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Illyrian tribes in antiquity
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulanti (see List of Illyrian tribes). Some sound-changes from Proto-Indo-European to Illyrian and other language features are deduced from what remains of the Illyrian languages, but because there are no examples of ancient Illyrian literature surviving (aside from the Messapian writings if they can be considered Illyrian), it is difficult to clarify its place within the Indo-European language family. Because of the uncertainty, most sources provisionally place Illyrian on its own branch of Indo-European, though its relation to other languages, ancient and modern, continues to be studied.

Language affinity

The Illyrian languages are part of the Indo-European language family. The relation of the Illyrian languages to other Indo-European languages—ancient and modern—is poorly understood due to the paucity of data and is still being examined. Today, the main source of authoritative information about the Illyrian language consists of a handful of Illyrian words cited in classical sources, and numerous examples of Illyrian anthroponyms, ethnonyms, toponyms and hydronyms.

Given the scarcity of the data it is difficult to identify the sound changes that have taken place in the Illyrian languages; the most widely accepted one is that the Indo-European voiced aspirates /bʰ/, /dʰ/, /gʰ/ became voiced consonants /b/, /d/, /g/.

A grouping of Illyrian with the Messapian language has been proposed for about a century, but remains an unproven hypothesis. The theory is based on classical sources, archaeology, as well as onomastic considerations. Messapian material culture bears a number of similarities to Illyrian material culture. Some Messapian anthroponyms have close Illyrian equivalents.

A grouping of Illyrian with the Venetic language and Liburnian language, once spoken in northeastern Italymarker and Liburnia respectively, has also been proposed. The consensus now is that Illyrian was quite distinct from Venetic and Liburnian. A Daco-Thracian affinity has also been suggested (see Thraco-Illyrian).

Beginning in the 18th century, a number of scholars claim the modern Albanian language to be descended from Illyrian.However the Illyrian data, consisting mainly of hydronyms, toponyms, and personal names (some of them dubious and disputed) and appearing in no inscriptions, may not be sufficient to sustain any clear identification of linguistic affinities.

Centum vs. Satem

In the absence of sufficient lexical data and texts written in the Illyrian languages, the theories supporting the Centum character of the Illyrian language have been based mainly on the Centum character of the Venetic language, which was thought to be related to Illyrian, in particular regarding Illyrian toponyms and names such as Ves-cleves, Acra-banus, Gentius, Clausal etc.

The relation between Venetic and Illyrian was later discredited and they are not considered (directly) related anymore.

Scholars supporting the Satem character of the Illyrian languages highlight particular toponyms and personal names such as Asamum, Birzinimum Zanatis etc. in which these scholars claim that there is clear evidence of the Satem character of the Illyrian language. They also point to other toponyms including Osseriates derived from /*eghero/ (lake) or Birziminium from PIE /*bherg^h/ or Asamum from PIE /*ak^-mo/ (sharp).

Regarding the Illyrian toponymes and personal names like Ves-cleves, Acra-banus, Gentius, Clausal, the supporters of the Centum character of the Illyrian language have tried to explain those names through the comparison with other old documented i.e. languages, such as Sanksrit, or Ancient Greek or reconstructed PIE. For ex. Ves-cleves has been explained as PIE *wesu-k'leves (of good fame).Also the name Acra-banus as a compound name has been compared with Ancient Greek /akros/ with no signs of palatalization. or Clausal has been related to /*klew/ (wash, rinse)

In all these cases the supporters of the Centum character of the Illyrian language consider PIE *k^ >/*k/ or PIE *g^>/*g/ followed by an /l/ or /r/ to be evidence of a Centum character of the Illyrian language. However, it has been shown that even in Albanian and Balto-Slavic which are Satem languages, in this phonetical position the palatovelars have been generally depalatized (the depalatization of PIE *k^ >*k and *g^>*g before /r/ and /l/ especially in Albanian ).

Even the name Gentius or Genthius does not help to solve the problem since we have two Illyrian forms Genthius and Zanatis. If Gentius or Genthius derives from *g^en- (be born) this is proof of a Centum language, but if the name Zanatis is similarly generated (or from *g^en- know) than we have a Satem language. Another problem related to the name Gentius is the reason that nowadays it can not be stated surely if the initial /G/ of the sources was a palatovelar or a labiovelar.

Taking into account the absence of sufficient data and sometimes the dual nature of their interpretation the Centum/Satem character of the Illyrian language is still uncertain and requires more evidence.

Illyrian dialects

The Greeks were the first literate people to come into frequent contact with the speakers of Illyrian languages. Their conception of "Illyroi", however, differed from what the Romans would later call "Illyricum". The Greek term encompassed only the peoples who lived on the borders of Macedonia and Epirus. Pliny the Elder, in his work Natural History, applies a stricter usage of the term Illyrii when speaking of Illyrii proprie dicti ("Illyrians properly so-called") among the native communities in the south of Roman Dalmatia.

For a couple of centuries before and after the Roman conquest in the late 1st century BC, the concept of Illyricum expanded towards the west and north. Finally it encompassed all native peoples from the Adriatic to the Danube, inhabiting the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia, regardless of their ethnic and cultural differences. A passage in Appian's Illyrike stating that the Illyrians lived beyond Macedonia and Thrace, from Chaonia and Thesprotiamarker to the Danube River, is representative of the broader usage of the term.

