed to the east of Dallas, TX and west of Little Rock, AR. It became a Tropical Depression and continued northeast, passing near St. Louis, Missouri. It brought heavy rainfall all along its path, but moved more quickly the farther north it went.

Early on September 14, Ike merged with a large cold front moving from west to east over the central U.S. and became extratropical. This deep low pressure continued toward the north-east spreading heavy rains across the Midwest. It moved into Canada that night, giving strong winds and heavy rain across Southern Ontario and most of Quebecmarker, before exiting into the Atlantic at the latitude of the Labrador Seamarker, early on the 16th.

Preparations

Florida


On September 5, Florida Governor Charlie Crist declared a state of emergency in advance of Ike's arrival, which was expected to be as early as September 8. In Key Westmarker, authorities issued a mandatory evacuation for all visitors for September 6. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) positioned supplies, and emergency response crews in Florida and along the Gulf Coast.

Florida Keysmarker officials began evacuations on the low-lying chain of islands in phases, starting at the end in Key Westmarker by 8 a.m. Sunday and continuing throughout the day—at noon for the Middle Keys, and at 4 p.m. for the Upper Keys, including Key Largomarker. Visitors were told to leave on Saturday.

Texas

A US-Air Force Staff Sergeant receives a hug from a resident after Hurricane Ike, September 13, 2008.
On September 10, U.S. President George W. Bush made an emergency declaration for Texas in advance of Hurricane Ike, making more federal help available for preparations and evacuations.

State rural water associations activated mutual aid networks to prepare for the landfall of Hurricane Hanna and Hurricane Ike while still providing assistance to areas impacted by Hurricane Gustav. The Texas Rural Water Association held meetings with state agencies on Tuesday, September 9, to plan for landfall along the Texas gulf coast.

On September 11, forecasting models began to show Ike making landfall just south of Galveston. City Manager Steven LeBlanc late Wednesday issued a mandatory evacuation order for the low lying west end of Galveston Islandmarker. Later, the mandatory evacuation order was extended to the entire island of Galveston, as well as low-lying areas around Houston, Texasmarker.

Also on September 11, at 8:19 p.m. (CDT), the National Weather Service in Houstonmarker/Galveston, TXmarker issued a strongly worded bulletin, regarding storm surge along the shoreline of Galveston Baymarker. The bulletin advised that residents living in single-family homes in some parts of coastal Texas may face "certain death" if they did not heed orders to evacuate. Reports said as many as 40 percent of Galveston's citizens may have not paid attention to the warnings. It was feared to be much the same in Port Arthur.

It was predicted that low-lying areas between Morgan City, Louisianamarker and Baffin Bay, Texasmarker, particularly those areas east of Ike's projected eye landfall would experience the greatest damage from storm surges of up to . Waves at sea were expected to be higher, up to according to computer simulations.

The price of gas increased in the expectation of damage to some of the numerous oil refineries along the South Texas coast, or at least delays in production from the oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico.

Impact

Fatalities by country
Country Deaths Missing
Haitimarker 74 ???
Dominican Republicmarker 2 ???
Cubamarker 7 ???
United States 112 34
Total 195 34

Turks and Caicos Islands



Power was lost throughout Grand Turk Islandmarker, 95% of the houses were damaged, one-fifth of which was significant damage. There was also significant structural damage to roofs andbuildings containing health services resulting in the disruption of most health services. Pharmacy stores, and supplies facilities received major damage or total destruction. Water andelectricity were also disrupted but now has been restored. There was some damage to the clinic on Salt Cay. In North Caicos and Middle Caicos, there was either no damage or minimal damageto the clinic.Meanwhile in South Caicos, 95% of the houses were also damaged, with over one-third significantly damaged or destroyed. Damage alsooccurred on other islands, pockets of which were significant, but in general, damage was minor. After the eye of the storm passed over, it continued west at headed directly for eastern Cuba. Buildings on the islands have been severely weakened and 750 people have lost their homes. Due to the extent and magnitude of damage and affected population, the Government of the Turks and Caicos declared Grand Turk and South Caicos Islands disaster areas. Total damages in the Turks and Caicos Islands were estimated at $500 million.

