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Hurricane Jeanne was the tenth named storm, the seventh hurricane, and the fifth major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. It was also the third hurricane and fourth named storm of the season to landfall in Florida. Jeanne formed as a tropical depression east-southeast of Guadeloupemarker on the evening of September 13. Having strengthened to a tropical storm, Jeanne crossed Puerto Rico on September 15. It then moved toward Hispaniolamarker, barely reaching hurricane strength before making landfall on September 16. It tracked slowly across the northern coast of the Dominican Republicmarker and Haitimarker, with its heavy rains bringing mudslides and flooding. After wreaking havoc on Hispaniola, Jeanne struggled to reorganize. However, it eventually began strengthening and headed north. After performing a complete loop over the open Atlantic, it headed westwards, strengthening into a Category 3 hurricane and passing over the islands of Great Abacomarker and Grand Bahamamarker in the Bahamasmarker on September 25. Jeanne made landfall later in the day in Florida just 2 miles (3 kilometers) from where Frances had struck 3 weeks earlier. Building on the rainfall of Frances and Ivan, Jeanne brought near-record flood levels as far north as West Virginiamarker and New Jerseymarker before its remnants turned east into the open Atlantic. Jeanne is blamed for at least 3,006 deaths in Haitimarker with about 2,800 in Gonaïvesmarker alone, which was nearly washed away by floods and mudslides. The storm also caused 7 deaths in Puerto Rico, 18 in the Dominican Republicmarker and at least 4 in Floridamarker, bringing the total number of deaths to at least 3,025. Final property damage in the United States was $6.8 billion, making this the 13th costliest hurricane in U.S. history.

Meteorological history

Tropical Depression Eleven formed from a tropical wave 70 miles (110 km) east-southeast of Guadeloupemarker in the evening of September 13, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Jeanne the next day. Jeanne passed south of the U.S.marker Virgin Islandsmarker on September 15, making landfall near Yabucoa, Puerto Ricomarker later the same day. After crossing Puerto Rico, Jeanne reached hurricane strength on September 16 near the eastern tip of the Dominican Republicmarker on the island of Hispaniolamarker, but fell back to tropical storm strength later that day as it moved across the mountainous island. Jeanne moved offshore the Dominican Republic late in the afternoon of September 17. By that time, Jeanne had weakened to tropical depression strength.. Even though Jeanne did not strike Haiti directly, the storm was large enough to cause flooding and mudslides, particularly in the northwestern part of the country.

On September 18, while the system was being tracked near Great Inaguamarker and Haitimarker, a new center formed well to the northeast and the previous circulation dissipated. The system restrengthened, becoming a hurricane on September 20. Jeanne continued to meander for several days (making a complete loop in the process) before beginning a steady westward motion toward the Bahamasmarker and Floridamarker.

Jeanne continued strengthening as it headed west, passing over Great Abacomarker in the Bahamas on the morning of September 25. Shortly thereafter, the hurricane reached Category 3 strength. Jeanne maintained this intensity as it passed Grand Bahamamarker Island. At 11:50 p.m. EDT on September 25 (0350 UTC September 26), Jeanne made landfall on Hutchinson Island, just east of Sewall's Point, Floridamarker, Stuart, Floridamarker and Port Saint Lucie, Floridamarker, at Category 3 strength. This is the same place Hurricane Frances struck Florida three weeks earlier. Jeanne was the first major (Category 3 or higher) storm to make landfall on the East coast between Palm Beach, Floridamarker and the mouth of the Savannah River since 1899.

Jeanne's track continued to follow within of that of Frances until it reached Pasco Countymarker. The cyclone then swung more rapidly to the north, and the center remained over land all the way to the Georgiamarker state line, unlike Frances which exited into the Gulf of Mexicomarker. Jeanne became an extratropical cyclone over Virginiamarker on September 28 and the system moved back into the Atlantic offshore the New Jerseymarker coast the next day.

Preparations

Deaths from Hurricane Jeanne
Country Total State County County

total
Direct

deaths
Dominican Republicmarker 18 18
Haitimarker 3,006+ 3,006+
Puerto Rico 8 4
USAmarker 5 Floridamarker Brevardmarker 1 1
Claymarker 1 1
Indian Rivermarker 1 1
South Carolinamarker Fairfieldmarker 1 1
Virginiamarker Patrickmarker 1 1
Totals 3,036+ 3,036+
Because of differing sources, totals may not match.