An extensive study of Illyrian names and territory was undertaken by Hans Krahe in the first decades of the twentieth century. He and other scholars argued for a broad distribution of Illyrian peoples considerably beyond the Balkans though in his later work, Krahe curbed his view of the extent of Illyrian settlement.

The further refinements of Illyrian onomastic provinces for that Illyrian area included in the later Roman province were proposed by Géza Alföldy. He identified five principal groups: (1) "real Illyrians" south of the river Neretva and extending south of the provincial boundary with Macedonia at the river Drin to include the Illyris of north and central Albania; (2) the Delmatae who occupied the middle Adriatic coast between the "real Illyrians" and the Liburni; (3) the Venetic Liburni of the northeast Adriatic; (4) the Japodes who dwelt north of the Delmatae and behind Liburni, where names reveal a mixture of Venetic, Celtic and Illyrian; and (5) the Pannonian people north in Bosnia, Northern Montenegro, and western Serbia.

These identifications were later challenged by Radoslav Katičić who on the basis of personal names which occur commonly in Illyricum distinguished three dialect areas: (1) South-Eastern Illyrian, extending southwards from the southern part of Montenegro and including most of Albania west of the river Drin, though its demarcation to the south remains uncertain; (2) Central Illyrian consisting of most of ex-Yugoslavia, north of southern Montenegro to the west of Morava, excepting ancient Liburnia in the northwest, but perhaps extending into Pannonia in the north; (3) Liburnian, whose names resemble those of the Venetic territory to the northeast.

The onomastic differences between the South-Eastern and Central areas are not sufficient to show that two clearly differentiated dialects of Illyrian were in use in these areas. However, as Katičić has argued, the core onomastic area of Illyrian proper is to be located in the southeast of that Balkan region, traditionally associated with the Illyrians (centered in modern Albania).

Pan-Illyrian theory

The pan-Illyrism had two components, the archaeology and linguistics. Archeologists were looking for an ethnicity for the Lusatian culture and the linguists for the Old European water names. First French pressed for the Ligurs and Celts but then the German prehistorians and linguists first of all Gustaf Kossinna and following Julius Pokorny, and Hans Krahe linked the Illyrians with the Lusatian culture and Old European water names. Kossinna divided the primitive Indo-Europeans into two groups, North and South Indo-Europeans; he conjectured that the ancestors of Celtic, Illyrian, Greek and Italic people, who belonged to the first group, inhabitated north Germany in the Stone Age and Early Bronze Age and were driven out by Germanic people advancing from Schleswig-Holstein and Jutland about 1800-1700 BC "the first Germans in Germany". Kossinna also stated that at the time of Hallstatt culture which succeeded the Bronze Age of Central Europe, the Illyrian civilization of the valley of the middle Danube was superior to that prevailing among the Celts established in the southern portion of the Germany and elements of the Illyrian civilization found their way not only into the Celtic cradle of the south Germany but also to the territory of the east Germany occupied by Germanic tribes. The earliest use of iron in Central Europe was to be attributed to Illyrians and not to the Celts.

Julius Pokorny located the Urheimat between the Wesser and the Vistula and east from that region where migration began around 2400 BC Pokorny suggested that Illyrian elements were to be found in much of the continental Europe and also in the British isles.

Pokorny's Illyromania derived in part from archaeological Germanomania and supported by contemporary place-names specialists such as Max Vasmer (1928, 1929) and Hans Krahe (1929, 1935, 1940)

Krahe in his work of 1937 as a follower of Pan-Illyrism, discussed the Veneti language known from hundreds Inscriptions as an Illyrian language which form the separate Illyrian branch of the Indo-European language family with the lower Italian Messapian and the Balkan Illyrian. Krahe thought that only the name of the Illyrian and Adriatic Enetos peoples are the same Homer mentiones a people in Asia Minor the Paphlagons as from the Enetai province , and a few hundred years later Herodotus refers to the Enetos people twice, once as Illyrian and again as the occupants of the Adriatic sea Krahe thought that the name of the Illyrian and Adriatic Enetos peoples are the same and if Adriatic Enetos were Venets and Venets were the Veneds mentioned in other sources then Illyrian and Veneds were the same people. The basis of this theory is the similarity of the proper nouns and place names, but most of all in the water names of the Baltic and the Adriatic (Odra, Drava, Drama, Drweca, Opawa, Notec, etc). Having the model of Illyrian in mind he assumed that together these elements represented the remnant of one archaic language.

The problem was that the name of Venets and Veneds is scattered over a huge territory. From British Isles to Baltic Sea and from Northern Italy to Southern Balkans. Since no trace of Illyrians remain in Northern zone the Venets (or Veneds) became the transmitter of the Illyrian place-names and by the end of World War II the Illyrians had become a vast conspiracy of Indo-European place names, now spreading from Gaul to Balkan Peninsula.

