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Ice hockey tournaments have been staged at the Olympic Games since 1920. The men's tournament was introduced at the 1920 Summer Olympics and was transferred permanently to the Winter Olympic Games programme in 1924. The women's tournament was first held at the 1998 Winter Olympics. The Olympic Games were originally intended for amateur athletes, and until 1998, the players of the National Hockey League (NHL) and other men's professional leagues were not allowed to compete. From 1924 to 1988, the tournament started with a round-robin series of games and ended with the medal round. Medals were awarded based on points accumulated during that round. The games of the tournament follow the rules of the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF), which differ slightly from the rules used in the NHL. The tournament follows the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) rules on performance enhancing drugs and the IIHF maintains a Registered Testing Pool, a list of top players who are subjected to random in-competition and out-of-competition drug tests. Several players have tested positive for banned substances since the 1972 Winter Olympics.

In the men's tournament, Canada was the most successful team of the first three decades, winning six of seven gold medals. Czechoslovakia, Sweden and the United States were also competitive during this period and won multiple medals. Between 1920 and 1968, the Olympic hockey tournament was also counted as the Ice Hockey World Championship for that year. The Soviet Union first participated in 1956 and overtook Canada as the dominant international team, winning seven of the nine tournaments in which they participated. The United States won gold medals in 1960 and upset the Soviet Union in the "Miracle on Ice" at the 1980 Winter Olympics. Other nations to win gold include Great Britain in 1936, Sweden in 1994 and 2006 and the Czech Republic in 1998. Other medal-winning nations include Switzerland, Germany, Finland and Russia. In 1986, the International Olympic Committeemarker (IOC) voted to allow all athletes to compete in Olympic Games held after 1988. The NHL was initially reluctant to allow its players to compete because the Olympics are held in the middle of the NHL season, and the league would have to halt play if many of its players participated. However, NHL players were allowed to compete starting in 1998. The format of the tournament was adjusted to accommodate the NHL schedule; a preliminary round was played without NHL players or the top six teams—Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the United States—followed by a final round which included them. The tournament format was changed again in 2006; every team played five preliminary games with the full use of NHL players.

In July 1992, the IOC voted to approve women's hockey as an Olympic event; it was first held at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. The Nagano Organizing Committee was hesitant to include the event because of the additional costs of staging the tournament, but an agreement was reached that limited the field to six teams, and ensured that no additional facilities would be built. The Canadian and American teams have both dominated the event, typically losing only to each other. The United States won the first tournament in 1998, while Canada won in 2002 and 2006.

Inception as an Olympic sport

The first Olympic ice hockey tournament took place at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerpmarker, Belgiummarker. At the time, organised international ice hockey was still relatively new. The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF), the sport's governing body, was created on May 15, 1908 under the name Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace. At the 1914 Olympic Congress in Paris, ice hockey was added to the list of optional sports that Olympics organisers could include. The decision to include ice hockey for the 1920 Summer Olympics was made in January, three months before the start of the Games. Several occurrences led to the sport's inclusion in the programme. Five European nations had committed to participating in the tournament and the managers of Antwerp's Palais de Glace stadium refused to allow the building to be used for figure skating unless ice hockey was included. The IIHF considers the 1920 tournament to be the first Ice Hockey World Championship. From then on, the two events occurred concurrently, and every Olympic tournament until 1968 is counted as the World Championship. The Olympic Games were originally intended for amateur athletes, so the players of the National Hockey League (NHL) and other professional leagues were not allowed to play.

The first Winter Olympic Games were held in 1924 in Chamonixmarker, France. Chapter 1, article 6 of the 2007 edition of the Olympic Charter defines winter sports as "sports which are practised on snow or ice". Ice hockey and figure skating were permanently integrated in the Winter Olympics programme. The IOC made the Winter Games a permanent fixture and they were held the same year as the Summer Games until 1992. Following that, further Winter Games have been held on the third year of each Olympiad.

Events

Men's tournament

1920 Summer Olympics

The men's tournament held at the 1920 Summer Olympics was organised by a committee that included future IIHF president Paul Loicq. The tournament used the Bergvall System, in which three rounds were played. The first round was an elimination tournament that determined the gold medal winner. The second round consisted of the teams that were defeated by the gold medal winner; the winner of that round was awarded the silver medal. The final round was played between teams that had lost to the gold or silver medal winners; the winner of that round received the bronze medal.