Puerto Rico and the Leeward Islands

On the afternoon of September 13, tropical storm watches were issued for the British Virgin Islands, Saba, St. Eustatius, and St. Maarten while tropical storm warnings were raised for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The watches were upgraded to tropical storm warnings early on the morning of September 14. Later in the morning, tropical storm warnings were issued for St. Kitts and Nevis, while tropical storm watches were issued for Anguilla. During the afternoon, tropical storm warnings were lowered for Saba, St. Eustatius, and St. Maarten, while hurricane warnings were issued for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Late on the morning of September 15, a hurricane watch was issued for the British Virgin Islands. That afternoon, tropical storm warnings were dropped for St. Kitts and Nevis, while hurricane warnings were lowered to tropical storm warnings for the U.S. Virgin Islands. On the evening of September 15, tropical storm warnings were dropped Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, while hurricane warnings were downgraded to tropical storm warnings for Puerto Rico, and all watches and warnings were dropped for the British Virgin Islands. The entire power grid of Puerto Rico was shut down by the government as the storm approached to prevent electrocutions and infrastructure damage.

Dominican Republic and Haiti

Tropical storm watches were issued from Cabrera to Isla Saona early in the afternoon on September 14. Later that afternoon, hurricane watches and tropical storm warnings were raised from Cabrera to Santo Domingo. Late in the morning of September 15, hurricane warnings were issued from Cabrera to Isla Saona, while hurricane watches and tropical storm warnings were raised from Cabrera to Puerto Plata. That evening, hurricane warnings were extended westward from Cabrera to Puerto Plata while hurricane watches and tropical storm warnings were issued from Puerto Plata to Monte Cristo. Late in the morning of September 16, tropical storm warnings were issued from Le Mole St. Nicholas to Puerto Plata. That afternoon, hurricane warnings were downgraded to tropical storm warnings from Puerto Plata to Isla Saona while all hurricane watches were dropped. Late on the afternoon of September 17, tropical storm warnings were dropped for the remainder of Hispanola. After the 2004 Haiti coup the elected government were replaced with a new reigme which did not protect the basic survival needs of the Haitian population, this lead to particularly bad consequences of Hurricane Jeanne..

Florida

Preparations in Central Floridamarker were rushed and sudden,as it did not become apparent that the storm would make a direct hit until the morning of the 23rd. Indeed, it had appeared the storm would pass safely offshore just the night before. Voluntary evacuations were advised on Thursday Friday, plans for opening shelters on Saturday were distributed to the public, and Florida Power and Light warned that power could be out "for an extended period of time". Canals were also drained on the same day.

On Friday, the Palm Beach Zoomarker prepared for the storm by moving small animals and birds into buildings such as restrooms and restaurants. Evacuations began in earnest, with many residents leaving for the Keys, noting that the islands were the only location definitely out of harm's way. For once, evacuation to the Keysmarker made sense.

Impact

Hurricane Jeanne making landfall on the east coast of Hispaniola, Sept.
16.


Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico was impacted by tropical storm force winds and heavy rain, with flooding on a historic scale. The storm made landfall near Maunabo midday on September 15. The storm generally moved northwest through the island, exiting on the northwest coast near the town of Mayagüez around 11 p.m. Jeanne passed directly over the towns of Arroyomarker, Patillasmarker, Guayamamarker and Salinasmarker on its trip over the Commonwealth. San Juan reported a wind gust of , Carolina reported gusts to , and rainfall ranged from in the city to over in Viequesmarker. This excessive rainfall resulted in damage to roads, landslides, and collapsed bridges. This resulted in one death and the evacuation of 400 people near the Río Grande de Añasco. A total of eight people were reported dead in Puerto Rico as a result of Jeanne. Damages from the storm were estimated at $169.5 million (2004 USD).

Hispaniola

Flooding in Haiti
By September 17, heavy rains totaling about 13 inches (330 mm) in the northern mountains of Haitimarker caused severe flooding and mudslides in the Artibonite region of the country, causing particular damage in the coastal city of Gonaïvesmarker, where it affected about 80,000 of the city's 100,000 residents. As of October 6, 2004 the official report counted 3,006 people dead, with 2,826 of those in Gonaïvesmarker alone. Another 2,601 people were injured,and 7 people died

Flooding in Haiti
In the Dominican Republicmarker, the storm dumped torrential flooding rains and killing over two dozen. Damage totaled $270 million (2004 USD).

United States

Storm total Rainfall from Jeanne
Millions in Florida were left without electricity, some for the third time in a month. There were only five direct deaths in the mainland United States, three in Floridamarker, one in South Carolinamarker and one in Virginiamarker. The final US damage was determined to be around $6,900,000,000, making it the 13th costliest hurricane in United States history. It was difficult to isolate this from damage caused by Hurricane Frances (and, around Polk Countymarker, and Highlands Countymarker, and from Hurricane Charley as well). While Jeanne was highly destructive, it was less so than either Frances or Charley, partly because much of the damage possible had already been done by those storms.

