of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane
was the costliest hurricane
, as well as one of
the five deadliest, in the history of the United States
Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the
sixth strongest overall
Katrina formed over the Bahamas on August
23, 2005 and crossed southern Florida as a
moderate Category 1
hurricane, causing some deaths and flooding there before
strengthening rapidly in the Gulf of Mexico.
The storm weakened before making its second
landfall as a Category 3
storm on the morning of Monday, August 29 in southeast Louisiana.
It caused severe destruction along the Gulf coast from central
Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge
. The most severe loss of life and
property damage occurred in New Orleans, Louisiana, which flooded as the levee
system catastrophically failed, in many cases hours after the storm
had moved inland.
Eventually 80% of the city became flooded
and also large tracts of neighboring parishes
, and the floodwaters
lingered for weeks.
At least 1,836 people lost their lives in the actual hurricane
and in the subsequent floods, making it the deadliest U.S.
hurricane since the 1928
. Economist and crisis consultant Randall Bell
wrote: "Hurricane Katrina in 2005
was the largest natural disaster in the history of the United
States. Preliminary damage estimates were well in excess of $100
billion, eclipsing many times the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew
The levee failures prompted investigations of their design and
construction which belongs to the US Army Corps of Engineers
(USACE) as mandated in the Flood Control Act of 1965
their maintenance by the local Levee Boards. There was also an
investigation of the responses from federal, state and local
governments, resulting in the resignation of Federal Emergency Management
(FEMA) director Michael
, and of New Orleans Police Department
(NOPD) Superintendent Eddie Compass
Conversely, the United States
(USCG), National Hurricane Center
and National Weather
(NWS) were widely commended for their actions, accurate
forecasts and abundant lead time.
Four years later, thousands of displaced residents
and Louisiana were still living in trailers. Reconstruction
of each section
of the southern portion of Louisiana has been addressed in the Army
Corps LACPR Final Technical Report which identifies areas not to be
rebuilt and areas buildings need to be elevated.
Hurricane Katrina formed as Tropical Depression Twelve over the
southeastern Bahamas on August 23, 2005 as the result of an
interaction of a tropical wave
remains of Tropical
. The system was upgraded to tropical storm
on the morning of August 24 and at this point, the storm
was given the name Katrina. The tropical storm
continued to move towards Florida, and became a hurricane only two
hours before it made landfall
Beach and Aventura, Florida on the morning of August 25.
weakened over land, but it regained hurricane status about one hour
after entering the Gulf of Mexico.
The storm rapidly intensified
entering the Gulf, growing from a Category 3 hurricane to a
Category 5 hurricane in just nine hours. This rapid growth was
due to the storm's movement over the "unusually warm" waters
of the Loop Current
, which increased wind speeds. On
Saturday, August 27, the storm reached Category 3 intensity on
, becoming the third major hurricane
the season. An eyewall replacement cycle
disrupted the intensification, but caused the storm to nearly
double in size. Katrina again rapidly intensified, attaining
Category 5 status on the morning of August 28 and reached its
peak strength at 1:00 p.m. CDT that day, with maximum
sustained winds of 175 mph (280 km/h) and a minimum
. The pressure measurement
made Katrina the fourth most intense Atlantic hurricane on record
at the time, only to be surpassed by Hurricanes Rita
later in the season; it was also the strongest hurricane ever
recorded in the Gulf of Mexico at the time (a record also later
broken by Rita).
Katrina made its second landfall at 6:10 a.m. CDT on Monday, August
29 as a Category 3 hurricane with sustained winds of
125 mph (205 km/h) near Buras-Triumph,
At landfall, hurricane-force winds extended
outward 120 miles (190 km) from the center and the
storm's central pressure was 920 mbar. After moving over
southeastern Louisiana and Breton
, it made its third landfall near the
Louisiana/Mississippi border with 120 mph (195 km/h)
sustained winds, still at Category 3 intensity.
maintained strength well into Mississippi, finally losing hurricane
strength more than 150 miles (240 km) inland near
Mississippi. It was downgraded to a tropical depression
Tennessee, but its remnants were last distinguishable in the
Lakes region on August 31, when it was absorbed by a
The resulting extratropical
storm moved rapidly to the
northeast and affected eastern Canada.
On the morning of Friday, August 26, at 10 a.m. CDT
), Katrina had strengthened to a Category 3
storm in the Gulf of Mexico. Later that afternoon, the NHC realized
that Katrina had yet to make the turn toward the Florida Panhandle
and ended up revising the predicted track of the storm from the
panhandle to the Mississippi coast. The NHC issued a hurricane
watch for southeastern Louisiana, including the New Orleans area at
10 a.m. CDT Saturday, August 27. That afternoon the NHC extended the watch
to cover the Mississippi and Alabama coastlines as well as the
Louisiana coast to Intracoastal City.
The United States Coast
began prepositioning resources beyond the expected impact
zone starting on August 26, and activated more than 400 reservists.
Aircrews from the Aviation Training Center, in Mobile, staged
rescue aircraft from Texas to Florida. All aircraft were returning
back towards the Gulf of Mexico by the afternoon of August 29. Air
, many of whom lost their homes during the
hurricane, began a round-the-clock rescue effort in New Orleans,
and along the Mississippi and Alabama coastlines.
President of the United
States George W. Bush
declared a state of emergency in
selected regions of Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi on
Saturday, the 27th, two days before the hurricane made landfall.
evening, the NHC upgraded the storm alert status from hurricane
watch to hurricane warning over the stretch of coastline between
Louisiana to the Alabama-Florida border, 12 hours after
the watch alert had been issued, and also issued a tropical storm
warning for the westernmost Florida Panhandle.
During video conferences involving the president on August 28 and
29, the director of the National Hurricane Center, Max Mayfield
, expressed concern that Katrina
might push its storm surge over the city's levees and flood walls.
In one conference, he stated, "I do not think anyone can tell you
with confidence right now whether the levees will be topped or not,
but that's obviously a very, very great concern."
On Sunday, August 28, as the sheer size of Katrina became clear,
the NHC extended the tropical storm warning zone to cover most of
the Louisiana coastline and a larger portion of the Florida Panhandle
. The National Weather
Service's New Orleans/Baton Rouge office issued a vividly
predicting that the area would be
"uninhabitable for weeks" after "devastating damage" caused by
Katrina, which at that time rivaled the intensity of Hurricane Camille
. "On Sunday, August 28,
President Bush spoke with Governor Blanco to encourage her to order
a mandatory evacuation of New Orleans." (Per page 235 of Special
Report of the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental
Voluntary and mandatory evacuations were issued for large areas of
southeast Louisiana as well as coastal Mississippi and Alabama.
About 1.2 million residents of the Gulf Coast were covered
under a voluntary or mandatory evacuation order.
Investigation of State of Emergency declaration
In a September 26, 2005 hearing, former FEMA chief Michael Brown
testified before a U.S. House
subcommittee about FEMA's response. During that hearing,
Representative Stephen Buyer
inquired as to why President Bush's declaration of state of
emergency of August 27 had not included the coastal parishes of
Orleans, Jefferson, and Plaquemines. (In fact, the declaration did
not include any
of Louisiana's coastal parishes, whereas
the coastal counties were included in the declarations for
Mississippi and Alabama.) Brown testified that this was because
Louisiana Governor Blanco
included those parishes in her initial request for aid, a decision
that he found "shocking." After the hearing, Blanco released a copy
of her letter, which showed she had requested assistance for "all
the southeastern parishes [but not by name] including the New
Orleans Metropolitan area and the mid state Interstate I-49
corridor and northern parishes along the I-20 corridor that are
accepting [evacuated citizens]."