The tournament was played from April 23 to April 29. Seven teams participated: Canada, Czechoslovakia, the United States, Switzerland, Sweden, France and Belgium. Canada chose to send the Allan Cup-winning Winnipeg Falcons. The Americans began a tournament to determine their representative team but abandoned it, deciding instead to send an all-star team that included four Canadian-born players. The Swedish team consisted of mostly bandy players, many of whom had only started playing hockey in preparation for the tournament. Canada won all three of the team's games in the first round and won the gold medal, defeating Sweden in the final and outscoring opponents 27–1. In the two subsequent rounds, the United States and Czechoslovakia won the silver and bronze medals respectively. The Bergvall System was criticised, especially in Sweden, because the Swedish team had to play six games (winning three) while the bronze medal winning Czech team only had to play three (winning one). Erik Bergvall, the creator of the system, stated that it was used incorrectly and that a tournament of all of the losing teams from the first round should have been played for the silver medal. Because of these criticisms, the Bergvall System was not used again for ice hockey.

1924–1952

In 1924, the tournament was played in a round-robin format, consisting of a preliminary round and a medal round. The medals were awarded based on win–loss records during the medal round. This format was used until 1992, although the number of teams and games played varied slightly. The Toronto Granites, representing Canada, became one of the dominant hockey teams in Olympic history, outscoring opponents 110–3, led by Harry Watson, who scored 36 goals. The United States won silver and Great Britain won bronze.

A game between Canada and Sweden during the 1928 Winter Olympics
Eleven teams participated in the 1928 Winter Olympics in St. Moritzmarker, Switzerland. The Canadian team was given a bye to the medal round and won all of its games by a combined score of 38–0. The Swedish and Swiss teams won their first medals—silver and bronze respectively—and a German team participated for the first time, finishing ninth. At the 1932 Winter Olympics, Canada won gold in a tournament that consisted of four teams that played each other twice. Germany won bronze, the nation's first medal in the sport.

Two days before the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchenmarker, Germany, Canadian officials protested that two players on the British teamJames Foster and Alex Archer—had played in Canada but transferred without permission to play for clubs in the English National League. The IIHF agreed with Canada, but Great Britain threatened to withdraw the team if the two were barred from competing. To avoid a conflict, Canada withdrew the protest shortly before the Games began. The tournament consisted of four groups and fifteen teams. Great Britain became the first non-Canadian team to win gold; Canada won silver and the United States bronze. World War II forced the cancellation of the 1940 and 1944 Winter Olympics.

During the run-up to the 1948 Winter Olympics in St. Moritz, Switzerland, a conflict broke out between two American ice hockey bodies, the American Hockey Association (AHA) and the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU). The AAU, which had run amateur hockey in the United States since 1930, was expelled by the IIHF in 1947 when it refused to support a team composed of players from the AHA. The AAU stated that the AHA players were "openly paid salaries"; at the time, the Olympics were strictly for amateur players. The Swiss Olympic Organizing Committee (SOOC) had accepted the AHA's application, but Avery Brundage of the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) threatened to withdraw the entire American team if the AHA participated in the Olympics. The IIHF countered by threatening to withdraw hockey from the Games if the AHA were banned. The IOC suggested that both American teams be banned but the SOOC rejected this proposal. The IOC decided to switch hockey to an unofficial event but relented when a compromise was reached. The AHA team was allowed to compete but would not be considered an official participant or allowed to win a medal. The AHA team finished fourth in the standings.

Both Czechoslovakia and Canada won seven games and tied when they played each other. The gold medal winner was determined by goal difference: Canada won the gold because it had an average of 13.8 goals per game compared to Czechoslovakia's average of 4.3. Czechoslovakia's team was quickly improving; it won the 1947 and 1949 World Championships. At the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslomarker, Norway, the gold medal was won by Canada's team for the second consecutive Games. It would be the last time that a Canadian team would win a gold medal in hockey for 50 years. The United States won silver and Sweden won bronze. A team from Finland competed for the first time.

1956–1976

The Soviet Union competed in its first World Championship in 1954, defeating Canada and winning the gold medal. At the 1956 Winter Olympics in Cortina d'Ampezzomarker, Italy, the Soviet team went undefeated and won its first gold medal. Canada's team lost to the Soviets and the United States in the medal round, winning the bronze. The 1960 Winter Olympics, in Squaw Valleymarker, United States, saw the first, and to date only, team from Australia compete in the tournament. Canada, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and Sweden were the top four teams heading into the Games, but were all defeated by the American team, which won all seven games en route to its first Olympic gold medal. Canada won the silver medal and the Soviet Union won the bronze.

At the 1964 Winter Olympics in Innsbruckmarker, Austria, the Soviet team won all seven of its games, earning the gold medal. Canada finished the tournament with five wins and two losses, putting the team in a three-way tie for second place with Sweden and Czechoslovakia. Before 1964, the tie-breaking procedure was based on goal difference in games against teams in the medal round; under that system, Canada would have placed third ahead of the Czechoslovakian team. During the tournament the procedure was changed to take all games into consideration, which meant that the Canadians finished fourth. At the time, the Olympics counted as the World Championships; under their (unchanged) rules, Canada should have received bronze for the World Championships.