As the storm moved northward east of the Appalachian Mountainsmarker, it continued producing heavy rains and flash flooding. Rainfall exceeded 6.00 inches (150 mm) as far north as Trenton, New Jerseymarker, resulting in severe flash flooding in Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniamarker and its Pennsylvaniamarker and New Jerseymarker suburbs on September 28. Tornadoes also touched down in Wilmington, Delawaremarker and Cherry Hill, New Jerseymarker.


Delaware and Maryland

Throughout Delaware, the remnants of Jeanne produced between of rain, peaking at at the University of Delawaremarker. This led to widespread street flooding and several rivers overflowed their banks. Forty people had to be rescue from a bus along the White Clay Creek after the creek crested at above flood-stage. A strong F2 tornado touched down in the state, injuring five people and leaving $1 million in damages. The tornado touched down in northern New Castle Countymarker and tracked for and generated winds up to . The county airport sustained significant damage, five C-130 cargo planes were damaged, thousands of pounds of jet fuel spilled, and damaged hangers. At a nearby industrial park, metal siding was torn off buildings, windows were shattered and power lines were downed. A self-storage facility sustained substantial damage.

In Maryland, Jeanne produced up to of rain, triggering flash flooding throughout the state. Numerous roads were flooded, including parts of U.S. Route 17. Several rivers rose above their flood-stage, with the Big Elk Creek cresting at , above food-stage. A total of 50 roads were closed due to high water throughout the state. Numerous reports of stranded vehicles were sent to the Emergency Operations Center. In Carroll Countymarker, a group of inmates required rescue after the jail they were in flooded. One brief F0 tornado touched down in the state near Solomonsmarker, causing minor damage.

Retirement

Due to very severe destruction and deaths in Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas and Southeastern United States, the name Jeanne was retired in the spring of 2005 by the World Meteorological Organization, and will never again be used for an Atlantic hurricane. It was replaced with Julia for the 2010 season.

See also



References

  1. Stacey Stewart (2004). Tropical Depression Eleven Public Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  2. Stacey Stewart (2004). Tropical Storm Jeanne Public Advisory Number 4. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  3. Rick Knabb and Brian Jarvinen (2004). Tropical Storm Jeanne Public Advisory Number 7. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  4. Jack Beven (2004). Tropical Storm Jeanne Public Advisory Number 8. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  5. Brian Jarvinen (2004). Tropical Storm Jeanne Public Advisory 11. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  6. James Franklin (2004). Hurricane Jeanne Public Advisory Number 13. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  7. Miles B. Lawrence (2004). Hurricane Jeanne Public Advisory Number 16A. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  8. Miles B. Lawrence (2004). Hurricane Jeanne Public Advisory Number 17. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  9. Lixion Avila (2004). Hurricane Jeanne Discussion Number 21. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  10. Stacey Stewart (2004). Hurricane Jeanne Public Advisory Number 29. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  11. Lixion Avila (2004). Hurricane Jeanne Public Advisory Number 47A. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  12. Lixion Avila (2004). Hurricane Jeanne Public Advisory Number 28. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  13. Richard Pasch (2004). Hurricane Jeanne Discussion Number 50. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  14. Miles B. Lawrence and Hugh D. Cobb (2005). NHC Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Jeanne - 13-28 September 2004. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  15. CNN (2004). Floods, floating coffins left in Jeanne's wake. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  16. National Hurricane Center (2009). Atlantic Hurricane Database. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  17. National Hurricane Center (2009). Atlantic Hurricane Database. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  18. National Climatic Data Center (2005). September 2004 Storm Data. NOAA. Retrieved on 2007-02-15.
  19. Rights Action (2004). Haiti: Emergency Relief Funds Needed. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  20. Eliot Kleinburg and Mary McLachin (2004). Not Again! Palm Beach Post. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  21. Lixion Avila (2004). Hurricane Jeanne Discussion Number 38. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  22. Eliot Kleinberg, Mary McLachlin (2004). Region starts getting ready. Palm Beach Post. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  23. Tim O'Meilia (2004). Zoo animals moved to emergency quarters. Palm Beach Post. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  24. Jane Musgrave (2004). For once, evacuation to Keys makes sense to some. Palm Beach Post. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  25. National Hurricane Center (2006). Hurricane History. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  26. National Weather Service Forecast Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico (2008). Tropical Storm Jeanne Across the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico via the Internet Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  27. National Weather Service Forecast Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico (2007). Tropical Storm Jeanne: Hydrologic Summary for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands via the Internet Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  28. USAID (2007). Hurricane relief. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  29. Hurricane Jeanne Hammers Haiti and Florida
  30. World Meteorological Organization (2007). Twenty-Seventh Session RA IV Hurricane Committee via the Internet Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2007-02-15.


External links




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