Radar image of Hurricane Katrina
making landfall in Louisiana
On August 26, the state of Mississippi activated its National Guard
for the storm's landfall. Additionally, the state government
activated its Emergency Operations Center the next day, and local
governments began issuing evacuation orders. By 7:00 p.m. EDT
on August 28, 11 counties and
eleven cities issued evacuation orders, a number which increased to
41 counties and 61 cities by the following morning. Moreover, 57
emergency shelters were established on coastal communities, with 31
additional shelters available to open if needed.Louisiana's
hurricane evacuation plan calls for local governments in areas
along and near the coast to evacuate in three phases, starting with
the immediate coast 50 hours before the start of tropical
storm force winds. Persons in areas designated Phase II begin
evacuating 40 hours before the onset of tropical storm winds
and those in Phase III areas (including New Orleans) evacuate
30 hours before the start of such winds.
Many private caregiving facilities that relied on bus companies and
ambulance services for evacuation were unable to evacuate their
charges because they waited too long. Rental cars were in short
supply and many forms of public transportation had been shut down
well before the storm arrived. Some estimates claimed that 80% of
the 1.3 million residents of the greater New Orleans
metropolitan area evacuated, leaving behind substantially fewer
people than remained in the city during the Hurricane Ivan
August 28, most infrastructure along the Gulf Coast had been shut
down, including all Canadian
National Railway and Amtrak rail traffic
into the evacuation areas as well as the Waterford
Nuclear Generating Station.
The NHC maintained the coastal warnings
until late on August 29, by which time Hurricane Katrina was over
City of New Orleans
Vertical cross-section of New Orleans,
showing maximum levee height of 23 feet (7 m).
Vertical scale exaggerated.
By August 26, the possibility of unprecedented cataclysm was
already being considered. Many of the computer models had shifted
the potential path of Katrina westward from the Florida Panhandle,
putting the city of New Orleans directly in the center of their
track probabilities; the chances of a direct hit were forecast at
17%, with strike probability rising to 29% by August 28. This
scenario was considered a potential catastrophe because some parts
of New Orleans and the metro area are below sea level. Since the
storm surge produced by the hurricane's right-front quadrant
(containing the strongest winds) was forecast to be 28 feet
(8.5 m), emergency management officials in New Orleans feared
that the storm surge could go over the tops of levees protecting
the city, causing major flooding.
At a news conference at 10 a.m. on August 28, shortly after Katrina
was upgraded to a Category 5 storm, New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin
ordered the first-ever mandatory evacuation
of the city,
calling Katrina "a storm that most of us have long feared."
government also established several "refuges of last resort" for
citizens who could not leave the city, including the massive
Superdome, which sheltered approximately 26,000 people
and provided them with food and water for several days as the storm
people living in the South Florida area were unaware when Katrina
strengthened from a tropical storm to a hurricane in one day and
struck southern Florida near the Miami-Dade – Broward county line. The hurricane struck between the cities
of Aventura, in Miami-Dade County, and Hallandale, in Broward County, on Thursday, August 25,
However, National Hurricane Center (NHC) forecasts had
correctly predicted that Katrina would intensify to hurricane
strength before landfall, and hurricane watches and
were issued 31.5 hours and 19.5 hours before
landfall, respectively — only slightly less than the target
thresholds of 36 and 24 hours.
Florida Governor Jeb Bush
state of emergency
on August 24
in advance of Hurricane Katrina's landfall in Florida. Shelters
were opened and schools closed in several counties in the southern
part of the state. A number of evacuation orders were also
issued, mostly voluntary, although a mandatory evacuation was
ordered for vulnerable housing in Martin County.
On August 29, Katrina's storm surge
caused 53 different levee breaches in greater New Orleans
submerging eighty percent of the city. A June 2007 report by the
American Society of
indicated that two-thirds of the flooding were
caused by the multiple failures of the city's floodwalls. Not
mentioned were the flood gates that were not closed. The storm
surge also devastated the coasts of Mississippi and Alabama, making
Katrina the most destructive and costliest natural disaster
in the history of the
United States, and the deadliest hurricane since the 1928
Okeechobee Hurricane. The total damage from Katrina is estimated at
$81.2 billion (2005 U.S. dollars
nearly double the cost of the previously most expensive storm,
, when adjusted for
As of May 19, 2006, the confirmed death toll (total of direct and
indirect deaths) stood at 1,836, mainly from Louisiana (1,577) and
Mississippi (238). However, 705 people remain categorized as
missing in Louisiana, and many of the deaths are indirect, but it
is almost impossible to determine the exact cause of some of the
disaster declarations covered 90,000 square miles
(233,000 km²) of the United States, an area almost as large as
the United Kingdom
The hurricane left an estimated three million people without
electricity. On September 3, 2005, Homeland Security
Secretary Michael Chertoff
described the aftermath of
Hurricane Katrina as "probably the worst catastrophe, or set of
catastrophes," in the country's history, referring to the hurricane
itself plus the flooding of New Orleans.
South Florida and Cuba
Katrina first made landfall on August 25, 2005 in South Florida where it hit as a Category 1 hurricane, with
80 mph (130 km/h) winds. Rainfall was heavy in
places and exceeded 14 inches (350 mm) in Homestead,
Florida, and a storm surge of 3 – was measured in
parts of Monroe
More than 1 million customers were
left without electricity
, and damage in
Florida was estimated from $1 – $2 billion, with most of
the damage coming from flooding and overturned trees. There were 14
fatalities reported in Florida as a result of Hurricane
Keys experienced tropical-storm force winds from Katrina
as the storm's center passed to the north, with hurricane force
winds reported in the Dry Tortugas. Rainfall was also high in the islands, with
10 inches (250 mm) falling on Key
West. On August 26, a strong F1 tornado formed from
an outer rain band of Katrina and struck Marathon.
The tornado damaged a hangar at the airport
there and caused an estimated $5 million in damage.
Hurricane Katrina stayed well to the north of Cuba, on August
29 it brought tropical-storm force winds and rainfall of over
8 inches (200 mm) to western regions of the
Telephone and power lines were damaged and around
8,000 people were evacuated in the Pinar del Río Province
According to Cuban television reports the coastal city of Surgidero
de Batabano was 90% underwater.
29, Hurricane Katrina made landfall near Buras-Triumph,
Louisiana with 125 mph (205 km/h) winds, as a
strong Category 3 storm.
However, as it had only just
weakened from Category 4 strength and the radius of maximum
winds was large, it is possible that sustained winds of
Category 4 strength briefly impacted extreme southeastern
Louisiana. Although the storm surge to the east of the path of the
eye in Mississippi was higher, a very significant surge affected
the Louisiana coast. The height of the surge is uncertain because
of a lack of data, although a tide gauge in Plaquemines
Parish indicated a storm tide in excess of 14 feet
(4.3 m) and a 12-foot (3 m) storm surge was recorded in
Isle. Hurricane Katrina made final landfall near
the mouth of the Pearl River, with the eye straddling St. Tammany
Parish, Louisiana and Hancock County, Mississippi, on the morning of
August 29th at about 9:45M CST.
Hurricane Katrina also brought heavy rain to Louisiana, with
8 – 10 inches (200 – 250 mm) falling on a wide
swath of the eastern part of the state. In the area around
Slidell, the rainfall was even higher, and the highest
rainfall recorded in the state was approximately 15 inches
(380 mm). As a result of the rainfall and storm surge
the level of Lake
Pontchartrain rose and caused significant flooding along its
northeastern shore, affecting communities from Slidell to Mandeville. Several bridges were destroyed, including
the I-10 Twin
Span Bridge connecting Slidell to New Orleans.
