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 ( ,   Haidarābād) is the second largest city in the Sindhmarker province of Pakistanmarker. It is the sixth largest city in the country. The city was founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro upon the ruins of a Mauryan fishing village along the bank of the Indusmarker known as Neroon Kot (Sindhi: نيرُون ڪوٽ). Formerly the capital of Sindh, it serves as the headquarters of the district of Hyderabadmarker. Before the creation of Pakistan, it was known as the Paris of India, for its roads used to be washed with river water.

The political boundaries stage the city as a district and the region has seen major political turmoil. From the battles fought against the British occupation to the civilian unrest in the 1980s, the city has lost its glory of past and much of its cultural and architectural heritage lies in tattered ruins.

Hyderabad is a hot and humid city in the south of the nation and has been a staging point for literary campaigns particularly oriented towards the Sindhi language and a birthplace of a few influential poets and Sufi dervishes. Rich with culture and tradition, the city is the largest bangle producer in the world and serves as a transit between the rural and the urban Sindh.

Stationed close to important architectural digs like the pre-Harappan Amri at 110 km, the region holds extreme importance to palaeontologists world over. The city is also known for its medical and educational institutions. It is also home to one of the oldest universities in the region, the University of Sindh.


Hyderabad is a city built on three hillocks cascading over each other. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty founded the city in 1768 over the ruins of Neroon Kot (meaning the place of Neroon), a small fishing village on the banks of River Indusmarker named after its ruler Neroon. A formal concept of the city was laid out by his son, Sarfraz Khan in 1782. When the foundations were laid, the city obtained the nickname Heart of the Mehranmarker as the ruler Mian Ghulam Shah himself was said to have fallen in love with the city. In 1768 he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The fort was built using fire-baked bricks giving it the name Pacco Qillo (Sindhi: پڪو قلعو) meaning the strong fort.

After the death of the great Kalhoro, started the Talpur Rule. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the Land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers were responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their rule. The four were called char yar, Sindhi for the four friends.

The Talpur rule lasted almost over 50 years and in 1843, Talpurs faced a greater threat. The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the Battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. The battle ended on 24 March 1843 when the Talpur emirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British. The British for sometime made the city part of the Bombay Presidency of British India.

At the time of partition in 1947, Hyderabad had a large community of Sindhi Hindus who were involved in trade and commerce. They contributed significantly to the economy of Sindh, in particular selling locally made goods overseas. Unlike Punjab and Bengal which were split, all of Sindh was allotted to Pakistan. When the partition occurred, Sindhi Hindus expected to remain in Sindh. However were forced to flee due to communal violence, leaving behind everything. Sindhi Hindus had expected to return to their motherland, once the violence settled but it was not possible. Popati Hiranandani,born 1924, a writer native to Hyderabad tells of this ordeal in her autobiography and describes that the police were merely onlookers when the violence erupted and failed to protect the Hindu community.

The massive migration raised population levels of the city to extremes and the Government proposed the creation of two new suburban towns, Latifabadmarker and Qasimabadmarker. The 1980s saw a black period in the history of Hyderabad as riots erupted in the city between the Sindhis and the Muhajirs. Chaos led to bloodshed and as a result Sindhis retreated to settlements in Qasimabad and the Muhajirs settled down in Latifabad. This much of a division was not felt even when Hindus lived in the city before the Partition. The city being forever scarred thenceforth is ethnically divided to date.

Geography and climate

Located at 25.367°N latitude and 68.367°E longitude with an elevation of 13 m (43 ft) AMSL, Hyderabad is located on the east bank of the Indus River and is roughly 150 km away from Karachimarker, the capital of the province. Hyderabad is the second largest city in Sindh, eighth largest in Pakistan and 209th largest city of the world with respect to population. Its population estimates to 1,348,288 (as of 2000). Two of Pakistan's largest highways, the Indus Highway and the National Highway join at Hyderabad. Several towns surrounding the city include Kotrimarker at 6.7 km, Jamshoromarker at 8.1 km, Hattri at 5 km and Husri at 7.5 km.

Hyderabad has an extreme climate. The days are hot and dry usually going up to extreme highs of 40°C, whilst the nights are cool and breezy. Winds that blow usually bring along clouds of dust, and people prefer staying indoors in the daytime, while the breeze that flows at night is pleasant and clean.