Soviet domination continued at the 1968 Winter Olympics held in Grenoblemarker, France, as the team won its third gold medal. Czechoslovakia and Canada won the silver and bronze medals. It was the last time that the Olympics were counted as the World Championships. In 1970, Canada withdrew from international ice hockey competition following a dispute over the use of professional players, and the team did not participate in the 1972 or 1976 Winter Olympics. Led by goaltender Vladislav Tretiak and forwards Valeri Kharlamov, Alexander Yakushev, Vladimir Petrov and Boris Mikhailov, the Soviet team won gold at both the 1972 Games in Sapporo, Japan and 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, Austria. In 1971, the United States finished last at the World Championships and was relegated to Pool B. The team qualified for the 1972 Olympics and won silver, making it the first Pool B team to win an Olympic medal. Czechoslovakia won the bronze medal in 1972. In 1976, Czechoslovakia won the silver and West Germany won bronze. Along with Canada, the Swedish, East German and Norwegian teams did not participate in the 1976 tournament in protest of their inability to use professional players.

1980: The "Miracle on Ice"

The Winter Olympics returned to Lake Placid, New York in 1980. Twelve teams participated in the tournament, including Canada for the first time since 1968. The Soviet Union entered the tournament as heavy favourites and were considered natural rivals with the American team due to the Cold War. The Americans, coached by Herb Brooks and consisting mainly of college students, tied Sweden and scored an upset win over Czechoslovakia in the preliminary round. They finished with four wins and a tie and advanced to the medal round, which also consisted of Sweden, Finland and the Soviet Union.

The tournament became most famous for the "Miracle on Ice", the February 22 medal-round game between the Soviet Union and the United States that took place at the Olympic Centermarker (now known as the Herb Brooks Arena). The Soviets scored first, then took a 2–1 lead, but the Americans tied the game with one second left in the first period. In the second period, Soviet goaltender Vladislav Tretiak was replaced by Vladimir Myshkin. The Soviets regained the lead early in the second period but the Americans kept the game close thanks to the goaltending of Jim Craig. In the final period, the Americans tied the game and captain Mike Eruzione scored with exactly 10 minutes to play in the contest to give the Americans a 4–3 lead. Craig withstood another series of Soviet shots to finish the match with the win. In the final seconds of the game, American Broadcasting Company sportscaster Al Michaels delivered his famous line: "Do you believe in miracles? Yes!"

A common myth is that the Americans won gold the night they beat the Soviets. However, the medals were awarded based on points accumulated against teams that made the medal round. The Americans did not win the gold until February 24, when they defeated Finland 4–2 and finished the tournament undefeated. The Soviets defeated Sweden and won the silver. In 2008, the IIHF picked the Miracle on Ice as the top international hockey story of the past 100 years.

1984–1994

At the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevomarker, Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union won its sixth gold medal. Czechoslovakia and Sweden won the silver and bronze medals. The 1988 Winter Olympics were held in Calgarymarker, Albertamarker, Canada, where the Soviet team captured its seventh and final gold medal. The Soviets' last Olympic game was a loss to Finland. The Finnish team was not considered a serious medal contender—it had competed in the World Championships since 1939 and had not won a single medal. However, Finland upset the Soviets 2–1 and won silver. The IIHF decided to change the tournament format because in several cases, the gold medal winner had been decided before the final day of play. During a congress in 1990, the IIHF introduced a playoff system. The new system was used at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertvillemarker, France. Preliminary round-robin games were held and followed by an eight-team cup-system style medal round that culminated in a gold medal game.
Before 1989, players who lived in the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and other nations behind the Iron Curtain were not allowed to leave and play in the NHL. Soviet officials agreed to allow players to leave following the 1989 World Championships. Many of the Soviet Union's top players left to play in the NHL, including the entire "Green Unit"—Igor Larionov, Viacheslav Fetisov, Vladimir Krutov, Sergei Makarov and Alexei Kasatonov. The Soviet Union dissolved in December 1991. Nine former Soviet states became part of the IIHF and started competing internationally, including Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Ukraine. At the 1992 Olympics, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan competed as one entity, known as the Unified Team. In the final, the Unified Team defeated Canada to win gold while Czechoslovakia won the bronze.

Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in January 1993. The IIHF recognized the Czech Republic as the successor to Czechoslovakia, allowing the team to retain its position in the top World Championship division, while Slovakia started in the lowest division (Pool C) in 1994 and was forced to work its way up. Both nations competed in the tournament at the 1994 Winter Olympics, as did Russia. Slovakia and Finland finished the preliminary round undefeated. Slovakia lost to Russia in their medal round quarter-final and Russia went on to lose to Finland in the bronze medal game. The gold medal game was between Sweden and Canada. The two teams finished regulation and overtime play with a 2–2 tie. In the resulting shootout, the first in Olympic competition, both nations scored two goals, which resulted in a sudden death shootout. Peter Forsberg of Sweden scored one of the most famous goals in Olympic history by faking a forehand shot, then sliding a one-handed backhand shot past goaltender Corey Hirsch. Canada's final shooter did not score and Sweden won the game and its first gold medal.