Hispaniola

The outer bands of Ike caused additional flooding in Haitimarker, which was already devastated by Hanna and also hit hard by Fay and Gustav. The last bridge still standing into the city of Gonaïvesmarker was washed away, slowing relief in the community considerably and creating a deeper humanitarian and food crisis in the hard-hit region. 74 deaths were reported in Haiti from Ike, of which most were in the coastal community of Cabaretmarker which was swept away by floodwaters and mudslides. Haitian Prime Minister Michèle Pierre-Louis called for help at the end of the week, saying that four storms in three weeks have left over 550 dead and as many as one million homeless. She also said that parts of Gonaïves were so severely damaged that the city may have to be rebuilt elsewhere.

Cuba

Just over one million Cubans had been evacuated on Sunday, officials said. In Baracoamarker, 200 homes were reported to be destroyed and waves were running high and peaked at in different areas of Cuba. The Category 3 hurricane made landfall on September 8 on the north coast of eastern Cuba in the province of Holguinmarker near Puerto de Sama, with sustained winds of about , causing widespread flooding and damage to the eastern provinces. It passed across the central provinces of Holguin, Las Tunas, and Camagüey, emerging over the sea to the south of Cuba during September 8. Ike had dropped to a Category One by the time it crossed the island. It then followed the southern coast of Cuba and crossed the western end of the island in Pinar del Rio Province, close to the path taken by Hurricane Gustav ten days previously. Another 1.6 million people had evacuated in advance of its second landfall. The western areas of Cuba, already devastated by Hurricane Gustav just 10 days before Ike hit, suffered additional major flooding from the rain and storm surge. The sugar cane crop was devastated, with over destroyed. Alongside Gustav, they were described as the "worst ever" storms by Cuban officials.

In total, seven people were killed in Cuba from Ike. The combined damage estimate from Ike and Gustav, and succeeding Paloma is about $9.7 billion (USD), with $7.3 billion of that from Ike, making Ike the most destructive hurricane in Cuban history.

United States

Radar animation of Ike at landfall


Due to the intensity of the storm, Texas closed many of its chemical plants and oil refineries. Because much of the United States oil refining capacity is located in Texas, the closings caused a temporary increase in the prices of gasoline, home heating oil, and natural gas. Increases were particularly high in North Carolinamarker, especially in the mountains, where average prices were as much as 60 cents higher than the national average. The closing of refineries so soon after Hurricane Gustav, and the time required to restart production, also resulted in shortages of gasoline in such places as the Carolinas and Tennessee, partly as a result of panic buying. Preliminary post-storm damage estimates in the US were placed at 18 billion US dollars (2008) as stated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporationmarker. Eighty-two deaths have been reported in the US, including forty-eight in Texasmarker, eight in Louisianamarker, one in Arkansasmarker, two in Tennesseemarker, one in Kentuckymarker, seven in Indianamarker, four in Missourimarker, two in Illinoismarker, two in Michiganmarker, seven in Ohiomarker and one in Pennsylvaniamarker, although there are 202 missing. On September 15, 2008 the United States Congress held a moment of silence for those who died in the hurricane.

MV Antalina

On September 11, the cargo ship, the MV Antalina, was among the ships that left Port Arthurmarker to avoid the hurricane. The ship had a crew of 22 and carried a cargo of petroleum coke. However, on September 12, the ship's engine failed and the ship was adrift from the shore. The crew first attempted to repair the engine but was unable to do so. The crew requested to be evacuated by the Coast Guard, but the rescue mission was aborted because weather conditions were not within the safety parameters. The crew was forced to ride out the storm, but kept in contact with the Coast Guard. The ship successfully rode out the storm and all 22 crew members were uninjured. On September 13, a tugboat was dispatched to return the vessel to port.

Louisiana

The storm surge ahead of Ike blew onshore onto the coast of Louisianamarker well ahead of Ike's predicted landfall in Texas on September 13. Areas in coastal south-central and southwestern Louisiana, some of which were flooded by Gustav, were re-flooded as a result of Ike. Some areas which had not yet recovered from Gustav power outages received additional outages, to the tune of 200,000. The hardest-hit areas were in and around Cameron Parishmarker, which also sustained catastrophic damage in 2005 from Hurricane Rita and in 1957 from Hurricane Audrey. Nearly every square inch of the coastline in that area was flooded heavily once again, with floodwaters reaching as far north as Lake Charlesmarker. Hundreds of people had to be rescued, including 363 people who were rescued by Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Search and Rescue teams in conjunction with the Louisiana National Guard and the U.S. Coast Guard.