In recent years Hyderabad has seen spills of heavy downpour. In 2003, Hyderabad received 105 millimetres of rain in 12 hours contributing towards a sudden climate change welcomed only as Global Warming. Years 2006 and 2007 saw close contenders to this record rain with death toll estimated in hundreds all together. Although on July 18, 2009 a total of 110mm rain lashed the city, setting a new record.


Hyderabad is an important commercial centre where industries include textiles, sugar, cement, manufacturing of glass, soap, ice, paper, pottery, plastics, tanneries, hosiery mills and film. There are hide tanneries and sawmills. Handicraft industries, including silver and gold work, lacquer ware, ornamented silks, and embroidered leather saddles, are also well established. Hyderabad produces almost all of the ornamental glass bangles in Pakistan. Hyderabad is a major commercial centre for the agricultural produce of the surrounding area, including millet, rice, wheat, cotton, and fruit.


The city of Hyderabad is where the district headquarters are located and the district government is seated. The current nazim for the Hyderabad district is Kanwar Naveed Jamil. Since his election as the official mayor, he had been successful in initiating major development projects throughout the city. The primary concerns that he had targeted as a result of these development efforts in 2007 were that of traffic congestion, supply of fresh drinking water, sewerage and garbage management, medical aid and schools for the poor. The naib nazim is Zafar Ali Rajput.

Electronic governance

The government of the city does not yet support fully functional e-governance and has no website but the District Government of Hyderabad liberally uses the television as a mode of communication with the people of the city instructing them on public issues and awareness about projects under way. As of 2008, the district Hyderabad enabled its e-governance platform to support people via the Internet and other new media platforms.

Administrative divisions

Before the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the District Hyderabad included in the present-day District of Badin, Matairi, Tando Allahyar and Tando Mohammad Khan. Then after about 30 years the District Hyderabad was again subdivided into four talukhas of its own. These four districts are the smallest districts of the Sindhmarker province.

  1. Hyderabad City Taluka
  2. Hyderabad Taluka
  3. Latifabadmarker
  4. Qasimabad

Current development projects

In light of the above development criteria, the Hyderabad Government has constructed flyover in Latifabadmarker Unit # 7 to relieve the traffic congestion on the GCD road. Due to the success of this project, five more flyover projects has been started.

Two filter plants to filter fresh water have been installed costing about Rs. 80,000,000. Their inclusion in the water system would ensure continuous supply of clean drinking water. The filter plants at the time of writing are 90% complete and would be functional by mid-2008.


[Image:Sinddhii.jpg|right|thumb|A Sindhi woman on the banks of the River Indusmarker on the outskirts of Hyderabad]]

Hyderabad is noteworthy in Sindh and Pakistan generally for its relative tolerance towards religious and ethnic affairs. During the partition 1947 a large number of Muslim refugees migrated to Hyderabad. Nowadays, native Sindhis and non-Sindhi speaking Sindhis live in harmony after a brief history of conflict. A large influx of Pakhtuns and Punjabis were attracted to Hyderabad after the Indus treaty settlement. Most Punjabis mixed with the local population however most Pakhtuns are distinct and separately living near the railway station and its vicinity. The city therefore has ben regarded to have a sizeable diaspora.

Hindus account for the largest minority forming 10% of the total population of the city. While Christians account for just 2% of the total population, Hyderabad is the seat of a Diocese of the Church of Pakistan and has five churches and a cathedral.

Despite its strategic location and thrifty people the city is under the shadow of Karachi and yet to make its mark economically. One reason for this is the artificial factional and sectarian isolation imposed after the riots of late 1980s and early 1990s which cleft the urban population.

Noteworthy attractions

The Pacco Qillo currently stands heavily encroached with shops and residential areas making it unfit for repair.
Walls give way and fall rendering the nearby places dangerous for dwelling or commerce.