900,000 people in Louisiana lost power as a result of
Katrina’s storm surge inundated all parishes surrounding Lake
Pontchartrain, including St. Tammany
Tangipahoa, St. John the
and St. Charles
St. Tammany Parish received a two-part storm surge: First, as Lake
Pontchartrain rose and the storm blew water from the Gulf of Mexico
into the lake. Second, as the eye of Katrina passed, westerly winds
pushed water into a bottleneck at the Rigolets Pass, forcing it
farther inland. The range of surge levels in eastern St. Tammany
Parish is estimated at 13 to 16 feet, not including wave
Hard-hit St. Bernard Parish
flooded due to breaching of the levees that contained a navigation
channel called the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MR-GO) and the
breach of the Levee Board designed and built 40 Arpent canal levee.
The search for the missing was undertaken by the St. Bernard Fire
Department due to the assets of the United States Coast Guard
diverted to New Orleans. According to an interview in the
Times-Picayune, the coroner was still trying to get a list
of missing from the Red
Cross in November 2005.
While there were some
victims on this list whose bodies were found in their homes, the
vast majority were tracked down through word-of-mouth and credit
card records. As of December 2005, the official missing list in the
Parish stood at 47.
According to the U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, in
St. Bernard Parish, 81% (20,229) of the housing units were damaged.
In St. Tammany Parish, 70% (48,792) were damaged and in
Placquemines Parish 80% (7,212) were damaged.
As the eye of Hurricane Katrina swept to the northeast, it
subjected the city to hurricane conditions for hours. Although
power failures prevented accurate measurement of wind speeds in New
Orleans, there were a few measurements of hurricane-force winds.
From this the NHC concluded that it is likely that much of the city
experienced sustained winds of Category 1 or Category 2
Katrina's storm surge led to 53 levee breaches in the federally built levee system
protecting metro New Orleans and the failure of the 40 Arpent Canal
levee. Nearly every levee in metro New Orleans was breached as
Hurricane Katrina passed just east of the city limits. Failures
occurred in New Orleans and surrounding communities, especially St.
Bernard Parish. The Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MR-GO) breached its levees in approximately 20
places, flooding much of east New Orleans, most of Saint Bernard Parish and the
East Bank of Plaquemines Parish. The major levee breaches in the city
included breaches at the 17th Street
Canal levee, the London Avenue
Canal, and the wide, navigable Industrial Canal, which left approximately 80% of the city
Most of the major roads traveling into and out of the city were
damaged. The only routes out of the city were the
westbound Crescent City Connection and the Huey P.
Long Bridge, as large
portions of the I-10 Twin Span Bridge traveling eastbound towards
Slidell, Louisiana had collapsed. Both the Lake
Pontchartrain Causeway and the Crescent City Connection only carried
On August 29, at 7:40 a.m. CDT, it was reported that most of the
windows on the north side of the Hyatt Regency New Orleans
blown out, and many other high rise buildings had extensive window
damage. The Hyatt
was the most severely
damaged hotel in the city, with beds reported to be flying out of
the windows. Insulation tubes were exposed as the hotel's glass
exterior was completely sheared off.
Coast Guardsman searches for survivors in New Orleans in the
aftermath of Katrina
The Superdome, which was sheltering many people who had not
evacuated, sustained significant damage. Two sections of the
Superdome's roof were compromised and the dome's waterproof
membrane had essentially been peeled off. Louis Armstrong New Orleans International
Airport was closed before the storm but did not
On August 30, it was reopened to humanitarian and
rescue operations. Limited commercial passenger service resumed at
the airport on September 13 and regular carrier operations resumed
in early October.
Levee breaches in New Orleans also caused widespread loss of life,
with over 700 bodies recovered in New Orleans by October 23, 2005.
Some survivors and evacuees reported seeing dead bodies lying in
city streets and floating in still-flooded sections, especially in
the east of the city. The advanced state of decomposition of many
corpses, some of which were left in the water or sun for days
before being collected, hindered efforts by coroners to identify
many of the dead.
deaths reported from the city were reported shortly before midnight
on August 28, as three nursing home
patients died during an evacuation to Baton
Rouge, most likely from dehydration.
were also early reports of fatalities amid mayhem at the Superdome,
only six deaths were confirmed there, with four of these
originating from natural causes, one from a drug overdose, and one
a suicide. At the Convention Center, four bodies were recovered.
One of the four is believed to be the result of a homicide.
The Gulf coast of Mississippi suffered massive damage from the
impact of Hurricane Katrina on August 29, leaving 238 people
dead, 67 missing, and billions of dollars in damage: bridges,
barges, boats, piers, houses and cars were washed inland.Katrina
traveled up the entire state, and afterwards, all 82 counties in
Mississippi were declared disaster areas for federal assistance, 47
for full assistance.
After making a brief initial landfall in Louisiana, Katrina had
made its final landfall near the state line, and the eyewall passed
over the cities of Bay St. Louis and Waveland as a Category 3
hurricane with sustained winds of 120 mph (195 km/h).
Katrina's powerful right-front quadrant passed over the west and
central Mississippi coast, causing a powerful 27-foot (8.2 m)
storm surge, which penetrated 6 miles (10 km) inland in
many areas and up to 12 miles (20 km) inland along bays
and rivers; in some areas, the surge crossed Interstate 10
for several miles. Hurricane
Katrina brought strong winds to Mississippi, which caused
significant tree damage throughout the state. The highest
unofficial reported wind gust recorded from Katrina was one of
135 mph (217 km/h) in Poplarville, in Pearl River County.
The storm also brought heavy rains with 8 – 10 inches
(200 – 250 mm) falling in southwestern Mississippi and
rain in excess of 4 inches (100 mm) falling throughout
the majority of the state. Katrina caused eleven tornadoes in
Mississippi on August 29, some of which damaged trees and power
Battered by wind, rain and storm surge, some beachfront
neighborhoods were completely leveled. Preliminary estimates by
Mississippi officials calculated that 90% of the structures within
half a mile of the coastline were completely destroyed, and that
storm surges traveled as much as six miles (10 km) inland
in portions of the state's coast. One apartment complex with
approximately thirty residents seeking shelter inside collapsed.
More than half of the 13 casinos in the state, which were floated
on barges to comply with Mississippi land-based gambling laws, were
washed hundreds of yards inland by waves.
A number of streets and bridges were washed away. On U.S. Highway 90
along the Mississippi Gulf Coast, two major bridges were completely
destroyed: the Bay St. Louis — Pass Christian bridge, and the
Biloxi - Ocean Springs bridge. In addition, the eastbound span of the I-10
bridge over the Pascagoula River estuary was damaged.
In the weeks after the
storm, with the connectivity of the coastal U.S. Highway 90
shattered, traffic traveling parallel to the coast was reduced
first to State Road 11 (parallel to I-10) then to two lanes on the
remaining I-10 span when it was opened.
All three coastal counties of the state were severely affected by
the storm. Katrina's surge was the most extensive, as
well as the highest, in the documented history of the United
States; large portions of both Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson Counties were inundated by the storm surge, in
all three cases affecting most of the populated areas.
covered almost the entire lower half of Hancock County, destroying
the coastal communities of Clermont Harbor and Waveland, much of Bay St. Louis, and flowed up
the Jourdan River, flooding Diamondhead and Kiln. In Harrison County, Pass
completely inundated, along with a narrow strip of land to the east
along the coast, which includes the cities of Long Beach and
Gulfport; the flooding was more extensive in communities such as
D'Iberville, which borders Back Bay. Biloxi, on a
peninsula between the Back Bay and the coast, was particularly hard
hit, especially the low-lying Point Cadet area.
County, storm surge flowed up the wide river estuary
, with the combined surge and freshwater
flooding cutting the county in half. Remarkably, over 90% of
Pascagoula, the easternmost coastal city in Mississippi, and about
east of Katrina's landfall near the Louisiana-Mississippi border,
was flooded from surge at the height of the storm. Other large Jackson
County neighborhoods such as Porteaux Bay and Gulf Hills were
severely damaged with large portions being completely destroyed,
Martin was hard hit; Ocean Springs, Moss
Point, Gautier, and Escatawpa also suffered major surge damage.