1998–2006

The 1998 gold medal game between Russia and the Czech Republic was the first played between teams consisting mainly of NHL players.
In 1995, an agreement to allow NHL players to participate in Olympics was reached between the IOC, IIHF, NHL and NHL Players' Association (NHLPA). The format of the 1998 tournament was adjusted to accommodate the NHL's schedule. On February 7, a preliminary round without NHL players or the "Big Six" teams (Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the United States) began. The NHL had games on that day, but then halted play for the next 17 days to allow participating players to fly to Japan and recover from fatigue. The tournament format drew criticism for not allowing all teams the full use of their NHL players during the entire event. The top six teams were given a bye to the final round and began play on February 13. Canada, considered a pre-tournament favourite, was upset in the semi-final round by the Czech Republic and then lost the bronze medal game to Finland. Led by goaltender Dominik Hašek, the Czech team defeated Russia, winning its first gold medal in the sport. During the tournament, Swedish player Ulf Samuelsson was discovered to have applied for American citizenship. Under Swedish law, when one acquires a foreign passport, their citizenship is annulled. Samuelsson was ejected after having played the first game against Belarus, although Sweden kept their points from the win. The Czech National Olympic Committee felt that Sweden should lose the points and filed a protest with the Court of Arbitration for Sport, which was rejected. Following the tournament, NHL commissioner Gary Bettman commented that it "was what we had predicted and hoped for from a pure hockey perspective, [it was] a wonderful tournament".
A preliminary game between Canada and Sweden at the 2002 Winter Olympics
The same tournament format was used at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake Citymarker, United States. The NHL's Olympic break did not start until the second week of the Games. Because the Olympics were in the United States, where the majority of NHL teams are located, teams participating in the preliminary tournament were allowed to use NHL players who were not obligated to play with their NHL club. Slovakia was particularly affected by the inability to use all of its NHL players, and the team failed to advance to the final round. Three months later, Slovakia won gold at the 2002 World Championships. Finnish centre Raimo Helminen became the first ice hockey player to compete in six tournaments. In the quarter-finals, Belarus defeated Sweden in one of the biggest upsets since the Miracle on Ice. The team advanced to the bronze medal game, but lost to Russia. The Canadian team rebounded from a disappointing first round and defeated the American team in the gold medal game.

The tournament format was adjusted for 2006. The NHL went on hiatus for the duration of the games, allowing all players to compete. The number of teams was lowered to 12; the top six teams did not get a bye and played five preliminary round games. Sweden won the gold medal over Finland and the Czech Republic won the bronze medal. Three months later, Sweden won the 2006 World Championships and became the first team to win the Olympic and World Championship gold in the same year.

Women's tournament

Addition to the programme

At the 99th IOC Session in July 1992, the IOC voted to approve women's hockey as an Olympic event beginning with the 1998 Winter Olympics as part of their effort to increase the number of female athletes at the Olympics. Women's hockey had not been in the programme when Nagano, Japan had won the right to host the Olympics, and the decision required approval by the Nagano Winter Olympic Organizing Committee (NWOOC). The NWOOC was initially hesitant to include the event because of the additional costs of staging the tournament and because they felt their team, which had failed to qualify for that year's World Championships, could not be competitive. According to Glynis Peters, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association's (CAHA) head of female hockey, "the Japanese would have to finance an entirely new sports operation to bring their team up to Olympic standards in six years, which they were also really reluctant to do." In November 1992, the NWOOC and IOC Coordination Committee reached an agreement to include a women's ice hockey tournament in the programme. Part of the agreement was that the tournament would be limited to six teams, and no additional facilities would be built. The CAHA also agreed to help build and train the Japanese team so that it could be more competitive. The IOC had agreed that if the NWOOC had not approved the event, it would be held at the 2002 Winter Olympics. The format of the first tournament was similar to the men's: preliminary round-robin games followed by a medal round playoff.

1998–2006

Before 1998, women's hockey had been dominated by Canada. Canadian teams had won every World Championship up to that point; however, by 1997, the American team had improved and was evenly matched with Canada. In thirteen games played between the two teams in 1997, Canada won seven and the United States won six. The 1998 Olympic tournament included teams from Finland, Sweden, China and host Japan. Canada and the United States dominated the round-robin portion. In their head-to-head match, the United States overcame a 4–1 deficit to win 7–4. The two teams met in the final, which the United States won 3–1 to become the third American ice hockey team to win Olympic gold.
For the 2002 Winter Olympics, the number of teams was increased to eight and Russia, Germany and Kazakhstan qualified for the first time. The Canadian and American teams went undefeated in the first round and semi-finals, setting up a gold medal rematch that the Canadian team won 3–2. Following the game, members of the Canadian team accused the Americans of stomping on a Canadian flag in their dressing room, although an investigation later proved the rumour false. The Swedish team won the bronze medal over Finland, the nation's first in women's ice hockey.

