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An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² (20,000 mile²), thus also known as continental glacier. The only current ice sheets are in Antarcticamarker and Greenlandmarker; during the last glacial period at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered much of Canadamarker and North America, the Weichselian ice sheet covered northern Europe and the Patagonian Ice Sheet covered southern South America.

Ice sheets are bigger than ice shelves or alpine glaciers. Masses of ice covering less than 50,000 km2 are termed an ice cap. An ice cap will typically feed a series of glaciers around its periphery.

Although the surface is cold, the base of an ice sheet is generally warmer due to geothermal heat. In places, melting occurs and the melt-water lubricates the ice sheet so that it flows more rapidly. This process produces fast-flowing channels in the ice sheet — these are ice streams.

The present-day polar ice sheets are relatively young in geological terms. The Antarctic Ice Sheet first formed as a small ice cap (maybe several) in the early Oligocene, but retreating and advancing many times until the Pliocene, when it came to occupy almost all of Antarctica. The Greenland ice sheet did not develop at all until the late Pliocene, but apparently developed very rapidly with the first continental glaciation. This had the unusual effect of allowing fossils of plants that once grew on present-day Greenland to be much better preserved than with the slowly forming Antarctic ice sheet.

Antarctic ice sheet

A satellite composite image of Antarctica
The Antarctic ice sheet is the largest single mass of ice on Earth. It covers an area of almost 14 million km2 and contains 30 million km3 of ice. Around 90% of the fresh water on the Earth's surface is held in the ice sheet, and, if melted, would cause sea levels to rise by 61.1 meters. The continent-wide average surface temperature trend of Antarctica is positive and significant at >0.05°C/decade since 1957.

The Antarctic ice sheet is divided by the Transantarctic Mountainsmarker into two unequal sections called the East Antarctic ice sheet (EAIS) and the smaller West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The EAIS rests on a major land mass but the bed of the WAIS is, in places, more than 2,500 meters below sea level. It would be seabed if the ice sheet were not there. The WAIS is classified as a marine-based ice sheet, meaning that its bed lies below sea level and its edges flow into floating ice shelves. The WAIS is bounded by the Ross Ice Shelfmarker, the Ronne Ice Shelfmarker, and outlet glaciers that drain into the Amundsen Sea.

Greenland ice sheet

Map of Greenland
The Greenland ice sheet occupies about 82% of the surface of Greenlandmarker, and if melted would cause sea levels to rise by 7.2 metres. Estimated changes in the mass of Greenland's ice sheet suggest it is melting at a rate of about 239 cubic kilometres (57.3 cubic miles) per year. These measurements came from NASAmarker's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite, launched in 2002, as reported by BBC News in August 2006 Greenland melt 'speeding up', BBC News, 11 August 2006.

Ice sheet dynamics

Ice movement is dominated by the motion of glaciers, whose activity is determined by a number of processes. Their motion is the result of cyclic surges interspersed with longer periods of inactivity, on both hourly and time scales.

Predicted effects of global warming

The Greenland, and probably the Antarctic, ice sheets have been losing mass recently, because losses by melting and outlet glaciers exceed accumulation of snowfall. According to the IPCC, loss of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass contributed, respectively, about 0.21 ± 0.35 and 0.21 ± 0.07 mm/year to sea level rise between 1993 and 2003.

The IPCC projects that ice mass loss from melting of the Greenland ice sheet will continue to outpace accumulation of snowfall. Accumulation of snowfall on the Antarctic ice sheet is projected to outpace losses from melting. However, loss of mass on the Antarctic sheet may continue, if there is sufficient loss to outlet glaciers. In the words of the IPCC, "Dynamical processes related to ice flow not included in current models but suggested by recent observations could increase the vulnerability of the ice sheets to warming, increasing future sea level rise. Understanding of these processes is limited and there is no consensus on their magnitude." More research work is therefore required in order to improve the reliability of predictions of ice-sheet response on global warming.

External links


  1. American Meteorological Society, Glossary of Meteorology
  2. The map of Greenland is not on the same scale as the map of Antarctica; Greenland's area is approximately 15% Antarctica's.
  3. Some physical characteristics of ice on Earth, Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
  4. Rasmus Benestad et al.: The Greenland Ice. 2006
  5. Richard B. Alley et al.:Summary for Policymakers, A report of Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

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