  • Amri – an archaeological site dating back to 3600 BC, 110 km from the city, is the remains of a pre-Harrapan fortified town.
  • Pacco Qilo (Hyderabad Fort) and the Kachha Qila (Weak Fort) – A fort built by the Talpur dynasty to keep out invaders during the 17th century.
  • The Tombs of Talpur Mirs (Cubbas) in Hirabad are of the former rulers of Sindh who were defeated by the British in the famous battle of Miani.
  • Agham Kot – an archaeological site containing the reminence and tombs of an ancient empire.
  • Rani Bagh – formerly a zoo named for Queen Victoria of Englandmarker (The zoo was founded by the British colonial local administration, Rani means "Queen" in urdu), has been renovated and has become a very beautiful park with exotic animals such as lions, zebras, different species of birds as well as horses.
  • Hussainabad Park – A central cark with a man-made lake, home to various bird life.
  • Mustafa Park – A newly inaugrated park at Noorani Basti with life scale animal models.
  • Ranikot Fort – One of the largest forts in the world according to circumference. Located 90km from the city.
  • Sindh Museum – The museum features the history and heritage of the Sindhmarker and Indus Valley Civilization. Items from various ruling periods of Sindh, including Sama, Soomra, Kalhora and Talpur periods can be found at the museum.
  • Institute of Sindhology Museum – It has dioramas which display many aspects of Sindhi history, heritage, music and culture. Some very interesting dioramas depict the lifestyles of the desert tribes of Thar and Kohistan. Based at the University of Sindh.
  • Resham Ghiti, Chhotki Ghiti and Shahi Bazaar – Are some of Hyderabad's oldest markets to find souvenirs, arts and crafts, embroidery and jewellery of Sindhi heritage.
  • The River Indusmarker – The largest river that flows within Pakistan flows alongside the city of Hyderabad. It is known to have some of the finest fishing spots in Pakistan.
  • Navalrai Market Clock Tower – Built in 1914. A tall strcuture that is associated with Hyderabad's skyline.
  • The Palace of Prince Mir Hassan Ali Khan Talpur the son of the last ruler of Hyderabad His Highness Mir Naseer Khan Talpur. This Palace is located in Tando of Talpur Mirs in Latifabadmarker.
  • New Hyderabad City – a well known private development area in the outskirts of Hyderabad, best known for its famous park, Lake View Park, which features a man made lake and beautiful gardens. The park has become a recreational spot for the local families, specially on national holidays.


Hyderabad has a cricket stadium called the Niaz Stadiummarker, with a seating capacity of 25,000 known for the first ever hat-trick taken by a bowler in a one-day international (ODI) match in 1982. Many cricket test matches were played at Niaz Stadium. Nowadays many visiting test playing countries refuse to play in Hyderabad because of lack of 5 star hotel. Hyderabad also has a hockey stadium. There is another stadium in Latifabad called Board Stadium mostly catering to school sports under the supervision of BISE (Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education) Hyderabad.


The pre independence days were horrible educationwise for Muslims of Hyderabad. As there was only one school where Muslim students could study was Noor Mohammad High School. Which was founded by famous Sindhi educationist Noor Mohammad. All other schools admitted only Hindu students.

The city being a gateway between the rural Sindh and the Greater Sindh, attracts students from the lesser developed regions of Sindh. Hyderabad has a huge number of schools, colleges and Universities.

A nerve center of Sindh nationalist and literary movements, the city now have better education facilities and new universities, colleges and school established. At one time a hub of economic, educational and cultural activities, a breeding ground of academicians, philanthropists, writers, lawyers, politicians, journalists, actors and actresses, Hyderabad also had its industrialists, trade unionists, political activists, bureaucrats, bankers and diplomats who made a significant contribution to sub-continental society. But this gracious city now seems to be slowly dying, although it still produces over a couple of dozen major and minor newspapers in both Sindhi and Urdu.

Universities and colleges

The prestigious University of Sindh is located in Hyderabad

The University of Sindh [425131] is the dominant player in educational reforms since its inception in 1947. The University of Sindh,the second oldest university of the country, was constituted under the University of Sindh Act. No. XVII of 1947 passed by the Legislative Assembly of Sindh. It was founded in Karachi and relocated to Hyderabad in 1951, only because the city was re-enacted as the capital of the province of Sindh. It has 32 colleges affiliated with it. Other universities like the Mehran University of Engineering and Technology and Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences serve the interests of a wide range of other specialized subjects. Whilst people prefer to go to this technological and medical universities in the city, universities like the Sindh Agriculture Universitymarker in Tando Jammarker focusing primarily on agriculture and horticulture, are highly preferred as well. Other universities in the private sector include University of East and Isra University.