In 2006, Italy and Switzerland participated for the first time. The Italian team, at the time ranked 17th in the world, had qualified because Italy was the host nation. They were outscored 32–1 in three games and IIHF president René Fasel declared his intention to make future tournaments more competitive and not allow host nations to automatically qualify. The Canadian team started the tournament by outscoring opponents 36–1 over three games. American defenceman Angela Ruggiero accused the team of running up the score and warned that the event's Olympic status could be called into question due to a perceived lack of competitive teams. In response, René Fasel stated that other women's teams were improving and that there was similar dominance in the early years of the men's tournament but the sport continued to grow. He added, "I promise you that it won't take the [Swedish] women 64 years to win"—in reference to the Swedish men's team inability to defeat Canada in Olympic play until 1984 (the Swedish women's team defeated Canada for the first time at the 2008 4 Nations Cup).

In its semi-final game, the American team was upset by Sweden, marking the first time that it had lost to an opponent other than Canada. The upset drew comparisons to the Miracle on Ice from 1980. In the medal games, Canada defeated Sweden to claim its second consecutive gold medal, while the Americans beat Finland to win the bronze.

Future tournaments

Both the men's and women's tournaments will be held at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouvermarker, Canada and the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochimarker, Russia. The games of the 2010 tournament will be held at the UBC Winter Sports Centremarker and General Motors Placemarker, which is to be renamed Canada Hockey Place during the event because corporate sponsorship is not allowed for an Olympic venue.

Twelve teams have qualified for the men's event and will be split into three groups of four teams. The NHL break will begin after February 14 and the tournament will start on February 16. At the NHL's request, the number of preliminary games was lowered to three. Following the completion of the preliminary round, all teams will be ranked 1 through 12 based on points. The top four ranked teams will receive byes to the quarter-finals, and the other eight teams will play for the remaining four positions. Following that, the final eight teams will compete in a playoff.

For the women's tournament, eight teams have qualified, including Slovakia for the first time. They will be split into two divisions of four teams and each team will play three preliminary games. Following the preliminary round, the top two teams from each division will advance to the medal round playoff. The other four will play classification games. Each team is allowed to have 15 to 18 skaters and two goaltenders.

It will be the first time since NHL players were allowed to compete that the Olympics will be held in a city with an NHL team. For the first time, Olympic games will be played on a narrower NHL-sized ice rink, measuring 61 metres × 26 metres (200 ft × 85 ft), instead of the international size of 61 m × 30 m (200 ft × 98.5 ft). This change is expected to save $10 million (CAD) in construction costs and allow more spectators to attend games. Each team is allowed to have between 15 and 20 skaters (forwards and defencemen) and two or three goaltenders, all of whom must be citizens of the nation they play for.

Rules

Qualification

Since 1976, 12 teams have participated in the men's tournament, except in 1998 and 2002, when the number was raised to 14. The number of teams has ranged from 4 (in 1932) to 16 (in 1964). After the NHL allowed its players to compete at the 1998 Winter Olympics, the "Big Six" teams (Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the United States) were given automatic qualification and bye to the final round. The number of teams was increased to 14 so that a preliminary round-robin tournament consisting of eight teams could be held. The top two teams from the preliminary round (Belarus and Kazakhstan) joined the "Big Six" in the finals. A similar system was used in 2002. For the following tournament, the number of teams was lowered to 12 so that all teams played fewer games. Qualification for the men's tournament at the 2010 Winter Olympics was structured around the 2008 IIHF World Ranking. Twelve spots were made available for teams. The top nine teams in the World Ranking after the 2008 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships received automatic berths. Teams ranked 10th through 30th had an opportunity to qualify for the event. Teams ranked 19th through 30th played in a first qualification round in November 2008. The top three teams from the round advanced to the second qualification round, joined by teams ranked 10th through 18th. The top three teams from this round advanced to the Olympic tournament.

The women's tournament uses a similar qualification format. The top six teams in the IIHF Women's World Ranking after the 2008 Women's World Ice Hockey Championships received automatic berths. Teams ranked 13th and below were divided into two groups for a first qualification round in September 2008. The two group winners advanced to the second qualification round, where the teams ranked seventh through twelfth joined them.

Players

Eligibility

The IIHF lists the following requirements for a player to be eligible to play in international tournaments:

  • "Each player must be under the jurisdiction of an IIHF member national association."
  • "Each player must be a citizen of the country he represents."


If a player who has never played in an IIHF competition changes their citizenship, they must participate in national competitions in their new country for at least two consecutive years and have an international transfer card (ITC). If a player who has previously played in an IIHF tournament wishes to change their national team, they must have played in their new country for four years. A player can only do this once. The original IOC rules stated that an athlete that had already played for one nation could not later change nations under any circumstances.