One person was killed in a flooded bayou in Terrebonne Parishmarker, and a wind-related death was reported near Houmamarker. Two other deaths took place in a car crash in the evacuation phase in Iberville Parishmarker, and two other storm related deaths in Jefferson Davis Parishmarker were caused by natural causes. While doing repairs, two energy-company contractors from Oklahoma were electrocuted.

Texas

On the morning of September 13, 2008, the eye of Hurricane Ike approached the upper Texas coast, making landfall at 2:10 a.m. CDT over the east end of Galveston Islandmarker, with a high storm surge, and travelled north up Galveston Baymarker, along the east side of Houston

(see storm-path image).People in low-lying areas who had not heeded evacuation orders, in single-family one- or two-story homes, were warned by the weather service that they may "face certain death" from the overnight storm surge, a statement that turned out to be true for some unable to evacuate.

In regional Texas towns, electrical power began failing on September 12 before 8 p.m. CDT,leaving millions without power (estimates range from 2.8 million to 4.5 million customers). Grocery store shelves in the Houston area were left empty for weeks in the aftermath of the storm.

In Galvestonmarker, by 4 p.m. CDT (2100 UTC) on September 12, the rising storm surge began overtopping the 17-ft (5.2 m) Galveston Seawall, which faces the Gulf of Mexico; waves had been crashing along the seawall earlier, from 9 a.m. CDT.Although Seawall Boulevard is elevated above the shoreline, many areas of town slope down behind the seawall to the lower elevation of Galveston Islandmarker.

Even though there were advance evacuation plans, Mary Jo Naschke, spokesperson for the city of Galveston, estimated that (as of Friday morning) a quarter of the city's residents paid no attention to calls for them to evacuate, despite predictions that most of Galveston Island would suffer heavy flooding storm tide. By 6 p.m. Friday night, estimates varied as to how many of the 58,000 residents remained, but the figures of remaining residents were in the thousands.Widespread flooding included downtown Galveston: six ft (2 m) deep inside the Galveston County Courthouse, and the University of Texas Medical Branchmarker at Galveston was flooded. Tourist attractions on the island suffered various degrees of damage. The Lone Star Flight Museummarker suffered massive damage, as the storm surge washed through the airport and hangars with about 8 feet of water, and the recently completed Schlitterbahnmarker Water Park was still closed in November 2008; however, Moody Gardens was built with storms in mind and was able to withstand the worst of the storm.
Flooding in Galveston, Texas


In Houston, windows also broke in downtown buildings, such as the 75-story JP Morgan Chase Towermarker, and Reliant Stadiummarker was damaged. Also as a result of the high wind and eye wall that passed directly through the city, power outages were a major problem, as some residents were without electricity for over a month after landfall. Some parts of Houston were not expected to have power until November 1. Luckily, since the storm system moved rapidly and did not linger over Houston, flooding wasn't a major problem for most of the city, as it normally is as a result of the geography. Due to the damage to the stadium, the Houston Texans' game with the Baltimore Ravens, originally scheduled for September 14, was pushed back to November 9.Hurricane Ike affected the Houston Astros' late dash for Major League Baseball's playoffs, postponing Friday, Saturday, and Sunday's games against the Chicago Cubs.

Two of the games were moved to Milwaukeemarker's Miller Parkmarker and were played Sunday September 14 and Monday September 15. The final game was tentatively scheduled for Monday September 29 in Houston. The Astros were eliminated from playoff contention on September 26, and the game was officially canceled as it would not affect post-season standings.

On Bolivar Peninsula, Texasmarker dozens of people were rescued as flood waters exceeded 12 feet (3.7 m) above sea level in advance of the hurricane. The peninsula bore the brunt of Ike's right-front quadrant, historically the worst part of a hurricane, and experienced catastrophic damage with the worst being between Rollover Pass and Gilchrist, Texasmarker - west of High Island. Media estimates of lost homes exceeded 80% and could top 95%. A large number of people who did not evacuate in advance of the storm remain unaccounted for.

The Southeast Texas communities of Bridge City on Sabine Lake and large areas of nearby Orangemarker (80 miles from the center of landfall) were inundated by the storm surge. Bridge City mayor Kirk Roccaforte estimated that only about 14 (later updated to around two dozen) homes in the city were unaffected by the surge.

Waterfront areas of Clear Lake were flooded, with floating debris battering homes and blocking some streets, such as in the Kemahmarker area.