Most of the colleges are affiliated with the universities above but some enjoy repute built of time like the oldest being the Government Degree College now renamed Government College of Technology with its high- and secondary-school affiliations with the Government High School who celebrate alumni like [[Mirza Kalich Beg] & best Collage in Hyderabad is Muslim Science Collage at Tower Market area.The biggest private institute of Hyderabad since 1999 is IMSA - Institute of Modern Sciences & Arts. There are three campuses of the institute at : Gul Center, Qasimabad and Latifabad [425132] and [425133], it has been serving the educational sector in the field of IT and Business Administration since 1999. This is the only private institute in Hyderabad which organised convocations each year to award degrees, so far four convocations has been organised in which Mr. Mazhar-ul Haq Siddiqui Vice-Chancellor University of Sindh has awarded degrees to successful students of MBA, BBA, BCIT and MCIT.

Museums and libraries

The entrance to the Sindh Museum
Hyderabad is home to a few museums that store the cultural heritage of this land of religious and ethnic diversity. The Institute of Sindhology Museum and the Sindh Museum are a haven for Sindhi enthusiasts in ethnological contexts. Sindh Museum also hosts archæological treasures from Amri. Whilst there are a few libraries in the city, most of them are in a sad state. There is a children's library opposite Lady Duffrin Hospital on Station road, very few people know about its existence. Work is going on Moullana Hasrat Mohani library near pukka kila main gate in the homestead hall building. Allama Daudpota Library near Sindh Museum in Qasimabad stores literary work dating back to the earliest Sindhi text.


Serving as a socio-economic crossroad to the lesser developed cities and towns in Sindh and linking and networking them with the bigger towns and cities in the nation, Hyderabad holds importance as a vital transportation link via every service. It can be reached by every mean of transportation, be it air, land, water or rail.

The city has a modestly good airport. The operation was stopped for some years but the airport has started operating again from late 2008. There are 2 flights every week from Hyderabad. Currently the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines, operates prop aircraft into the city with flights to other cities within Pakistan.

Hyderabad has a decent road network, but most of the roads are being redone by the National Highway Authority. Hyderabad is deemed the most important milestone on the National Highway which passes through the city. The highway divides into Route N5 going southwest and M9 going north while it forks into the KLP (Karachimarker, Lahoremarker, Peshawarmarker, Faislabadmarker) Road and the Hala Road. Over the years, the M9 has had massive construction work to include six lanes across its 136 km span being the most used highway in Pakistan while the N5 has two lanes to cater to its lesser traffic needs. However, the public has stressed to improve the conditions of the roads within Hyderabad.

There are seven large bus terminals within the city. Some of the most busiest are the Badin Bus Stop near SITE, Tando Bago Coach Stop, Jacobabad-Larkana Bus Stop at Pathan Colony, Nawab Shah Bus Stand at Halla Nakka, Sanghar Coach Stop near Civil Hospital, Karachi Bus Stand near Qasim Chowk and Sammi Daewoo Bus Service To Karachi at Auto-Bhan Road and Latifabad U7.

Hyderabad has a rich rail history. From the starting days of the Scinde Railways to the purchase of the private railway company by the North-Western Railway now Pakistan Railways, Hyderabad has been a major junction on the rail-line, where railway lines proceed in at least three directions: northwards (up-country), southwards (down-country) and eastwards. The railway station is called the Hyderabad Junction. It was built under the British rule in 1890.

With the city at the banks of the Indus Rivermarker, the fishermen tend to use riverboats to fish and travel across the waters. Riverboats are not accessible to general public but local fishermen, in attempts of making money for their daily ration, sail people aboard their fishing ferries at Al-manzar, a restaurant at the banks of the Indus.



As tradition goes, Sindh had always been a hub for Sufi poets. With a foothold on strong educational foundations, the city of Hyderabad was made into a refuge for thriving literary advocates. Of the few, Mirza Kalich Beg received education from the Government High School, Hyderabad and carried the banner of Sindhi literature across borders. Modern novelists, writers, columnists and researchers like Musharraf Ali Farooqi, Dr. Syed Mehboob and Ghulam Mustafa Khan also hail from Hyderabad.