Use of professional players

Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the IOC, was influenced by the ethos of the aristocracy as exemplified in the English public schools. The public schools subscribed to the belief that sport formed an important part of education and there was a prevailing concept of fairness in which practicing or training was considered cheating. As class structure evolved through the 20th century, the definition of the amateur athlete as an aristocratic gentleman became outdated. The advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete" of the Eastern Bloc countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage. The Soviet Union entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full-time basis. Nevertheless, the IOC held to the traditional rules regarding amateurism.
The Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) felt their amateur players could no longer be competitive against the Soviet team's full-time athletes and the other constantly improving European teams. They pushed for the ability to use players from professional leagues but met opposition from the IIHF and IOC. Avery Brundage, president of the IOC from 1952 to 1972, was opposed to the idea of amateur and professional players competing together. At the IIHF Congress in 1969, the IIHF decided to allow Canada to use nine non-NHL professional hockey players at the 1970 World Championships in Montrealmarker and Winnipegmarker, Canada. The decision was reversed in January 1970 after Brundage said that ice hockey's status as an Olympic sport would be in jeopardy if the change was made. In response, Canada withdrew from international ice hockey competition and officials stated that they would not return until "open competition" was instituted. Günther Sabetzki became president of the IIHF in 1975 and helped to resolve the dispute with the CAHA. In 1976, the IIHF agreed to allow "open competition" between all players in the World Championships. However, NHL players were still not allowed to play in the Olympics, because of the unwillingness of the NHL to take a break mid-season and the IOC's amateur-only policy.

Before the 1984 Winter Olympics, a dispute formed over what made a player a professional. The IOC had adopted a rule that made any player who had signed an NHL contract but played less than ten games in the league eligible. However, the United States Olympic Committee maintained that any player contracted with an NHL team was a professional and therefore not eligible to play. The IOC held an emergency meeting that ruled NHL-contracted players were eligible, as long as they had not played in any NHL games. This made five players on Olympic rosters—one Austrian, two Italians and two Canadians—ineligible. Players who had played in other professional leagues—such as the World Hockey Association—were allowed to play. Canadian hockey official Alan Eagleson stated that the rule was only applied to the NHL and that professionally contracted players in European leagues were still considered amateurs. Murray Costello of the CAHA suggested that a Canadian withdrawal was possible. In 1986, the IOC voted to allow all athletes to compete in Olympic Games starting in 1988, but let the individual sport federations decide if they wanted to allow professionals.

NHL participation

The NHL decided not to allow all players to participate in 1988, 1992 or 1994 because the Winter Olympics typically occur in February, during the league's regular season. To allow participation, the NHL would have been forced to take a break in its schedule. In 1992, National Basketball Association (NBA) players participated in the 1992 Summer Olympics. The American "Dream Team" dominated the tournament, and NHL commissioner Gary Bettman (an NBA executive in 1992) commented that the "[NBA]'s worldwide awareness grew dramatically". He hoped that NHL participation would "get exposure like the world has never seen for hockey". The typical NBA season is held in the winter and spring, so the Summer Olympics do not conflict with the regular season schedule. Bettman "floated a concept of moving hockey to the Summer Games", but this was rejected because of the Olympic Charter. In March 1995, Bettman, René Fasel, IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch and NHLPA executive director Bob Goodenow met in Geneva, Switzerland. They reached an agreement that allowed NHL players to participate in the Olympics, starting with the 1998 Games in Nagano, Japan. The deal was officially announced by the NHL on October 2, 1995. Bettman said: "We're doing this to build the game of hockey, pure and simple, we think whatever benefits are recouped, it will end up making this game bigger, stronger and healthier."


The 2004–05 NHL season was locked out and eventually cancelled because of a labour dispute between the league and its players. In January 2005, Bettman commented that he was hesitant to allow league participation in the Olympics because he did not like the idea of stopping play mid-season after the cancellation of the previous season. The lockout was resolved in July 2005 and the newly negotiated NHL Collective Bargaining Agreement allowed league participation in the 2006 and 2010 Winter Olympics. Some NHL team owners were against their players participating in the tournament because of concerns about injury or exhaustion. Philadelphia Flyers owner Ed Snider commented that "I'm a believer in the Olympics and I think it's good for the NHL to participate, having said that, the people who participate should be the ones who are absolutely healthy." Some NHL players used the break as an opportunity to rest and did not participate in the tournament, and several players were injured during the Olympics and were forced to miss NHL games. Bettman said that several format changes were being discussed so that the tournament would be "a little easier for everybody".

