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In medieval history, Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah ( ) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western Libyamarker, Tunisiamarker, and eastern Algeriamarker. This area included what had been the Roman province of Africa.

Ifriqiya was bounded on the south by the semi-arid areas and salt marshes called el-Djeridmarker. At various times, the rulers of this area also conquered Sicily and parts of mainland Italymarker, and the western boundary was in continual flux but usually went as far as Bejaiamarker. Its capital was Qayrawanmarker (Kairouan) in central Tunisia.

Arabic Thought and its Place in History, De Lacy O'Leary, London: Kegan, Paul [1922], p. 227-8 says: "Gradually the Arabs spread all along North Africa and down to the desert edge, their tribes as a rule occupying the lower ground, whilst the older population had its chief centres in the mountainous districts. During the invasion of 45 (A.H.) the city of Kairawan was founded some distance south of Tunis. The site was badly chosen, and is now marked only by ruins and a scanty village, but for some centuries it served as the capital city of Ifrikiya, which was the name given to the province lying next to Egypt, embracing the modern states of Tripoli, Tunis, and the eastern part of Algeria up to the meridian of Bougie."

From their base in Qayrawan the Aghlabids conquered Sicily, beginning in 827 and establishing the Emirate of Sicily, which lasted until it was displaced by the Normans, effecting lasting changes in Sicilian culture.

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