By 1950 many of the onomastic irregularities once dubbed Illyrian had now become Old European. First Krahe presented the wiev that the Veneti language forms a separate branch in itself. He noticed that the Illyrian language was made now of some Messapic Inscriptions and a great number of places and proper nouns. From this small item of linguistic material he concludes that : Illyrian is a Centum language and its relationship with German, Italic and Celtic languages lies in that territory of the Urheimat of this language correlates solely with the Lusatian culture. In Krahe's words "All of them the Illyrians, the Italic, and the Venet have..clear connections to the Germans, that is they came from the north ..and later moved to the south" . This meant that the people of the Lusitan culture advanced to the eastern part of the Alps to the historical territory of the Illyrians around 1200 BC

Following Krahe's work, János Harmatta placed Illyrians in South Germany and the Alpine region. Tribes living there would have spoken Illyrian which deferred from Latin, German and Venet. Around the 1300 BC the people of the Barrow-mound culture, the Illyrians moved eastwards and then suthwards along the Danube (the first Illyr migration) and in 750 the people of the Hallstatt C culture expanded toward western Hungary (the second Illyr migration) which gathered Pannonian tribes to itself. 1000 BC is considered the beginning of the historical peoples we call the Illyrians.

In his later work Krahe substituted Pokorny theory with that of Old European hydronymy, a network of names of water courses dating back to the Bronze Age and to a time before Indo-European languages had developed in central, northern and western Europe. He examined the layers of European water names and did so using two theses. The fist thesis was that the oldest layer will alwasys be the one that can not be explained with the language of the peole who currently live on the banks or shores of the given water, and/or consist of a monosyllabic stem carrying a meaning (at times derived or conjugated monosyllabic words). He found that these monosyllabic water names give a system which he called Alteuropäisch (Old European). The network of old European water names comprises waters from Scandinavia to lower Italy, and from the British Isles to the Baltic. It denotes the period of development of the common Indo-European language which was finished by the second millennium BC. Krahe claimed that by that time the Western languages (Germanic, Celtic, Illyrian, so-called Italic group -the Latin-Faliscus, the Osk-Umber along with Venet-Baltic and to some extent Slavic though they still constituted a uniform Old European language and further divided later) had already dissociated from the ancient Indo-European language. The similarities in European water names resulted from the radiation of this old European system, and not from the resemblance of the common words in the later separate languages.

This theory received much criticism, and one of the many critics was that of A. Tovar who demonstrated that the non Indo-Europeans water names in the north of Europe are in majority (later this was used by Theo Vennemann for his Vasconic theory), a fact which Krahe dismiss.

While many scholars placed Illyrian in North Europe other scholars extended the territory of the Illyrian people in the south too (Bonfante, Georgiev etc). One of them Georgiev claimed that "the Pelasg that is the people before the Hellas Greeks, were Illyrian. Their language would have been Indo-Germanic, a dialect of the Illyrian-Thracian language, and Etruskan was a later dialect of the latter. The Thracians and Illyrians would have been the link between the central (Italic, Greek, Aryan) and the southern (Pelasg, Luwiy, Hittite) Indo-Germanic groups".

The Pan-Illyrian theory began with archaeologic findings also its end coincided with it. As Katičić restricted linguistically what is to be considered Illyrian, newer archeological investigations made by A. Benać and B. Čović, archaeologists from Sarajevo,demonstrated that there was unbroken continuation of cultural development between Bronze and Iron Age archeological material, therefore ethnical continuation too and this created the autochthonous Illyrian theory, by which Illyrian culture was formed in the same place (Western Balkans) from older Bronze Age cultures. According to Benac the Urnfield culture bearers and proto-Illyrians were different people. Benac claimed that Urnfield culture migration might have produced several of other migrations in chain reaction (e.g. Dorian migration), however it didn't essentially changed ethnical stability in the area. This theory was supported by Albanian archaeologists and Aleksandar Stipčević which says that the most convincing theory for the genesis of the Illyrians was the one given by Benać, but pointing to Liburnians and their pre-Indo-European and Mediterranean phases in development Stipčević claims that there was no equal processing of Illyrian origin in the different areas of the Western Balkans

Illyrian vocabulary

Since there are no Illyrian texts, sources for identifying Illyrian words have been identified by Hans Krahe as being of four kinds: inscriptions, glosses of Illyrian words in Classical texts, names—including proper names (mostly inscribed on tombstones), toponyms and river names—and Illyrian loanwords in other languages. The last category has proved particularly contentious. The names occur in sources that range over more than a millennium, including numismatic evidence, as well as posited original forms of placenames (Krahe 1955). There are no Illyrian inscriptions (Messapian inscriptions are treated separately, and there is no consensus that they are to be reckoned as Illyrian). The spearhead found at Kovelmarker and thought by some to be Illyrian is considered by the majority of runologists to be Eastern Germanic, and most likely Gothic, while a votive inscription on a ring found near Shkodërmarker which was initially interpreted as Illyrian was shown to actually be Byzantine Greek.

Only a few Illyrian words are cited in classical sources by Roman or Greek writers, and of these only four are identified with an ethnonym Illyrii or Illurioí; others must be identified by indirect means:

attestation English meaning etymology cognates
abeis "snakes" PIE * Lat anguis, Old High Germ unc, Lith angìs, Gk óchis "snake", echis "viper", Toch auk "snake", Arm auj, Russ , Skt áhis, Av aži
bagaron "warm" PIE * Phrygian bekos "bread", Alb bukë "bread", Eng bake, Lat focus "hearth", Old Ir goba "blacksmith", Gk phōgein "to roast", Armenian bosor "red", bots "flame"
brisa "husk of grapes" PIE * Alb bërsí "lees, dregs; mash", Eng broth, Lat defrutum "new wine boiled down", Welsh brwd "brewage", Old Ir bruth "heat, wrath", Thrac brỹtos "barley alcohol", brỹtion "wine must", Gk apéphrysen "to seethe, boil"
deuádai "satyrs" PIE * Skt dhūnoti "he shakes", Gk thýein "to rage, seethe", théeion "sulfur vapor", Eng dizzy, Old Eng dwæs "foolish", Paeonian Dýalos "Dionysos", Lat furere "to rage", belua "wild animal", Old Ir dásacht "rage, fury", Lith dvesiù "to perish, die (animals)", Hitt tuhhai "to gasp"
mandos "small horse" PIE * Alb mëz, mâz "poney", Thrac Mezēnai "divine horseman", Mess Iuppiter Menzanas (divinity)
mantía "bramblebush" PIE * Old and dial. Alb mandë, mod. Alb mën, man "berry, mulberry"
rhinos "fog, mist" PIE * Old Alb ren, mod. Alb re, rê "cloud"
sabaia, sabaium, sabaius "a type of beer" PIE * Eng sap, Lat sapere "to taste", Skt sabar "sap, juice, nektar", Avestan višāpa "having poisonous juices", Arm ham, Gk hapalós "tender, delicate", Old Ch Slav sveptŭ "bee's honey"
sibina (Lat.), sibyna (Lat.), sybina (Lat.); σιβυνη (Gk.), σιβυνης (Gk.), συβινη (Gk.), ζιβυνη (Gk.) Festius, citing Ennius; is compared to συβηνη (Gk.), "flute case", a word found in Aristophanes' Thesmophoriazusai; the word appears in the context of a barbarian speaking "a hunting spear", generally, "a spear", "pike" PIE * Alb thupër "bar, stick", cf. Pers zôpîn, Arm səvīn "a spit"
sica, sicca (Lat.) First notice in Ennius: illyrii restant sicis sybinisque fodentes, of Illyrian soldiers; later used in Pliny to describe Thracian implements "curved knife, dagger" PIE * Alb thika "knife", cf. Lat sicca "dagger", Lat sicarii "assassins"


Some additional words have been extracted by linguists from toponyms, hydronyms, anthroponyms, etc.:

  • Agruvium "along the coast between Risinum and Butua": IE *aĝr-; cf. Skt ájraḥ "pasture, field", Lat ager, Gk agrós, Goth akrs
  • Bindus "river god"; cf. Old Ir banne "drop", Skt bindú, vindú "drops, gob, spot", possibly Lat fōns Bandusiae
  • Bosona, "Bosna river", literally "running water": IE *bheg-, bhog- "to run"; cf. Old Ch Slav bĕžati "to flee, run", Lith bėgti "to flee", Gk phébesthai "to flee", phóbos "fear", Alb boj "to drive, mate", Eng beck "brook, stream", Middle Ir búal "flowing water", Hindi bhāg "to flee"
  • mons Bulsinus, "Büžanim hill": IE *bhl.kos; cf. Eng balk, Middle Ir blog "piece, fragment", Lat fulcrum "bedpost", Gk phálanx "trunk, log", Lith balžiena "crossbar", Serb blazína "roof beam", Skt bhuríjāu "cart arms"
  • Derbanoí, Anderva: IE *derv; cf. Eng tree, Alb dru "wood", Old Ch Slav drĕvo "tree", Welsh derw "oak", Gk dóry "wood, spear", drýs "oak, tree", Lith derva "pine wood", Hitt taru "tree, wood', Thrac taru "spear", Skt dru "tree, wood", daru "wood, log"
  • Dizēros, Andízētes: IE *digh; cf. Eng dough, Gk teîchos "wall", Lat fingere "to shape, mold", Old Ir com-od-ding "he builds, erects", Old Russ dĕža "kneading trough", Arm dez "heap", Skt dehah "body, form"
  • Domator, personal name; cf. Old Ir damnaid "he binds, breaks a horse", dam "ox", Eng tame, dialectal Germ zamer "ox not under the yoke", Alb dem "young bull", Lat domāre "to tame", domitor "tamer", Gk dámnēmi "to break in", dámalos "calf", Skt dāmyáti "he is tame; he tames"
  • Loúgeon. Strabo in his Geography mentions "a marsh called Lougeon" (which has been identified as Lake Cerknicamarker in Sloveniamarker) by the locals (Illyrian and Celtic tribes), Lougeon being Strabo's rendition of the local toponym into Greek. cf. Alb lag "to wet, soak, bathe, wash" ( PA *lauga), lëgatë "pool" ( PA *leugatā), lakshte "dew" ( PA *laugista); further akin to Lith liűgas "marsh", Old Ch Slav luža "pool", Thrac Lýginos "river name"
  • stagnus Morsianus "marshlands in Pannonia": IE *merĝ; cf. Middle High Germ murc "rotten, withered, boggy", Old Ir meirc "rust", Alb marth "to shiver, shudder", Lith markýti "to rust"
  • Naro: IE *nor; cf. Lith nãras "diving duck", Russ norá "hole", Serbo-Croat po-nor "abyss"
  • Nedinum: IE *ned; cf. Skt nadas "roarer"
  • Oseriates, "lakes"; akin to Old Ch Slav ozero (Serb-Croat jezero), Latvian ezers, Old Pruss assaran, Gk Achérōn "river in the underworld"
  • Pelso (Latin authors referred to modern Lake Balatonmarker as "lacus Pelso", Pelso being a hydronym from the local inhabitants), Pelso apparently meant "deep" or "shallow": IE *pels-; cf. Czech pleso "deep place in a river, lake", Welsh bwlch "crack", Arm pelem "to dig"
  • Tergitio, "merchant"; cf. Old Ch Slav trĭgĭ (Serbo-Croat trg) "market", Old Russ tŭrgŭ "market", Latv tirgus
  • Teuta, Teutana: IE *teuta- "people"; cf. Lith tauta "people", Germ Deutsch "German", Old Eng theod "people", Old Ir túath "clan", Umbrian tota "people", Oscan touto "city", Hitt tuzzi "army"
  • Tómaros, Tomorr mountain; cf. Old Ir temel "darkness", Middle Ir teimen "dark grey", Old High Germ demar "darkness", dinstar "dark", Lat tenebrae "darkness", temere "by chance, rashly", Skt tamas "darkness", tamsrah "dark", Old Ch Slav tima "darkness"
  • Ulcisus mons, Ulcinium (city), Ulcisia castra; cf. Eng wolf, Old Alb ulk, Alb ujk, Avestan vəhrkō, Farsi gurg, Skt vṛkas, Old Ch Slav vlŭkŭ, Russ volcica, Lith vil~kas, Lat lupus, Gk lýkos
  • Volcos, river name in Pannonia; cf. Old Ir folc "heavy rain, wet weather", Welsh golchi "to wash", obsolete Eng welkin "cloud", Old High Germ welk "moist", Old Ch Slav vlaga "moisture, plant juice", vŭlgŭkŭ "wet"