, it has not yet been decided if the NHL will participate in the 2014 Winter Olympics in Russia. A deal will have to be negotiated between the NHL and NHLPA in the Collective Bargaining Agreement. NHL management is hesitant to commit to the tournament; Bettman argues the Olympic break is a "strain on the players, on the schedule and on fans", adding that "the benefits we get tend to be greater when the Olympics are in North America than when they're in distant time zones." According to Bettman, most of the NHL team owners agree with his position, and feel that the league does not receive enough benefits to justify the schedule break and risk of player injuries. René Fasel wants NHL participation and vowed that he would "work day and night to have [NHL players] in Sochi". At a October 2008 press conference, then-NHLPA executive director Paul Kelly stated that the players want to return to the Olympics and will try to include the ability in the next agreement. Russian NHL players Alexander Ovechkin and Evgeni Malkin have stated that they want to participate in the tournament and will do so without the permission of the NHL, if necessary. Paul Kelly also believes that the NHL's strained relationship with the Ice Hockey Federation of Russia and the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) could affect participation. In a 2009 interview, KHL president Alexander Medvedev claimed that the unwillingness of NHL officials to immediately commit to the Sochi Games was "an instrument of pressure" to force a transfer agreement between the two leagues.


Game rules

In 2010, Olympic games will be played on an NHL-sized rink surface for the first time (size comparison pictured).
At the first tournament in 1920, there were many differences from the modern game: games were played outdoors on natural ice, forward passes were not allowed, the rink (which had been intended to be used only for figure skating) was 56 m × 18 m (165 ft × 58.5 ft) and two 20-minute periods were played. Each team had seven players on the ice, the extra position being the rover. Following the tournament, the IIHF held a congress and decided to adopt the Canadian rules—six men per side and three periods of play.

The tournaments follow the rules used by the IIHF. At the 1969 IIHF Congress, officials voted to allow body-checking in all three zones in a rink similar to the NHL. Before that, body-checking was only allowed in the defending zone in international hockey. Several other rule changes were implemented in the early 1970s: players were required to wear helmet starting in 1970, and goaltender masks became mandatory in 1972. In 1992, the IIHF switched to using a playoff system to determine medalists and decided that tie games in the medal round would be decided in a shootout. In 1998, the IIHF passed a rule that allowed two-line passes. Before then, the neutral zone trap had slowed the game down and reduced scoring.

The current IIHF rules differ slightly from the rules used in the NHL. One difference between NHL and IIHF rules is standard rink dimensions: the NHL rink is narrower, measuring 61 m × 26 m (200 ft × 85 ft), instead of the international size of 61 m × 30 m (200 ft × 98.5 ft) The larger international size allows for a faster and less physical style of play. Another rule difference between the NHL and the IIHF rules concerns how icing is called. In the NHL, a linesman stops play due to icing if a defending player (other than the goaltender) touches the puck before an attacking player is able to, in contrast to the IIHF rules in which play is stopped the moment the puck crosses the goal line. The NHL and IIHF also differ in penalty rules. The NHL calls five-minute major penalties for more dangerous infractions of the rules, such as fighting, in addition to the minor and double minor penalties called in IIHF games. This is in contrast to the IIHF rule, by which players who fight are ejected from the game. Beginning with the 2005–06 season, the NHL instituted several new rules. Some were already used by the IIHF, such as the shootout and the two-line pass. Others were not picked up by the IIHF, such as those requiring smaller goaltender equipment and the addition of the goaltender trapezoid to the rink. However, the IIHF did agree to follow the NHL's league's zero-tolerance policy on obstruction and required referees to call more hooking, holding and interference penalties.

Banned substances

The IIHF follows the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) regulations on performance-enhancing drugs. The IIHF maintains a Registered Testing Pool, a list of top players who are subjected to random in-competition and out-of-competition drug tests. According to the WADA, a positive in-competition test results in disqualification of the player and a suspension that varies based on the number of offences. When a player tests positive, the rest of their team is subjected to testing; another positive test can result in a disqualification of the entire team. In 2001, the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) pushed for American NHL players who were potential Olympians to be subject to random drug tests. The USOC requires all Olympic-bound athletes to be randomly tested by the United States Anti-Doping Agency, but had exempted NHL players in 1998. The NHL preferred a more uniform method, in which all players would undergo the same number of tests from the WADA. An agreement was reached that the WADA would start testing players after the NHL playoffs were finished.

Players who have tested positive for banned substances
Athlete Nation Olympics Substance Punishment Notes Ref.
Alois Schloder 1972 Ephedrine Six month suspension from IIHF The first Winter Olympics athlete to test positive for a banned substance, Scholder was banned from the rest of the Games but his team was allowed to continue playing.
František Pospíšil 1976 Codeine None Team doctor Otto Trefny, who prescribed Pospíšil the drug as treatment for the flu, received a lifetime ban. The team was forced to forfeit a game against Poland but went on to win the silver medal, which Pospíšil also received.
1988 Testosterone 18 month suspension from IIHF The Polish team was allowed to continue playing without Morawiecki, but were stripped of two points they earned in a victory over France.
Mattias Öhlund 2002 Acetazolamide None Öhlund had inadvertently ingested the substance in medication he was taking after undergoing eye surgery and was not suspended.
Vasily Pankov 2002 Retroactively disqualified Pankov was also forced to return his Olympic diploma. Evgeni Lositski, the team doctor, was banned from the following two Olympics.