Mississippi Emergency Management Agency
officials also recorded deaths in Forrest, Hinds, Warren, and Leake counties.
Over 900,000 people
throughout the state experienced power outages.
Southeast United States
Hurricane Katrina made landfall well to the west, Alabama and the
Florida Panhandle were both affected by tropical-storm force winds
and a storm surge varying from 12 to 16 feet (3–5 m)
Bay, with higher waves on top. Sustained winds of
67 mph (107 km/h) were recorded in Mobile,
Alabama, and the storm surge there was approximately
12 feet (3.7 m).
The surge caused significant
flooding several miles inland along Mobile Bay. Four tornadoes were
also reported in Alabama. Ships, oil rigs, boats and fishing piers were washed ashore along Mobile Bay: the cargo
ship M/V Caribbean Clipper and many fishing boats were
grounded at Bayou La
An oil rig
under construction along the
broke its moorings and
floated 1.5 miles (2 km) northwards before striking the
just outside Mobile.
No significant damage resulted to the bridge and it was soon
reopened. The damage on Dauphin Island was severe, with the surge destroying many houses
and cutting a new canal through the western portion of the
An offshore oil rig also became grounded on the
island. As in Mississippi, the storm surge caused significant beach
erosion along the Alabama coastline. More than 600,000 people
lost power in Alabama as a result of Hurricane Katrina and two
people died in a traffic accident in the state. Residents in some
areas, such as Selma, were without power for several days.
Along the Florida Panhandle the storm surge was typically about
five feet (1.5 m) and along the west-central Florida
coast there was a minor surge of 1 – 2 feet (0.3 –
0.6 m). In Pensacola, Florida 56 mph (90 km/h) winds were recorded on
The winds caused damage to some trees and
structures and there was some minor flooding in the Panhandle.
were two indirect fatalities from Katrina in Walton
County as a result of a traffic accident.
the Florida Panhandle, 77,000 customers lost power.
and central Georgia were affected by heavy rains and strong winds from
Hurricane Katrina as the storm moved inland, with more than
3 inches (75 mm) of rain falling in several areas.
At least 18 tornadoes formed in Georgia on August 29, the most on
record in that state for one day in August. The most serious of
these tornadoes was an F2 tornado which affected Heard
County and Carroll County.
This tornado caused 3 injuries and one
fatality and damaged several houses. In addition this tornado
destroyed several poultry barns, killing over 140,000 chicks. The
other tornadoes caused significant damages to buildings and
agricultural facilities. In addition to the fatality caused by the
F2 tornado, there was another fatality in a traffic accident.
Other U.S. States and Canada
Katrina weakened as it moved inland, but tropical-storm force gusts
were recorded as far north as Fort Campbell, Kentucky on August 30, and the winds damaged trees in
York. The remnants of the storm brought high
levels of rainfall to a wide swath of the eastern
United States, and rain in excess of 2 inches (50 mm)
fell in parts of 20 states.
A number of tornadoes associated
with Katrina formed on August 30 and August 31, which caused minor
damages in several regions. In total, 62 tornadoes formed in
eight states as a result of Katrina.
Arkansas received light rain from the passage of
Gusty winds downed some trees and power lines,
though damage was minimal. In Kentucky, a storm that had moved through the weekend before
had already produced flooding and the rainfall from Katrina added
As a result of the flooding, Kentucky Governor Ernie Fletcher
declared three counties
disaster areas and a statewide state of emergency. One person was killed
in Hopkinsville, Kentucky and part of a high school collapsed.
also prompted a number of evacuations in West Virginia and Ohio, the
rainfall in Ohio leading to two indirect deaths.
also caused a number of power outages in many areas, with over
100,000 customers affected in Tennessee, primarily in the Memphis and Nashville areas.
remnants of Katrina were absorbed by a new cyclone to its east
across Pennsylvania. This second cyclone continued north and
affected Canada on August
31. In Ontario there were a few isolated reports of rain in excess
of 100 mm (4 inches) and there were a few reports of
damage from fallen trees. Flooding also occurred in both Ontario
and Quebec, cutting
off a number of isolated villages in Quebec, particularly in the
The economic effects of the storm were far-reaching. As of April
2006, the Bush Administration had sought $105 billion for
repairs and reconstruction in the region, and this does not account
for damage to the economy caused by potential interruption of the
supply, destruction of the Gulf
Coast's highway infrastructure, and exports of commodities such as
grain. Katrina damaged or destroyed 30 oil platforms
and caused the closure of nine
; the total shut-in oil
production from the Gulf of Mexico in the six-month period
following Katrina was approximately 24% of the annual production
and the shut-in gas production for the same period was about 18%.
The forestry industry in Mississippi was also affected, as
1.3 million acres (5,300 km²) of forest lands were
destroyed. The total loss to the forestry industry from Katrina is
calculated to rise to about $5 billion. Furthermore, hundreds
of thousands of local residents were left unemployed, which will
have a trickle-down effect as fewer taxes are paid to local
governments. Before the hurricane, the region supported
approximately one million non-farm jobs, with 600,000 of them in
New Orleans. It is estimated that the total economic impact in
Louisiana and Mississippi may exceed $150 billion.
Katrina redistributed over one million people from the central Gulf
coast elsewhere across the United States, which became the largest
in the history of the United
States. Houston, Texas, had an increase of 35,000 people; Mobile,
Alabama, gained over 24,000; Baton Rouge, Louisiana, over
15,000; and Hammond,
Louisiana received over 10,000, nearly doubling its
size. Chicago received over 6,000 people, the most of any
By late January, 2006, about
200,000 people were once again living in New Orleans, less
than half of the pre-storm population. By July 1, 2006, when new
population estimates were calculated by the U.S. Census
, the state of Louisiana showed a population decline of
219,563, or 4.87%. Additionally, some insurance companies
have stopped insuring
homeowners in the area because of the high costs from Hurricanes
Katrina and Rita, or have raised homeowners' insurance premiums to
cover their risk.
Katrina also had a profound impact on the environment. The storm
surge caused substantial beach
, in some cases completely devastating coastal areas.
Dauphin Island, approximately 90 miles (150 km) to the east of the point where the hurricane made
landfall, the sand that comprised the barrier island was transported across the
island into the Mississippi Sound, pushing the island towards land.
surge and waves from Katrina also obliterated the Chandeleur
Islands, which had been affected by Hurricane Ivan the
The US Geological Survey has estimated of
land was transformed to water by the hurricanes Katrina and
The lands that were lost were breeding grounds for marine mammals,
, and fish
, as well as
migratory species such as redhead
. Overall, about 20% of the local marshes
were permanently overrun by water as a result
of the storm.
The damage from Katrina forced the closure of 16 National Wildlife Refuges
National Wildlife Refuge lost half its area in the storm. As a
result, the hurricane affected the habitats of sea turtles
, Mississippi sandhill cranes
, Red-cockaded woodpeckers
Alabama Beach mice
Finally, as part of the cleanup effort, the flood waters that
covered New Orleans were pumped into Lake Pontchartrain, a process
that took 43 days to complete. These residual waters contained
a mix of raw sewage
, heavy metals
, toxic chemicals, and about
6.5 million U.S. gallons (24.6 million L) of oil
, which has sparked fears in the scientific community
of massive numbers of fish dying.
Prior to the storm, subsidence
caused erosion in the Louisiana
wetlands and bayous
. This, along with the
canals built in the area, allowed for Katrina to maintain more of
its intensity when it struck.
Looting and violence
Shortly after the hurricane moved away on August 30, 2005, some
residents of New Orleans who remained in the city began looting
stores. Many were in search of food and
water that were not available to them through any other means, as
well as non-essential items.