NASA's Johnson Space Centermarker suffered minor roof damage to Mission Control and minor cosmetic damage to some of its other buildings. NASA's operations at Ellington Fieldmarker also sustained roof and awning damage, and one hangar was severely damaged.

University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), the primary hospital in Galveston county, was dealt significant damage due to Hurricane Ike. (http://www.aamc.org/newsroom/reporter/march09/ike.htm) Wide scale flooding caused failures to all facilities systems and allowed mold to invade all the buildings. All students at the UTMB medical center were transferred to other Texas medical schools immediately after the storm while determinations were made about the future of the hospital and medical school. November 12, 2008 saw thirty percent of the employees terminated in a reduction in force. (http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/front/6109613.html) As of March 2009 only 1200 employees were currently employed and being paid. Another 1200 employees are on unpaid administrative leave. All emergency facilities were moved to the Houston medical center. It wasn't until August 1, 2009 that UTMB's emergency room was reopened.

As a historical comparison, on September 8, 1900 the Galveston Hurricane of 1900marker landed along a path similar to Ike's, bringing with it a storm surge that inundated most of Galveston Island, which was Texas' largest city and a major U.S. port. As a result, much of the city was destroyed, and at least 6,000 people were killed in a few hours. Engineers subsequently increased the average elevation of the island by 4 ft (1.2 m) and constructed a 17-foot (5.2-m) seawall to block incoming waves.

Farther inland

rain


On September 14, after becoming extratropical and enhanced by an upper level shortwave trough, a major wind event took place across the lower and middle Ohio Valley and lower Great Lakes, and significant rainfall and flooding took place to the west. Several areas in Illinoismarker and Indianamarker, already flooded by the frontal boundary to the north, saw significant additional rainfall. Due to flooding in Chicago, Todd Stroger declared a state of emergency for Cook Countymarker due to flooding of the Des Plaines River. Hurricane-force wind gusts were reported to the east of the center across parts of Kentuckymarker, Indianamarker, Ohiomarker and Pennsylvaniamarker with significant wind damage including structural damage to buildings and trees. The Louisvillemarker area declared a state of emergency due to major damage, and the Louisville International Airportmarker was closed temporarily. A LG&E spokesperson said that this was the worst power outage in 30 years. Later in the day, a statewide state of emergency was declared in Kentucky by Governor Steve Beshear. Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airportmarker was also temporarily shut down, and the control tower was evacuated. In Cincinnatimarker, numerous reports of roof damage were called in to law enforcement, and on September 15, most of the schools in Hamilton Countymarker and Butler County had classes cancelled because of power outages. Wind gusts of were recorded at Columbusmarker, which is equivalent to sustained wind levels found in a Category 1 hurricane. Additionally, a state of emergency was declared in Ohiomarker on Monday.Also in Salem, Indianamarker, wind gusts up to were recorded. In Indianamarker, high winds caused more than 200,000 customers to be without power throughout the state. Wind gusts of were recorded at Indianapolis International Airportmarker. Coming to Indianapolismarker, on September 14, Ike also caused damages to the first-ever motorcycle Grand Prix held in Indianapolis, stopping both 125cc and MotoGP races after the two thirds of the distance, and causing the cancellation of the 250cc race.

In Arkansasmarker, about 200,000 customers lost power as a result of the winds, the worst power loss in that state since an ice storm in 2000. In the Louisville area, over 300,000 customers were without power — the worst power outage in the utility's history. The Cincinnati metropolitan area was very hard hit, with over 927,000 customers losing power in that region. A Duke Energy spokesperson said “We have never seen anything like this. Never. We’re talking about 90 percent of our customers without power." There were so many power outages and so few workers available Duke Energy was thinking of sending workers from their base in Charlotte, North Carolinamarker. In the Dayton, Ohio area 300,000 of 515,000 Dayton Power & Light Co. customers lost power at some point following severe wind storms on the afternoon of September 14, according to a company spokesperson. As of Thursday morning, September 18, 90,000 DP&L customers remained without power. Also hard hit were central Ohio (with over 350,000 customers losing power) and northeastern Ohio (with over 310,000 customers losing power), as well as Illinois (49,000), Missouri (85,000), and western Pennsylvaniamarker (with over 180,000 customers losing power). In western Kentucky, outside crews had to be brought in from as far away as Mississippimarker to restore power. In Indiana, about 350,000 customers lost power statewide, mainly in the southern part of the state. In New York State, over 100,000 customers were reported without power. In total, 50 deaths have been blamed on Ike in the inland states.