In late 2005, two NHL players who had been listed as potential Olympians failed drug tests administered by the WADA. American Bryan Berard, who had competed in the 1998 Winter Olympics, tested positive for 19-Norandrosterone. Canadian José Théodore failed a drug test because he was taking Propecia, a hair loss medication that contains the non-performance enhancing drug Finasteride. Both players received two-year bans from international competition, although neither had made their team's final roster.

Statistics

Participating nations

Key
# The final rank of the team.
=# Indicates that two or more teams shared the same final rank.
The team did not participate that year.
DQ The team was disqualified during the tournament.
Q The team has qualified for the 2010 tournament.
The nation did not exist with that designation at that time.
References:


Men:
Nation 1920 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 Total
1
10 11 10 11 Q 15
10 1
1
Q 21
14 11 10 11 5
Total Teams 7 8 11 4 15 9 9 10 9 16 14 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 14 14 12 12 247


Women:
Nation 98 02 06 10 Total
Q 4
Q 3
Q 4
2
1
1
1
Q 3
Q 1
Q 4
Q 2
Q 4
Total Teams 6 8 8 8 30


Medal winners

Men:
1920 Antwerp
1924 Chamonix
1928 St. Moritz
1932 Lake Placid
1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen
1948 St. Moritz
1952 Oslo
1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo
1960 Squaw Valley
1964 Innsbruck
1968 Grenoble
1972 Sapporo
1976 Innsbruck
1980 Lake Placid
1984 Sarajevo
1988 Calgary
1992 Albertville
1994 Lillehammer
1998 Nagano
2002 Salt Lake City
2006 Turin
2010 Vancouver


Women:
1998 Nagano
2002 Salt Lake City
2006 Turin
2010 Vancouver


Medal table

This is the all-time count of medals won in ice hockey at the Olympics, including both the men's and women's tournaments.
1 9 5 2 16
2 7 1 1 9
3 3 8 2 13
4 2 3 5 10
5 1 0 1 2
6 1 0 1 2
7 1 0 0 1
8 0 4 4 8
9 0 2 3 5
10 0 1 1 2
11 0 0 2 2
12 0 0 1 1
13 0 0 1 1
Total 24 24 24 72


See also



Notes

  1. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #21–Ice Hockey debuts at the Olympics.
  2. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #53–Harry Watson scores at will in Olympics.
  3. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #15–Great Britain wins Olympic gold.
  4. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #82–USA sends two teams to the 1948 Olympics.
  5. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #25–Soviet Union win their first Olympics, starting a new hockey era.
  6. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #16–USA's original but unheralded "Miracle on Ice".
  7. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #67–The perfect game against the best team: Czechoslovaks-Soviets 7-2.
  8. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #97–B Pool Americans win Olympic silver in 1972.
  9. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #1–Miracle on Ice.
  10. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #95–1988 Olympic silver – Finland is finally a true hockey power.
  11. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #89–Finally, there's a real final game, The IIHF adopts a playoff system.
  12. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #58–Raimo Helminen, 38, dresses for a sixth Olympics.
  13. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #65–Igor Larionov openly revolts against coach, system.
  14. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #42–Breakup of old Europe creates a new hockey world.
  15. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #59–Team with no name wins Olympic gold.
  16. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #77–Recently separated, Czechs and Slovaks meet in World Championships final.
  17. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #14–"Foppa" – The goal, the stamp & Sweden’s first Olympic gold.
  18. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #7–NHL takes break and releases players for 1998 Olympics.
  19. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #12–Hasek thwarts all five Canadian gunners in epic shootout.
  20. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #10–Czech Republic wins first "open" Olympics.
  21. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #72–Reporter's scoop reveals that Samuelsson is not a Swede in Nagano-98.
  22. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #22–Bondra’s bomb – the biggest thing for Slovakia since independence.
  23. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #28–Vladimir Kopat bounces Sweden from the 2002 Olympics.
  24. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #11–Canada wins Olympic gold for first time in 50 years.
  25. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #8–Sweden’s unique double, Olympics & Worlds.
  26. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #33–Women’s hockey enters Olympics—USA hands Canada first loss.
  27. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #35–Swedish "Mirakel" as USA bumped from Olympic gold-medal game.
  28. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #17–Protesting amateur rules, Canada leaves international hockey.
  29. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #40–Finally, Canada to host the World Championship.
  30. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #6–First Canada Cup opens up the hockey world.
  31. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #19–IIHF allows bodychecking in all three zones.
  32. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #27–Dropping the red-line, allowing the two-line pass changes the Game.
  33. Podnieks and Szemberg 2008, Story #31–Zebras told to crackdown — once and for all.


References



Further reading



External links




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