Illyrian anthroponyms

The following anthroponyms derive from Illyrian or are not yet connected with another language unless noted, such as the Delmatae names of Liburnian origin. Alföldy identified five principal onomastic provinces within the Illyrian area: 1) the "real" Illyrians south of the river Neretvamarker in Dalmatia and extending south to Epirus; 2) the Delmatae, who occupied the middle Adriatic coast between the "real Illyrians" to the south and the Liburni to the north; 3) the Liburni, a branch of Venetic in the northeast Adriatic; 4) the Iapodes, who dwelt north of the Delmatae and behind (inland from) the coastal Liburnians; 5) the Pannonians in the northern lands, and in Bosnia, northern Montenegro and Western Serbia. Katičić (1964) does not recognize a separate Pannonian onomastic area, and includes the Pannoni with the Delmatae. Below, names from four of Alföldy's five onomastic areas are listed, Liburnian excluded, having been identified as being akin to Venetic. A Dardanian area is also detailed.

South Illyrian



Delmatae

Hundreds of Delmatae names have been recorded. Characteristic names include:

  • Aplis, Apludus, Aplus, Aplius
  • Apurus
  • Baezo
  • Beusas, Beuzas
  • Curbania
  • Cursulavia
  • Iato
  • Lavincia
  • Ledrus
  • Messor
  • Paio, Paiio
  • Panes, Panias, Panius (or Pantus, inscription unclear), Panentius
  • Pant(h)ia/Panto (f.)
  • Pinsus
  • Pladomenus
  • Platino
  • Samuntio
  • Seio, Seiio
  • Statanius, Staticus, Stato, Status
  • Sestus, Sextus, Sexto
  • Tito
  • Tizius
  • Tritus
  • Var(r)o


Delmatae names in common with the Pannoni (some also occur among the south Illyrians):

  • Bardurius.
  • Bato
  • Carius
  • Dasantilla
  • Dasas, Dazas
  • Dasto
  • Plator, Platino
  • Scenobarbus, Scenobardos (?)
  • Verzo
  • Verzulus


Some Delmatae names probably originate from the Liburnians. This conclusion is based on the Liburnian suffixes: -icus, -ica, -ocus, -ico; and from the distribution of the names among the Liburni/Veneti, and from their absence or scarcity in other onomastic areas:

  • Acenica
  • Clevata
  • Darmocus
  • Germanicus (the native Delmatae stem Germanus, Germus, with the Venetic/Liburnian -icus suffix)
  • Labrico
  • Lunnicus
  • Melandrica
  • Turus


From the southern Illyrians, the names Boria, Epicadus, Laedicalius, Loiscus, Pinnes and Tato and some others are present. From the Iapodes, Diteio and Ve(n)do, and a few names of Celtic origin (not shown here).

Pannoni

Some names attested among the Pannoni:

  • Bato (also common among the Delmatae)
  • Dasas, Dasius (also common among the Delmatae)
  • Scenobarbus (also common among the Delmatae)
  • Carvus
  • Laidus
  • Liccaius
  • Plator
  • Temans
  • Tueta
  • Varro
  • Verzo


The following names are confined to the Pannonian onomastic province:

  • Arbo
  • Arsa (possibly Thacian)
  • Callo
  • Daetor
  • Iauletis (genitive)
  • Pirusta
  • Proradus
  • Scirto
  • Vietis (genitive)


Northern Pannoni:

  • Bato
  • Breucus
  • Dases
  • Dasmenus
  • Licco
  • Liccaius


Names attested among the Colapiani, an Illyric tribe of Pannonia:

  • Bato
  • Cralus
  • Liccaius
  • Lirus
  • Plassarus


Among the Jasi: Scenus. The Breuci: Scilus Bato (first and last name), Blaedarus, Dasmenus, Dasius, Surco, Sassaius, Liccaius, Lensus. The Amantini, the Scordisci: Terco, Precio, Dases, Dasmenus.