Hyderabad has served many Sindhi literary campaigns throughout the history of Pakistan as is evident from the daily newspapers and periodicals that are published in the city. A few worth mention are the dailies Kawish,Ibrat,and Daily Sindh.

Radio and television

With the inauguration of a new broadcasting house at Karachi in 1950, it was possible to lay the foundations for the Hyderabad radio station in 1951. The initial broadcast was made capable using 1 kW medium-wave transmitter. With the first successful transmissions on the FM 100 bandwidth in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad in October 1998, the Government decided on opening transmissions to other cities where Radio Pakistan had found success. This made available the FM 101 bandwidth transmissions to Hyderabad and other cities in Sindh.

A relief from the regular broadcasts in other cities, entertainment content on the Hyderabad radio gave birth to many a star whose names became an attribute to Hyderabad's richer media content. Among them were actor Shafi Mohammad, a young man who had recently finished his postgraduate degree from the University of Sindh. Such fresh and young talent became a trademark to entertainment in Hyderabad.

Whilst radio was gaining popularity, bulky television screens showed the broadcast of Neil Armstrong setting foot on the moon. Pakistan Television had only had half-a-decade broadcast success from 1963 to 1969 that people in the radio entertainment business felt destined to make a mark on the television circuits. Prominent radio personalities from the Hyderabad radio station like Shafi Muhammad Shah and Mohammad Ali left the airwaves to hone their acting skills on the television. Television shows and content enriched with the inclusion of Hyderabadi names however PTV never opened a broadcasting station in Hyderabad.

While the year 2005 saw new FM regular stations set up at Gawadarmarker, Mianwalimarker, Sargodhamarker, Kohatmarker, Bannumarker and Mithimarker, private radio channels began airing in and around Hyderabad. Of late, stations like Sachal FM 105 and some others have gained popularity. But the unavailability of an up-to-date news and current affairs platform renders the services of such stations of not much value to the masses but nonetheless appealing to youngsters.

As the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (abbreviated as PEMRA) gave licenses to private radio channels, so were television channels owned privately given a right to broadcast from the year 2002, and Daily Kawish, a prominent Sindhi newspaper published from Hyderabad opened a one-of-its-kind private Sindhi channel Kawish Television Network. Many followed in its path namely Sindh TV, Dhoom TV and Kashish TV premièring Sindhi content.

Notable people

  • Dr. Muhammad Ismail Nami Homoeopathic doctor, social worker, founder of Khalid Memorial Welfare Society and Sindh Homoeopathic Medical College Hyderabad located near Guru Nagar and Pakka Kila, was President of National Council for Homoeopathy.
  • Choudry Mohammad Sadiq (1900-1975) was born in Batala, District Gurdaspur, Graduated from Islamia College, Lahore and obtained his law degree in 1928. He was an eminent politician and remained a Muslim Leaguer before and after independence. Settled in Sindh in 1934. First bought land near Tando Ghulam Ali and then near Hyderabad and moved to Hyderabad in 1940. Founded Sindh Chamber of Agriculture in late 1960s. A famous housing scheme of Hyderabad (Sadiq Livina) is named after him.
  • Syed Qamar Zaman Shah was born 12 September 1933, did B.A. (Hons), 1957, L.L.B. 1959. He is the nephew and son-in-law of Late Syed Miran Mohammad Shah. He remained Senator during early 1970s. He is President of Sindh Chamber of Agriculture for the last many years. His eldest son Syed Naveed Qamar is a Federal Minster these days.
  • Syed Miran Mohammad Shah was speaker of Sindh legislative Assembly, Minister Sindh Government, Ambassador of Pakistan in Spain.
  • Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Khan, born 1912, Ph.D., D.Litt, SI, was a researcher, critic, linguist, author, scholar of Urdu literature & linguistics, educationist, religious & spiritual leader of Naqshbandi Mujadidiah order. Dr. Sahib was a very pious person and guided many people on this order.
  • Pir Syed MoinUddin Khamis, born in 1910, A Retired Excise and Custom deputy collector, and got famous because of descendant of Great Khawaja Garib Nawaz. He was a great spiritual and religious leader of chishti silsila. He died on 22 Rajab 8 Jan 1994 and was buried in the area of Sarfraz Shaheed Kulhoro Tomb.

See also



  • Biographical Encyclopedia of Pakistan 1963-1966 edition.

External links

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