Reports of carjacking
, and rapes
in New Orleans flooded the news. Some sources
later determined that many of the reports were innaccurate, because
of the confusion. Thousands of National Guard and federal troops
were mobilized (the total went from 7,841 in the area the day
Katrina hit to a maximum of 46,838 on September 10) and sent to
Louisiana along with numbers of local law enforcement agents from
across the country who were temporarily deputized by the state.
"They have M16s
and are locked and loaded.
These troops know how to shoot and kill and I expect they will,"
Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco
said. Congressman Bill Jefferson
(D-LA) told ABC News
: "There was shooting
going on. There was sniping going on. Over the first week of
September, law and order were gradually restored to the city."
shootings were between police and New Orleans residents, including
a fatal incident at Danziger Bridge.
A number of arrests
were made throughout the
affected area, including some near the New Orleans Convention
Center. A temporary jail was constructed of chain link cages in the
city train station.
In Texas, where more than 300,000 refugees were located, local
officials ran 20,000 criminal background checks on the refugees, as
well as on the relief workers helping them and people who opened up
their homes. The background checks found that 45% of the refugees
had a criminal record of some nature, and that 22% had a violent
criminal record. The number of homicides in Houston from September 2005 through February 22, 2006 went
up by 23% relative to the same period a year before; 29 of the 170
murders involved displaced Louisianans as a victim or as a
-President Bush watching the flooded
areas from Air Force One.
Within the United States and as delineated in the National Response Plan
response and planning is first and foremost a local government
responsibility. When local government exhausts its resources, it
then requests specific additional resources from the county level.
The request process proceeds similarly from the county to the state
to the federal government as additional resource needs are
identified. Many of the problems that arose developed from
inadequate planning and back-up communications systems at various
Some disaster recovery
Katrina began before the storm, with Federal
Emergency Management Agency
(FEMA) preparations that ranged
from logistical supply deployments to a mortuary
team with refrigerated trucks. A network
of volunteers began rendering assistance to local residents and
residents emerging from New Orleans and surrounding parishes as
soon as the storm made landfall (even though many were directed to
not enter the area), and continued for more than six months after
Of the 60,000 people stranded in New Orleans, the Coast Guard
rescued more than 33,500. Congress recognized the Coast Guard's
response with an official entry in the Congressional Record, and
the Armed Service
awarded the Presidential
The United States
established Joint Task Force (JTF) Katrina
based out of Camp Shelby
to act as the military's on-scene command on Sunday, August 28.
Approximately 58,000 National Guard personnel were activated to
deal with the storm's aftermath, with troops coming from all 50
states. The Department
of Defense also activated volunteer members of the Civil Air Patrol.
Chertoff, Secretary of
the Department of Homeland
Security, decided to take over the federal, state, and local
operations officially on August 30, 2005, citing the National
This was refused by Governor Blanco who
indicated that her National Guard could manage. Early in September,
Congress authorized a total of $62.3 billion in aid for
victims. Additionally, President Bush enlisted the help of former
presidents Bill Clinton
and George H.W. Bush to
raise additional voluntary contributions, much as they did after
Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. American flags
were also ordered
to be half-staff
from September 2, 2005
to September 20, 2005 in honor of the victims.
FEMA provided housing assistance (rental assistance, trailers
, etc.) to more than 700,000
applicants—families and individuals. However, only one-fifth of the
trailers requested in Orleans Parish have been supplied, resulting
in an enormous housing shortage in the city of New Orleans. Many
local areas voted to not allow the trailers, and many areas had no
utilities, a requirement prior to placing the trailers. To provide
for additional housing, FEMA has also paid for the hotel costs of
12,000 individuals and families displaced by Katrina through
February 7, 2006, when a final deadline was set for the end of
hotel cost coverage. After this deadline, evacuees were still
eligible to receive federal assistance, which could be used towards
either apartment rent, additional hotel stays, or fixing their
ruined homes, although FEMA no longer paid for hotels directly. As
of early July 2006, there are still about 100,000 people
living in 37,745 FEMA-provided trailers.
Law enforcement and public safety agencies, from across the United
States, provided a "mutual aid
" response to
Louisiana and New Orleans in the weeks following the disaster.
agencies responded with manpower and equipment from as far away as
California, Michigan, Nevada, New York, and Texas.
This response was welcomed by local Louisiana authorities as their
staff were either becoming fatigued, stretched too thin, or even
quitting from the job.
Two weeks after the storm, more than half of the states were
involved in providing shelter for evacuees. By four weeks after the
storm, evacuees had been registered in all 50 states and in
18,700 zip codes—half of the nation's residential postal
zones. Most evacuees had stayed within 250 miles
(400 km), but 240,000 households went to Houston and
other cities over away and another 60,000 households went over
750 miles (1,200 km) away.
Criticism of government response
The criticisms of the government's response to Hurricane Katrina
primarily consisted of criticism of mismanagement
and lack of
in the relief efforts in
response to the storm and its aftermath. More specifically, the
criticism focused on the delayed response to the flooding of New
Orleans, and the subsequent state of chaos in the Crescent City.
The neologism Katrinagate
coined to refer to this controversy, and was a runner-up for "2005
word of the year."
Within days of Katrina's August 29, 2005 landfall, public debate
arose about the local, state and federal governments' role in the
and response to the hurricane. Criticism
was initially prompted by televised images of visibly shaken and
frustrated political leaders, and of residents who remained
stranded by flood waters without water
Deaths from thirst
, and violence
, days after the storm had passed, fueled
the criticism, as did the dilemma of the evacuees at facilities
such as the Louisiana Superdome (designed to handle 800, yet 30,000
arrived)and the New Orleans Civic Center (not designed as an
evacuation center, yet 25,000 arrived). Some alleged that race
, and other factors could have contributed
to delays in government response. The percentage of black victims
among storm-related deaths (49%) was below their proportion in the
area's population (approx. 60%).
In accordance with federal law, President George W. Bush directed
the Secretary of the
Department of Homeland Security
, Michael Chertoff, to
coordinate the Federal response. Chertoff designated Michael D.
Brown, head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as the
Principal Federal Official to lead the deployment and coordination
of all federal response resources and forces in the Gulf Coast
region. However, the President and Secretary Chertoff initially
came under harsh criticism for what some perceived as a lack of
planning and coordination, even though Governor Blanco resisted
their efforts. Eight days later, Brown was recalled to Washington
and Coast Guard Vice Admiral Thad W.
replaced him as chief of
hurricane relief operations. Three days after the recall, Michael
D. Brown resigned as director of FEMA in spite of having received
recent praise from President Bush.
During a concert to benefit the victims of the hurricane, rapper
veered off script and harshly
criticized the government's response to the crisis, stating that
"George Bush doesn't care about black
." Although the camera quickly cut away, and the scene
was deleted from delayed broadcasts, West's comments still reached
the East Coast broadcasts, and were replayed and discussed
Criticism from politicians, activists, pundits and journalists of
all stripes was directed at the local and state and governments
headed by Mayor Ray Nagin of New Orleans and Louisiana Governor
Kathleen Blanco. Nagin and Blanco were criticized for failing to
implement New Orleans' evacuation plan and for ordering residents
to a shelter of last resort without any provisions for food, water,
security, or sanitary conditions. Perhaps the most important
criticism of Nagin was that he delayed his emergency evacuation
order until 19 hours before landfall, which led to hundreds of
deaths of people who (by that time) could not find any way out of
The destruction wrought by Hurricane Katrina raised other, more
general public policy issues about emergency management
, environmental policy
, and unemployment
. The discussion of both the
immediate response and of the broader public policy issues may have
enacted at various levels of government
. The storm's
devastation also prompted a Congressional investigation, which
found that FEMA and the Red Cross "did not have a logistics
capacity sophisticated enough to fully support the massive number
of Gulf coast victims." Additionally, it placed responsibility for
the disaster on all three levels of government.