Canada

In Ontariomarker, Ike's remnants brought a record amount of rain on Sunday, September 14, in the Windsormarker region. It was closely following a slow-moving frontal system that had drenched the city the day before, dumping of rain and breaking the old record of in 1979, according to Environment Canada. Most damage in the Windsor area with Ike was confined to downed power lines and toppled tree branches with the wind gusts reaching , with spotty street flooding that made driving completely treacherous in some areas. Highways were washed out in the Bruce Peninsulamarker, and trees were uprooted in London, Ontariomarker. The storm continued to cause wind and rain damage as it continues east along the St. Lawrence River leaving around 25,000 customers without electricity, especially in Bellevillemarker, Brockvillemarker, Bancroftmarker, Peterboroughmarker, Bowmanville, Huntsvillemarker and Timminsmarker.

In Quebecmarker, regions to the north of the Saint Lawrence Rivermarker received to of rainfall (Hautes-Laurentides, Haute-Mauriciemarker, Réserve faunique des Laurentides, Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean, Charlevoix and Côte-Nordmarker). Maximum rainfall was recorded between Lac-St-Jean and the Réserve faunique des Laurentides with a station recording more than of rain Along the river, the amount were more in the and range, except in Quebec Citymarker area which received almost , most of it between 7:00 p.m. and 8:00 p.m. This rain caused small inundations, storm drain overflows, and closed one major highway closed. In Montrealmarker, high humidity levels pushed by the system caused electrical malfunction one of the lines of the subway, stranding commuters. High winds up to caused, at their worst, over 25,000 households to lose electricity in Montrealmarker, Lavalmarker, Estriemarker and Montérégiemarker and when it reached the Magdalen Islandsmarker, it had enough strength to cause a sail boat, the Océan, to sink. Its six passengers were rescued by a helicopter of the Canadian Coast Guard.

The "Ike Spike" in gasoline prices was quite severe in Canada, with gas prices rising anywhere from 15 to 20 cents per liter.

Iceland

Ike's remnants combined with an unusual depression that affected southwestern Icelandmarker. The storm produced waves along southwest coasts of the island. Rainfall peaked near close to Reykjavikmarker. Wind gusts were measured up to . Strong winds on the backside of the system produced a large dust storm in northern areas of the island.

Aftermath

Criticism of FEMA

After Hurricane Ike many residents applied to FEMA for loans and FEMA trailers. Many residents were forced to wait several weeks until their trailers arrived. Some waited for up to two months living in hotels, homes of relatives several miles away, or in their homes with no power or running water. Many residents were very angry at the response that FEMA gave to the problem. Some residents who needed a trailer had almost finished repairing their homes by the time their trailers arrived. Residents in Bridge Citymarker were outraged that FEMA had not given their homes inspections so that they could apply for loans and trailers. In an effort to help Bridge City, people in Port Nechesmarker, Nederlandmarker, and residents of Bridge City whose homes had not been damaged offered their services to the people of Bridge City in an effort to speed up the rebuilding of Bridge City.

FEMA did not provide debit cards to Ike victims, as it did for Katrina victims.

Sports

Hurricane Ike forced the cancellation of a three-game series between the Houston Astros and the Chicago Cubs, which was later made up in Milwaukeemarker at Miller Parkmarker. Ike also forced the postponement of the 2nd week NFL game between the Houston Texans and the Baltimore Ravens, due to structual damage at Reliant Stadium. That postponement gave both teams a bye week in the beginning of the season on September 14, 2008. The game was later made up in Houston after repairs were made to Reliant Stadium on November 9, 2008. It also forced the NCAA football game on September 13 between the Houston Cougars and the Air Force Falcons to be moved from Robertson Stadiummarker in Houston to Gerald Ford Stadiummarker in Dallas. Ike also forced the postponment of a Texas Longhorns game in Austin, Texas due to increased refugee traffic in the city's shelters.Tickets for World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) WrestleMania XXV were originally scheduled to go on sale September 20, 2008, but was postponed out of concern for the residents near the Gulf of Mexicomarker due to Hurricane Ike and the disaster area declaration by Texas Governor Rick Perry. Following another postponement due to the effect of Ike on the state of Texas, WWE announced that ticket sales would be postponed until November 8, 2008.