Messapic

  • Dasius, Latin form of a Messapic name.


Illyrian theonyms

The following names of gods (theonyms) derive from possibly several languages (Liburnian, Illyrian, etc.) and are names of Gods worshiped by the Illyrians. We must note that they are known through Interpretatio romana and their names may have been corrupted.

  • Eia
  • Malesocus
  • Boria
  • Iria
  • Anzotica
  • Latra
  • Sentona
  • Ica
  • Bindus
  • Vidasus
  • Thana
  • Medaurus
  • Armatus


External influences

The Ancient Greek language would have become an important external influence on Illyrian-speakers who occupied lands adjacent to ancient Greek colonies, mainly in the adriatic coast.The Taulantii and the Bylliones had become bilingual. Invading Celts who settled on lands occupied by Illyrians brought the Illyrians into contact with the Celtic languages and some tribes were Celticised especially those in Dalmatia and the Pannoni. Intensive contact may have happened in what is now Bosniamarker, Croatiamarker, and Serbiamarker. Because of this intensive contact, and because of conflicting classical sources, it is unclear whether some ancient tribes were Illyrian or Celtic origin to begin with Scordisci or mixed in varying degree. Thracians and Paionians also occupied lands populated by Illyrians, bringing Illyrians into contact with the Thracian language and Paionian language.

Yet it was not Greek, Celtic, Thracian, or Paionian, but Latin that would come to displace Illyrian above the Jireček line. The Romans conquered all the lands in which Illyrian was spoken, and it is quite possible that Illyrian faded early in the Common era, perhaps even before the Slavic invasion of the Balkans.

Celtic

The following Illyrian names, most of which occur in inscriptions from the upper Neretvamarker river valley near Konjicmarker in Bosnia, derive from Celtic

  • Arvus
  • Belzeius
  • Cambrius
  • laritus
  • Lautus
  • Argurianus(Thracian or Celtic)
  • Ammida(questionable associations)
  • Matera(questionable associations)
  • Seneca(questionable associations)
  • Mellito(Greek & Celtic)
  • Nantia
  • Nonntio
  • Laca
  • Madusa
  • Matisa
  • Nindia
  • Poia
  • Sicu
  • Aioia
  • Andetia
  • Baeta
  • Bidna
  • Catta
  • Dussona
  • Boio
  • Bricussa
  • Iacus
  • Mallaius
  • Mascelio
  • Kabaletus
  • Litus
  • Nantanius
  • Sarnus
  • Sinus
  • Sisimbrius
  • Vepus


Thracian

The following names derive from Thracian.
  • Argurianus(Thracian or Celtic)
  • Auluporis
  • Auluzon
  • Bithus
  • Bessus
  • Teres
  • Celsus
  • Celsinus
  • Cocaius
  • Daizo
  • Delus
  • Dida
  • Dinentilla
  • Dizas
  • Dizo


Greek

The following names may derive from Greek.

  • Agron,("Αγρά",prey or "Αγρός",wild country).
  • Mellito(Greek & Celtic),("Μελλιτόεις",like honey).
  • Thana ,("Θανατός",death).
  • Illyrians,(Ιλλυριοί),Greek exonym
  • Plator,("Πλατών",wide man).
  • Pleuratus ,("Πλευρά",side).
  • Cleitus the Illyrian, ("Κλείω",renowned,Renowned man).
  • Glaukias,("Γλαυκός",gleaming,Gleaming man).
  • Ceraunii,tribal exonym ,("Κεραυνιοί",Thunderbolt-men).
  • Enchelei,tribal exonym,("Εγχελείς",Eel-men).