An ABC News Poll
conducted on September
2, 2005, showed more blame was being directed at state and local
governments (75%) than at the Federal government (67%), with 44%
blaming Bush's leadership directly. A later CNN
showed that respondents disagreed
widely on who was to blame for the problems in the city following
the hurricane — 13% said Bush, 18% said federal agencies, 25%
blamed state or local officials and 38% said no one was to
Over seventy countries pledged monetary donations or other
assistance. Notably, Cuba and Venezuela (both hostile to US government themselves) were
the first countries to offer assistance, pledging over
$1 million, several mobile hospitals, water treatment plants,
canned food, bottled water, heating oil, 1,100 doctors and 26.4
metric tons of medicine, though this aid was rejected by the U.S.
government. Kuwait made the largest single pledge, $500 million;
other large donations were made by Qatar and
Arab Emirates (each $100 million), South Korea ($30 million), Australia ($10 million), India, China (both $5 million), New Zealand ($2 million), Pakistan ($1.5 million), and Bangladesh ($1 million).
India sent tarps, blankets and hygiene kits. An Indian Air Force
IL-76 aircraft delivered
25 tonnes of relief supplies for the Hurricane Katrina victims at
the Little Rock Air Force Base, Arkansas on September 13,
Israel sent an IDF
delegation to New Orleans to transport aid equipment including
80 tons of food, disposable diapers, beds, blankets,
generators and additional equipment which were donated from
different governmental institutions, civilian institutions and the
The Bush Administration announced in mid-September that
it did not need Israeli divers and physicians to come to the United
States for search and rescue missions, but a small team landed in
New Orleans on September 10 to give assistance to operations
already under way. The team administered first aid to survivors,
rescued abandoned pets and discovered hurricane victims.
Lanka, which was still recovering from the Indian Ocean
Tsunami, also offered to help. Countries including
and Germany sent supplies, relief personnel, troops, ships and
water pumps to aid in the disaster recovery. Belgium sent in a team of relief personnel.
Britain's donation of 350,000 emergency meals did not reach
victims because of laws regarding mad cow disease.
Russia's initial offer of two
jets was declined by the U.S.
State Department but accepted
later. The French offer was also declined
and requested later.
Despite receiving aid from around the world, there was also a heavy
dose of criticism from around the world, including accusations of
racism that were revealed at the international level across global
press. Quotations from the UK Mirror such as "Many things about the
United States are wonderful, but it has a vile underbelly which is
usually kept well out of sight. Now in New Orleans it has been
exposed to the world." were common.
Non-governmental organization response
The American Red Cross
, Southern Baptist Convention
, Habitat for
, Catholic Charities
Service International, "A River of Hope" and many other charitable
organizations provided help to the victims of the storm. They were
not allowed into New Orleans proper by the National Guard for
several days after the storm because of safety concerns. These
organizations raised US$4.25 billion in donations by the
public, with the Red Cross receiving over half of the
Volunteers from amateur radio
emergency service wing, the Amateur Radio Emergency
, provided communications in areas where the
communications infrastructure had been damaged or totally
destroyed, relaying everything from 911 traffic to messages home.
In Hancock County, Mississippi, ham radio operators provided the
only communications into or out of the area, and even served as 911
Many corporations also contributed to relief efforts. On September
13, 2005, it was reported that corporate donations to the relief
effort were $409 million, and were expected to exceed
During and after the Hurricanes Katrina, Wilma and Rita, the
American Red Cross had opened 1,470 different shelters across and
registered 3.8 million overnight stays. None were allowed in
New Orleans however. A total of 244,000 Red Cross workers (95% of
which were non-paid volunteers) were utilized throughout these
three hurricanes. In addition, 346,980 comfort kits (such as
toothpaste, soap, washcloths and toys for children) and 205,360
cleanup kits (containing brooms, mops and bleach) were distributed.
For mass care, the organization served 68 million snacks and
meals to victims of the disasters and to rescue workers. The Red
Cross also had its Disaster Health services meet 596,810 contacts,
and Disaster Mental Health services met 826,590 contacts. Red Cross
emergency financial assistance was provided to 1.4 million
families. Hurricane Katrina was the first natural disaster in the
United States in which the American Red Cross utilized its "Safe
and Well" family location website.
In the year following Katrina's strike on the Gulf Coast, The
Salvation Army allocated donations of more than $365 million
to serve more than 1.7 million people in nearly every state.
The organization's immediate response to Hurricane Katrina included
more than 5.7 million hot meals served in and around New
Orleans, 8.3 million sandwiches, snacks & drinks. Its
SATERN network of amateur radio operators picked up where modern
communications left off to help locate more than
25,000 survivors. Salvation Army pastoral care counselors were
on hand to comfort the emotional and spiritual needs of 277,000
individuals. As part of the overall effort, Salvation Army
officers, employees and volunteers contributed more than
900,000 hours of service.
Domino's Pizza gave away free pizza to anyone with a badge in
downtown New Orleans for months after Katrina .
Analysis of New Orleans levee failures
A June 2007 report released by the American Society of Civil
states that the failures of the locally built and
federally funded levees in New Orleans were found to be primarily
the result of system design flaws. The US Army Corps of Engineers
federal mandate is responsible for the conception, design and
construction of the region's flood-control system failed to pay
sufficient attention to public safety. The Levee Boards had
hamstrung the Army Corps.
to new modeling and field observations by a team from Louisiana
State University, the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO), a
200-meter-wide (660-foot-wide) canal designed to provide a shortcut
from New Orleans to the Gulf of Mexico, helped provide a funnel for
the storm surge, making it 20% higher and 100%-200% faster as it
crashed into the city.
St. Bernard Parish, one of the more
devastated areas, lies just south of the MRGO. The Army Corps of Engineers
this causality and maintains Katrina would have overwhelmed the
levees with or without the contributing effect of the MRGO. The
water flowing west from the storm surge was perpendicular to MRGO,
and thus the canal had a negligible effect.
On April 5, 2006, months after independent investigators had
demonstrated that levee failures were not caused by natural forces
beyond intended design strength, Lieutenant General Carl Strock
testified before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Energy
and Water that "We have now concluded we had problems with the
design of the structure." He also testified that the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers did not know of this mechanism of failure prior
to August 29, 2005. The claim of ignorance is refuted, however, by
the National Science Foundation investigators hired by the Army
Corps of Engineers, who point to a 1986 study by the Corps itself
that such separations were possible in the I-wall design.
Various conspiracy theories
floating around that the levees were in fact deliberately
demolished. A number of New Orleans residents described
hearing "explosions" coming from the Industrial Canal levee in the
Ward before the floodwaters rushed in.
Guard worker claims he was sworn to secrecy upon finding explosives
residue at the site of the break. The fracture of the wall due to a
barge hitting it would also be an explanation of the loud noise
Many of the levees have been reconstructed since the time of
Katrina. In reconstructing them, precautions were taken to bring
the levees up to modern building code standards and to ensure their
safety. For example, in every situation possible, the Corps of
Engineers replaced I-walls with T-walls. T-walls have a horizontal
concrete base that protects against soil erosion underneath the
However, there are funding battles over the remaining levee
improvements. In February 2008, the Bush administration requested
that the state of Louisiana pay about $1.5 billion of an
estimated $7.2 billion for Army Corps of Engineers levee work,
a proposal which angered many Louisiana leaders.
On May 2, 2008, Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal used a speech to The
National Press Club to request that President Bush free up money to
complete work on Louisiana's levees. Bush promised to include the
levee funding in his 2009 budget, but rejected the idea of
including the funding in a war bill, which would pass sooner.
Many representatives of the news media
reporting on the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina became directly
involved in the unfolding events, instead of simply reporting.