Relief Efforts

There were a number of relief efforts set up to help those caught up in Ike. Including one set up by Portlight and Weather Underground. Most of them raised at least $10,000 to help out. The Portlight/Wunderground effort created some initial controversy springing from the unexpected overwhelming resonse to requests for assistance..

Dr Jeff Masters of the Weather Underground had this to say:
    

"When a major hurricane hits, relief efforts are always confused and don't reach many areas with great needs. Thus, a group of wunderground bloggers mobilid the day after Ike hit to help out. Their goal was to provide immediate help where traditional aid efforts were coming short, with a focus on providing equipment for people with disabilities and a full spectrum of relief supplies to smaller communities often neglected. Traditional, professional relief efforts are weighed down by bureaucracy and cannot respond as nimbly as smaller, grass-roots relief efforts can. I believe our dollars have been well-spent by the relief effort organized by our own Patrap, Presslord, and Stormjunkie, under the banner of Portlight Strategies, Inc. They have responded quickly and delivered much-needed aid to communities hard-hit by Ike that were being under-served. The people involved in the relief effort were very passionate about serving, and they have sacrificed their time, sleep, health, and money to support this cause. I support their efforts to continue spending the money that was donated to the cause in the way intended. The passion they put into this effort led to conflicts when disagreements arose over how to operate this effort, though. In the haste to go from zero to 100 mph in a few days, and without a supporting bureaucracy or strategic plan to guide their efforts, it should be no surprise that there was confusion and mis-communication. I do not fault any of the people involved for the problems that have arisen. Rather, blame Hurricane Ike! Hurricanes cause chaos, and there was certainly plenty of that on the blogs last weekend. It's good to have these kinds of problems, which are, in part, due to the extraordinary and unexpected generosity of all of you who have contributed." Dr Masters also followed by offering his continued support of the Portlight Relief efforts. "Portlight has plans to extend this effort into the future, and I plan to become a regular donor in coming years for the future hurricane disasters that will inevitably visit our shores."

Portlight Strategies, Inc. is a 501c3 non profit organization which provides relief to outlying populations and people with disabilities in the wake of natural disasters. Portlight delivered over $500,000 worth of equipment to people with disabilities and outlying communities that were impacted by Hurricane Ike. They also delivered pizza to the residents of the hard hit Bolivar peninsula and helped provide a Christmas party for residents of Bridge City, Tx.

It should also be noted that AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps Members of Class XIV responded to aid in the Relief Effort by working with The Red Cross as well as with FEMA throughout Texas.

Oil and gas spills

Hurricane Ike's winds, surge and giant waves tossed storage tanks and punctured pipelines. However, operators in the Gulf of Mexico (ranging from major integrated producers like BP and Shell, to small privately owned independents) shut in operations in advance of Ike's approach as a precautionary measure. As a result of these shut-ins, US oil production dropped from 5 MMbbl/d (million barrels per day) to 4 MMbbl/d in the immediate aftermath of the hurricane. By late November, production was restored to pre-Ike levels. Despite the hurricane, only half a million gallons of crude oil (12,000 barrels or 1900 cubic meters — a cube 12.3 meters on a side) spilled into the Gulf of Mexico and the marshes, bayous and bays of Louisiana and Texas over a coastline distance of ~300 km. Much of the spillage occurred in the High Island area of Galveston County, Texas, where storm surge rose over a low-lying oilfield and flooded the marshy area around several producing wells, beam pumps and storage tanks. During the days both before and after the storm, companies and residents reported around 448 releases of gas, oil and other substances into the environment in Louisiana and Texas. The hardest hit places were industrial centers near Houston and Port Arthur, Texas, as well as oil production facilities off Louisiana's coast.

The Coast Guard, with the Environmental Protection Agency and state agencies, has responded to more than 3,000 pollution reports associated with the storm and its surge along the upper Texasmarker coast. Most callers complain about abandoned propane tanks, paint cans and other hazardous materials containers turning up in marshes, backyards and other places.

Oil Tanker SKS Satilla collision against a missing oil rig

On March 6, 2009, a 159,000-ton Norwegian tanker SKS Satilla collided with a jackup oil rig Ensco 74 [706385], which had been missing after Ike struck[706386]. The tanker's double hull prevented oil spill at the site 104 km south of Galveston, which is 185 km west of the original position of the rig [706387]. Four drilling rigs including Ensco 74 were damaged by Ike, but it was the only rig missing. At least 52 oil platforms were damaged by Ike.