See also



Notes

  1. If the Messapian language was close enough to the Illyrian languages to be considered an Illyrian language, then Illyrian would also have been spoken in southern Italy.
  2. Woodard (2008): "While the Illyrians are a well-documented people of antiquity, not a single verifiable inscription has survived written in the Illyrian language" (p. 6)
  3. Wilkes (1992): "Though almost nothing of it survives, except for names, the Illyrian language has figured prominently…" (p. 67)
  4. Mallory & Adams (1997)
  5. Christidis et al. (2007)
  6. Wilkes (1992): "We may begin with the Venetic peoples, Veneti, Carni, Histri and Liburni, whose language set them apart from the rest of the Illyrians." (p. 183)
  7. Wilkes (1992): "In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of the Colapis (Kulpa) valley were Illyrians" (p. 81)
  8. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm. Albaner - Brife, Hanover, 1705 (E.P.Hamp, On Leibniz's Third Albanian Letter - Zeitschrift fur Balkanologie, Je XVI/1, 1981, M.Reiter, Leibnizen's Albanel - Briefe - Zeitschrift fur Balkanologie Jg. XVI, 1980,) Thunmann, Johann. Untersuchungen über die Geschichte der östlichen europäischen Völker. Laipzig (1774). Kopitar, B.J. Albanische, walachische und bulgarische Sprache. Wien (1829) Hahn, Georg von. Albanesische Studien. Wien (1853). Bopp, Franz. Über das Albanesische in seinen verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen. Berlin (1855). Camarda, Demetrio. Saggio di grammatologia comparata sulla lingua albanese. Livorno (1864. Camarda, Demetrio. Appendice al Saggio di grammatologia sulla lingua albanese. Prato (1866). Miklosich, Franz: Albanische Forschungen. I: Die slavischen Elemente im Albanischen. Wien (1870). Miklosich, Franz. Albanische Forschugen, II: Die romanischen Elemente im Albanischen. Wien (1870). Meyer, Gustav. Albanesische Studien. I - Wien 1882; III - 1892; V - 1896. Pedersen, Holger. Bidrag til den albanesiske sproghistorie. (Festskrift til Vilhelm Thomsen). Kobenhavn (1894). Pedersen, Holger. Albanesisch 1905. Rom. Jb. IX (1905). Erlangen (1909). Kretschmer, Paul. Einleitung in die Geschichte der griechischen Sprache, (Hyrje në historinë e gjuhës greke), Göttingen, (1896) Kretschmer, Paul. Sprachliche Vorgeschichte des Balkans, (Parahistoria gjuhësore e Ballkanit), Revue Internationale des e'tudes balkaniquee, vol. II (1935) Thumb, A. Altgriechische Elemente des Albanesischen. IF 26 (1926). Sandfeld, Kristian. Linguistique balkanique, problemes et resultats. Paris 1930. Cimochowski, Waclaw. Recherches sur l'histoire du sandhi dans la langue albanaise. LP II, 1950. Cimochowski, Waclaw. Des recherches sur la toponomastique de l'Albanie. LP VIII, 1960. Cimochowski, Waclaw. Pozicioni gjuhësor i ilirishtes ballkanike në rrethin e gjuhëve indoevropiane. SF 1973/2. Lambertz, Maximilian. Lehrgang des Albanischen. Teil I: Albanisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch. Teil II: Albanische Chrestomathie. Teil III: Grammatik der albanischen Sprache (Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften 1954, Berlin 1955, Halle/Saale 1959). Gjinari, Jorgji. Për historinë e dialekteve të gjuhës shqipe. SF 1968/4. Gjinari, Jorgji. Mbi vazhdimësinë e ilirishtes në gjuhën shqipe. SF 1969/3. Gjinari, Jorgji. Struktura dialektore e shqipes e parë në lidhje me historinë e popullit. SF 1976/3. Gjinari, Jorgji. Dëshmi të historisë së gjuhës shqipe për kohën dhe vendin e formimit të popullit shqiptar. SF 1982/3. Mayer, Antun. Die Sprache der alten Illyrier. B. II. Wien 1959. Tagliavini, Carlo. La stratificazione del lessico albanese. Elementi indoeuropei. Bologna 1965. Mihaescu, Haralambie. Les elements latins de la langue albanaise. RESEE 1966/1-2. Mihaescu, Haralambie La langue latine dans le sud-est de l’Europe. Bucuresti-Paris: Editura Academiei-Les Belles Lettres (1978). Mann, Stuart E.: An Albanian Historical Grammar ; Hamburg : Helmut Buske Verlag, 1977 Çabej, Eqrem. Disa probleme themelore të historisë së vjetër të gjuhës shqipe. BUSHT,SSHSH 1962/4 (In German SA 1964/1). Çabej, Eqrem. Rreth disa Çështjeve të historisë së gjuhës shqipe. BUSHT,SSHSH1963/3 (In Romanian SCL 1954/4). Çabej, Eqrem. Mbi disa rregulla të fonetikës historike të shqipes. SF 1970/2 (In German “Die Sprache”, Wien 1972). Çabej, Eqrem. L'ancien nom national des albanais. SA 1972/1. Çabej, Eqrem. Problemi i vendit të formimit të gjuhës shqipe. SF 1972/4. Çabej, Eqrem. Karakteristikat e huazimeve latine të gjuhës shqipe. SF 1974/2 (In German RL 1962/1). Çabej, Eqrem. Studime etimologjike në fushë të shqipes.; vëll. II, Tiranë 1976. Çabej, Eqrem. Studime etimologjike në fushë të shqipes; vëll. I. Tiranë 1982. Desnickaja, A.V. Albanskij jazyk i ego dialekty. Leningrad 1968. Desnickaja, A.V. Language Interferences and Historical Dialectology Linguistics, EJ088069 (1973) Desnickaja, A.V. Osnovy balkanskogo jazykoznanija, Cast 1. Leningrad: Nauka Press. 