Because of the loss of most means of communication, such as
land-based and cellular telephone systems, field reporters in many
cases became conduits for information between victims and
The authorities, who monitored local and network news broadcasts,
as well as internet sites, would then attempt to coordinate rescue
efforts based on the reports. One illustration was when Geraldo Rivera of Fox
News tearfully pleaded for authorities to either send help or
evacuate the thousands of evacuees stranded at the Ernest
The storm also brought a dramatic rise in the role of Internet sites
- especially blogging
and community journalism. One example was
the effort of NOLA.com
, the web affiliate of New Orleans'
was awarded the Breaking News Pulitzer
, and shared the Public Service Pulitzer with the
Biloxi-based Sun Herald
newspaper's coverage was carried for days only on NOLA's blogs, as
the newspaper lost its presses and evacuated its building as water
rose around it on August 30. The site became an international focal
point for news by local media, and also became a vital link for
rescue operations and later for reuniting scattered residents, as
it accepted and posted thousands of individual pleas for rescue on
its blogs and forums. NOLA was monitored constantly by an array of
rescue teams — from individuals to the Coast Guard —
which used information in rescue efforts. Much of this information
was relayed from trapped victims via the SMS functions of their
cell phones, to friends and relatives outside the area, who then
relayed the information back to NOLA.com. The aggregation of
community journalism, user photos and the use of the internet site
as a collaborative response to the storm attracted international
attention, and was called a watershed moment in journalism. In the
wake of these online-only efforts, the Pulitzer Committee for the
first time opened all its categories to online entries.
The role of AM radio was of importance to the hundreds of thousands
of persons with no other ties to news. AM
provided emergency information regarding access to
assistance for hurricane victims. Immediately after Hurricane Katrina,
radio station WWL-AM (New Orleans) was one of the few area radio
stations in the area remaining on the air.
The 870 kHz
frequency has a clear channel
high power designation and the on-going nighttime broadcasts
continued to be available up to away. Announcers continued to
broadcast from improvised studio facilities after the storm damaged
their transmitter tower.
During the period of several weeks when most area radio stations
were off the air, WWL-AM's emergency coverage was simulcast on the
frequencies of other area radio stations. This emergency service
was named "The
United Radio Broadcasters of New Orleans
." To reach emergency
radio operators in storm-ravaged areas, many of whom made their
volunteer services available to the Red Cross and government
entities, WWL-AM was simulcast on shortwave outlet WHRI, owned by
World Harvest Radio International.
The cellular phone
antenna network was severely
damaged and completely inoperable for several months.
As the U.S. military and rescue services regained control over the
city, there were restrictions on the activity of the media. On
September 9, the military leader of the relief effort announced
that reporters would have "zero access" to efforts to recover
bodies in New Orleans. Immediately following this announcement, CNN
filed a lawsuit
and obtained a temporary
against the ban.
The next day the government backed down and reversed the ban.
Hurricane Katrina has also been the centerpiece of several
documentary films, including Spike Lee
film, When the Levees
, and Darren
's film, Hellp
. An episode of the Fox TV
first broadcast on
May 16, 2006, featured a teenage victim of Hurricane Katrina at the
center of the main medical
Because of the large loss of life and property along the Gulf Coast
, the name Katrina was officially
retired on April 6, 2006 by the World Meteorological
at the request of the U.S. government. It was
replaced by Katia on List III of the Atlantic
hurricane naming lists
, which will next be used in the 2011
Atlantic hurricane season.
Reconstruction of each section of the southern portion of Louisiana
has been addressed in the Army Corps LACPR (Louisiana Coastal
Protection and Restoration) Final Technical Report which identifies
areas to not be rebuilt and areas buildings need to be
The Technical Report includes:
- locations of possible new levees to be built
- suggested existing levee modifications
- "Inundation Zones", "Water depths less than 14 feet,
Raise-In-Place of Structures", "Water depths greater than 14 feet,
Buyout of Structures", "Velocity Zones" and "Buyout of Structures"
areas for five different scenarios.
The Corps of Engineers will submit the report to Congress for
consideration, planning, and response in mid 2009.
- Dyson, Michael Eric (2006).
Come Hell or High Water: Hurricane Katrina and the Color of
Disaster. New York: Perseus Books Group. ISBN 0465017614.
- Spielman, David G. (2007).
Katrinaville Chronicles:Images and Observations from a New
Orleans Photographer. Baton Rouge: LSU Press. ISBN
- Center for Public
Integrity (2007). City Adrift: New Orleans Before and After
Katrina. Baton Rouge: LSU Press. ISBN 978-0-8071-3284-5
- Eggers, Dave (2009). Zeitoun. San Francisco: McSweeney's
Books. ISBN 978-1-934781-63-0
- Brennan, Virginia (2009).
Natural Disasters and Public Health: Hurricanes Katrina, Rita,
and Wilma. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 10:
0-8018-9199-X. ISBN 13: 978-0-8018-9199-1
- Leben, Robert; Born, George; Scott, Jim. " CU-Boulder Researchers Chart Katrina's Growth In Gulf Of
Mexico." University of Colorado at
Boulder. September 15, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05, and
- Spann, James. "Models Shifting West," "NHC Shifting Track To MS
Coast" and "Late Katrina Thoughts" from the ABC33/40 Weather
Blog August 26, 2005. Retrieved July 23, 2006.
- Staff Writer. " Coast Guard Response to Hurricane Katrina ."
United States Coast Guard.
Accessed May 30, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Bush, George W. " Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for
Louisiana." White House. August 27, 2005. Retrieved on
- "NWS bulletin". National Weather Service/New
Orleans, Louisiana. August 28, 2005. Retrieved on
- Bush, George W. " Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for
Mississippi." White House. August 28, 2005. Retrieved
- Bush, George W. " Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for
Alabama." White House. August 28, 2005. Retrieved on
- " ." Governor Blanco asks President to
Declare an Emergency for the State of Louisiana due to Hurricane
Katrina. August 27, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
- Rulon, Malia; Scott, Katerine Hutt. " Evacuation plan failed to consider those without
transportation ." Burlington Free Press. March 11,
2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Brown, Aaron. " Hurricane Katrina Pummels Three States (Transcript
of CNN Newsnight with Aaron Brown)." CNN. August 29, 2005. Retrieved on
- " Service Alert: Hurricane Katrina Update - City of
New Orleans, Crescent, Sunset Limited - Revised Service
Information." Amtrak. September 1, 2005. Retrieved on
- " Hurricane Katrina Probabilities Report Number
15," and " Hurricane Katrina Probabilities Report Number
21." National Hurricane Center. August 26, 2005.
Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Drye, Willie. " Hurricane Katrina Pulls Its Punches in New
Orleans." National Geographic. August 29,
2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Staff Writer. " Katrina Heads for New Orleans." Fox News/Associated
Press. August 29, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Staff Writer." 26,000 shelter at Superdome."
Times-Picayune. August 28, 2005. Retrieved on
- Staff writer. " Hurricane Katrina Situation Report No. 3."
Florida State Emergency Response Team. August 26, 2005.
- Michelle Krupa " Presumed Missing" Times-Picayune,
March 5, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- " The Aftermath of Katrina: Transcript of CNN Live
Saturday." CNN. September 3, 2005. Retrieved on
- Devenas, Andy " Marathon Tornado Survey Report." NWS Key
West. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Staff Writer. " Hurricane Katrina batters western Cuba."
- Staff Writer. " Hurricane Katrina Situation Report#11."
Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE)
United States Department of
Energy. August 30, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
FEMA: Louisiana Katrina Surge Inundaton Map, January 2006
- Cannizaro, Steve. " List of
Missing Residents Down to 47, and More... " St. Bernard
Parish Government (press release). December 17, 2005.
Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
Current Housing Unit Damage Estimates, U.S. Department of Housing
and Urban Development, February 12 2006 Accessed September 23,
- Murphy, Verity. " Fixing New Orleans' thin grey line." BBC News. October 4, 2005.
Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Gordon, Meghan. " Causeway closed but hardly damaged." Times
Picayune. August 31, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Transcript from, The NewsHour with Jim
Lehrer. " Hurricane Damages Gulf Coast."