Retirement

Because of the tremendous damage, number of deaths, and people left missing, the name Ike was officially retired on April 22, 2009 by the World Meteorological Organization, and will never again be used for an Atlantic hurricane. It will be replaced with Isaias in the 2014 season.

Documentary

Students at Ball High School in Galveston, Texasmarker, created the documentary Ike: A Documentary. It premiered at Galveston's Opera House on May 21, 2009. It will be available on DVD in September 13, 2009, the one year anniversary of Ike.

Future mitigation

A commission was established by the Texas Governor following the hurricane to investigate preparing for and mitigating future disasters. A proposal has been put forth to build an "Ike Dike," a massive levee system which would protect the Galveston Baymarker, and the important industrial facilities which line the coast and the ship channelmarker, from a future, potentially more destructive storm. The proposal has gained widespread support from a variety of business interests. it is currently only at the conceptual stage.

See also



References

  1. NOAA - National Climatic Data Center (U.S. Department of Commerce)
  2. NHC is the U.S. National Hurricane Center.
  3. Leland under hurricane watch as Hanna takes aim at N.C. Coast, Leland Tribune, 2008-09-04. Retrieved 2008-09-28.
  4. Hurricane Ike missing persons
  5. Evacuation and Devastation in Southern Texas
  6. Flooding in Miss. and FL
  7. Ike Evacuation and Rescue Operation
  8. NOAA - National Climatic Data Center (U.S. Department of Commerce)
  9. Ike - 900 miles
  10. Galveston, part of Houston evacuated ahead of Ike. Retrieved 2008-09-11.
  11. A Million Flee as Huge Storm Hits Texas Coast, September 13, 2008.
  12. Turks & Caicos Weekly News [1]
  13. "Hurricane Ike damages 80% of homes"The Press Association. September 7, 2008.
  14. "Message: Damage Assessment Report identifies Priority Needs for Turks and Caicos Islands (Friday, September 12, 2008)"reliefweb.int. September 12, 2008.
  15. "Hurricane Ike strikes Turks and Caicos as Category 4". USA Today. September 6, 2008.
  16. "Ike makes landfall in Cuba as Category 3 hurricane". CNN. September 7, 2008.
  17. 'One million homeless' in HaitiBBC News
  18. Deadly hurricane heads for Havana BBC News
  19. "ABC News" on Hurricane Ike, 7:00pm news. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
  20. Shiller, Dane Ike death toll increases as three bodies found Houston Chronicle, 2009-09-29. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  21. Forsyth, Jim 226 Still Missing Following Hurricane Ike: Many may never be found WOAI-AM, 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  22. Hurricane Ike victim found near Galveston Houston Chronicle, 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  23. Shiller, Dane Ike death toll increases as three bodies found Houston Chronicle, 2008-09-29. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  24. Search for Ike missing slows to crawl - UPI.com
  25. Search and Rescue Operations Coordinated by LDWF Transport 363 Residents to Safety During Hurricane Ike's Pass Through State, September 16, 2008 Emergency.louisiana.gov
  26. Rhor, Monica, Islanders who insisted on staying died in Ike, Houston Chronicle, 2008-10-04, © 2008 The Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-10-04.
  27. http://www.lsfm.org/ikephotogallery.html
  28. Schlitterbahn Galveston Island - is a family-owned waterpark!
  29. Press Room
  30. Crystal Beach looks like 'someone set a bomb off' Galveston County 06:06 AM CDT on Monday, September 15, 2008 KHOU.com
  31. video of damage on Bolivar Peninsula KHOU.com
  32. Bridge City residents try to dry out, clean up >> www.beaumontenterprise.com
  33. National Weather Service Forecast Office - Wilmington Ohio
  34. 9.15.08
  35. Jayson Stark (2008). Strange But True year in review. Retrieved on 2009-02-01.
  36. Associated Press (2008). Air Force runs down clock to stop Houston rally. Retrieved on 2009-02-01.
  37. Associated Press (2008). Arkansas-Texas postponed due to Hurricane Ike. Retrieved on 2009-02-01.
  38. Dr Masters Blog
  39. Portlight Strategies
  40. WUBA Hurricane Ike Relief Effort
  41. JeffMasters' WUB
  42. It took a 900-foot tanker to find a missing oil rig. Houston Chronicle 2009-03-11
  43. Rice, Harvey. " A project close to their hearts." Houston Chronicle. May 2, 2009. Retrieved on May 3, 2009.


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