PBS. August 29, 2005.
Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Mowbray, Rebecca. " Evacuations to hotels come with own set of
hazards." Times-Picayune. August 30, 2005. Retrieved
- Staff Writer. " Hurricane
Katrina from the Airport's Point of View ." Louis
Armstrong New Orleans International Airport. accessed May
28, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Warner, Coleman; Travis, Robert. " Where They Died." Times-Picayune.
October 23, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- O'Neill, Ann. " Identifying victims a grueling task."
CNN. September 9, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Thevenot, Brian; Russell, Gordon. " Reports of anarchy at Superdome overstated."
Seattle Times. September 26, 2005. Retrieved on
- Staff Writer. " Mississippi Coast Areas Wiped Out."
September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Associated Press, "Katrina at a Glance" (August 31, 2005), page
4A, Mobile Register, web: MobileRegister-083105-PDF.
- Westbrook, Robby; WFO Peachtree City Staff. " Katrina Spawns Tornadoes in Georgia - August 29,
2005." National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration. December 1, 2005.
Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Staff Writer. " Tropical Summary Message." The Hydrometeorological
Prediction Center. August 31, 2005. Retrieved on
- Staff Writer. " Gov. Fletcher Declares Three Kentucky Counties Disaster
Areas ." WKYT.
Accessed on April 18, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Blanton, Carla; Goins, Michael; Whitaker, Jodi. " Governor Fletcher declares state of emergency in
Kentucky ." Commonwealth of Kentucky (Press Release).
August 30, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Staff Writer. " Hopkinsville Swamped By Floodwaters; 10-Year-Old
Drowns." WAVE . September 6, 2005. Retrieved on
- " Hurricane Katrina: Event Record Details."
Satellite and Information Service; National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration. Accessed May 30, 2006. Retrieved
- Perreault, Bob. " Brockville May Have Set Rain Record ."
September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Staff Writer. " Remnants of Hurricane Katrina washes out roads in Quebec's
north shore ." Canadian Press. September 1, 2005.
Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- St. Onge, Jeff; Epstein, Victor. " Ex-chief says FEMA readiness even worse."
Boston.com. April 1, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Fagot, Caryl; Winbush, Debra. " Hurricane Katrina/Hurricane Rita Evacuation and Production
Shut-in Statistics Report as of Wednesday, February 22, 2006."
Minerals Management Service. February 22, 2006. Retrieved
- Burton, Mark L.; Hicks, Michael J. " Hurricane Katrina: Preliminary Estimates of
Commercial and Public Sector Damages." Marshall
University: Center for Business and Economic Research.
September, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Anthony E. Ladd, John Marszalek, and Duane A. Gill. The Other Dispora: New Orleans Student Evacuation
Impacts and Responses Surrounding Hurricane Katrina. Retrieved
- Christie, Les. " Growth states: Arizona overtakes Nevada: Texas adds
most people overall; Louisiana population declines nearly 5%."
CNN. December 22, 2006. Retrieved on December 22,
- Staff Writer. " More Bad News Blows In From Katrina." CBS
News. May 28, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- "USGS Reports Latest Land Change Estimates for
Louisiana Coast", USGS National Wetlands Research Center, 3 Oct
2006, accessed 7 May 2008
- Tidwell, Mike. The Ravaging Tide: Strange Weather, Future
Katrinas, and the Coming Death of America's Coastal Cities,
Free Press, 2006. ISBN 0-7432-9470-X
- KLRT FOX 16, "
Photos : Story in Pictures-- Hurricane Katrina :
Aug 31: Looting in Mississippi." FOX16
Nowcaster Community (Little Rock, Arkansas). August
31, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-09-11.
- Tapper, Jake. " Amid Katrina Chaos, Congressman Used National Guard
to Visit Home." ABC News. September 13, 2005. Retrieved on
- Staff Writer. " Police kill at least 5 in New Orleans."
MSNBC. September 4,
2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Staff Writer. " At the Train Station, New Orleans' Newest Jail is Open For
Business." KOMO-TV. September 6, 2005. Retrieved on
- Schubert, Elizabeth. " Some Katrina Evacuees at Camp Dawson Have Criminal
Records." Associated Press. September 18, 2005.
Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- " Louisiana Gangs That Fled Katrina Heighten Houston
Murder Rate." Bloomberg.com. March 3, 2006.
Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
- " Special Defense Department Briefing with Commander of
Joint Task Force Katrina". United States Department of
Defense, News Transcript. September 1, 2005. Retrieved on
- Phillips, Kyra. " Bush Discusses Displaced Students; Department of Defense
Briefs Press on Katrina Response (CNN Live Transcript)."
CNN. September 6, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- California Political Desk. " Pelosi: Davis Report on Katrina Leaves Unfinished
Business." California Chronicle. February 15, 2006.
Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Baker, Peter; Goldstein, Amy. " Congress Approves $51.8 Billion For Victims."
Washington Post. September 9, 2005.
Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Bush, George W. " President Asks Bush and Clinton to Assist in
Hurricane Relief." White House, Press Release.
September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Times-Picayune, September 26, 2005, page A-12.
Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Foster, Mary. " Judge: FEMA Off Hook For Hotel Costs."
February 13, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Clark, Heather. " Linguists Vote 'Truthiness' Word of 2005." ABC
News. January 6, 2006. Retrieved on July 18, 2006.
- " New Orleans population statistics."
Associated Press. August 18, 2006. Retrieved on
- Meserve, Jeanne; Barrett, Ted. " Admiral takes over Katrina relief."
CNN. September 9, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Langer, Gary. " Poll: Bush Not Taking Brunt of Katrina
Criticism." ABC News. September 12, 2005. Retrieved on
July 15, 2006.
- Staff Writer. " Poll: Most Americans believe New Orleans will never
recover." CNN. September 8, 2005. Retrieved on July
- " Venezuela and Cuba offer US aid ."
September 07, 2005. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
- " Venezuela and Cuba offer aid to Katrina victims
." The Free Press, Volume 1, Issue 4.
Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
- " From abroad, offers of aid for Katrina victims."
People's Weekly World, Sept 10, 2005.
Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
- " France, Cuba, Venezuela among those offering
aid." USA Today,
Sept 2, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
- Staff Writer. " U.S. Grateful for Pakistan's Assistance for Hurricane
Katrina Victims ."Embassy of the United States. September
8, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Staff Writer. " Asian nations offer U.S. assistance." BBC
News. September 5, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs. " Israel Aids Hurricane Katrina Victims."
MFA. September 5, 2005.
Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
- Jewish Virtual Library. " Israel's Aid to Hurricane Katrina Victims."
Jewish Virtual Library.
- Staff Writer. " U.S.
rejects British Katrina beef." BBC News. October 15,
- Staff Writer. " U.S. receives aid offers from around the world."
CNN. September 4, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- " KATRINA AND RACISM: The World View."
Tolerance.org. September 19, 2006. Retrieved on
- Staff Writer. " ARRL President Submits Congressional Testimony on Hams'
Katrina Response" The American Radio Relay League.
September 15, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Staff Writer. " Amateur Radio Earning Praise, Respect in Hurricane Katrina
Relief." The American Radio Relay League. September
16, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- " Corporate Katrina gifts could top $1B."
CNN. September 13, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Warrick, Joby; Grunwald, Michael. " Investigators Link Levee Failures to Design
Flaws." Washington Post. October 24, 2005. Retrieved
- Staff Writers " Problems with the design of levees ."
Unregistered News. September 29,
2005. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
- " Geraldo Rivera & Shepard Smith Unleashed." —
Video. 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Staff Writer. " U.S. won't ban media from New Orleans searches."
CNN. September 11, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
- Britt, M. "Las Vegas Teen Helps Hurricane Victims In New
Orleans", Las Vegas Daily Optic, December 19, 2005,