1990. Pisani, Vittore L'albanais et les autres langues indoeuropéennes, "Annuaire de l'Institut de philologie et d'histoire orientales etslaves", t. X, Bruxelles, 1950 Pisani, Vittore. Les origines de la langue albanaise. SA 1964/1. Pisani, Vittore. Sulla genesi dell'albanese. Akten Innsbruck (1972). Ajeti, Idriz. La presence de l'albanais dans les parlers des populations slaves de la Peninsule Balkanique а la lumiere de la langue et de la toponymie. SA 1968/2. Ajeti, Idriz. Për historinë e marrëdhënieve të hershme gjuhësore shqiptare-sllave. SF 1972/4. Ölberg, Hermann. Einige Uberlegungen zur Autochtonie der Albaner auf der Balkanhalbinsel. Akten Innsbruck (1972). Ölberg, Hermann. Kontributi i gjuhësisë për çështjen e atdheut ballkanik të shqiptarëve. SF 1982/3. Domi, Mahir. Prapashtesa ilire dhe shqipe, përkime dhe paralelizma. SF 1974/4. Domi, Mahir. Considerations sur les traits communs ou paralleles de l'albanais avec les autres langues balkaniques et sur leur etude. SA 1975/1. Katicic, Radoslav. Ancient languages of the Balkans (Trends in linguistics). The Hague and Paris: Mouton. (1976). Riza, Selman. Studime albanistike. Pristina 1979. De Simone, Carlo. Gli illiri del Sud. Tentativo di una definizione. “Iliria” (Tiranë) 1986/1. Banfi, Emanuele. Linguistica balcanica. Bologna 1985. Banfi, Emanuele. Storia linguistica del sud-est europeo. Milano 1991. Huld, Martin E. Basic Albanian etymologies. Columbus, OH: Slavica Publishers. (1984). Buchholz, Oda / Fiedler, Wilfried: Albanische Grammatik ; Leipzig : VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie, (1987) Pellegrini, Giovan Battista : I rapporti linguistici interadriatici e l’elemento latino dell’albanese në: Abruzzo. Rivista dell'Istituto di Studi Abruzzesi XIX, 1980 Pellegrini, Giovan Battista : Disa vëzhgime mbi elementin latin të shqipes (Some observations over the latin element of the Albanian language), in: SF 1982/3 Pellegrini, Giovan Battista : Avviamento alla linguistica albanese (Edizione rinnovata) (1997) Demiraj, Shaban. Gjuha shqipe dhe historia e saj. Shtëpia botuese e librit universitar (Tirane) 1988. Demiraj, Shaban. Fonologjia historike e gjuhës shqipe. (Akademia e Shkencave e Shqiperise. Instituti i Gjuhesise dhe i Letersise) TOENA (Tirane), 1996 Demiraj, Shaban. Prejardhja e shqiptarëve në dritën e dëshmive të gjuhës shqipe. Shkenca (Tirane) 1999 Demiraj, Shaban. Gramatikë historike e gjuhës shqipe. (Akademia e Shkencave e Shqiperise. Instituti i Gjuhesise dhe i Letersise) 2002 Demiraj, Shaban. Gjuhësi Ballkanike. (Akademia e Shkencave e Shqiperise. Instituti i Gjuhesise dhe i Letersise) 2004
  9. Katicic, Radoslav. Ancient languages of the Balkans (Trends in linguistics). The Hague and Paris: Mouton. (1976))
  10. In his last book Eric Hamp supports the thesis that the Illyrian language belongs to the Northwestern group, that the Albanian language is descended from Illyrian, and that Albanian is related to Messapic which is an earlier Illyrian dialect Studime krahasuese për shqipen (Analytical studies on Albanian)/ Eric P. Hamp ; përg. dhe red.: Rexhep Ismajli . -Prishtinë : Akademia e Shkencave dhe e Arteve e Kosovës, 2007
  11. The Cambridge ancient history By John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond, E. Sollberger Edition: 2, illustrated, revised Published by Cambridge University Press, 1982 ISBN 0521224969, 9780521224963
  12. "The position of Albanian" Eric P. Hamp 1963 (Ancient IE dialects, Proceedings of the Conference on IE linguistics held at the University of California, Los Angeles, April 25-27, 1963, ed. By Henrik Birnbaum and Jaan Puhvel)
  13. Language Contacts in Prehistory: Studies in Stratigraphy By Henning Andersen Edition: illustrated Published by John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2003 ISBN 1588113795, 9781588113795 (page 22)
  14. A grammar of modern Indo-European: language and culture, writing system and phonology, morphology, syntax. By Carlos Quiles, Kárlos Kūriákī Published by Carlos Quiles Casas, 2007 ISBN 8461176391, 9788461176397 (page 386)
  15. Christidis et al. (2007, p. 746)
  16. Woodard (2008)
  17. Mallory & Adams (1997, p. 288)
  18. Christidis et al. (2007, p. 748)
  19. Archaeology and Language II: Archaeological Data and Linguistic Hypotheses, By Roger Blench, Matthew Spriggs, Edition: illustrated, Published by Routledge, 1999, ISBN 0415117615, 9780415117616 (page 250)
  20. Woodard (2008, p. 259)
  21. Indo-European language and culture: an introduction, By Benjamin W. Fortson, Edition: 5, illustrated Published by Wiley-Blackwell, 2004, ISBN 1405103167, 9781405103169 (page 35)
  22. Christidis et al. (2007)
  23. Mallory & Adams (1997)
  24. The Cambridge ancient history By John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond, E. Sollberger Edition: 2, illustrated, revised Published by Cambridge University Press, 1982 ISBN 0521224969, 9780521224963 (Clausal river near Scodra. page 874 )
  25. Palatovelars before resonants in Balto-Slavic, Kortland 1980, Balto-Slavic Phonological Developments, Kortland 2008. link
  26. "Palatal before resonant in Albanian", KZ 76: 275-280 E. Hamp
  27. Demiraj 1988; 44,Demiraj 1996; 190
  28. Mallory & Adams (1997, p. 288)
  29. Krahe, Hans. Die Sprache der Ilyrier. Wiesbaden 1955, page50
  30. Mayer, Anton. - Die Sprache der alten Illyrier. Wien: In Kommission bei R.M. Rohrer, 1957-1959, ZB635393, page 50
  31. Mallory & Adams (1997)
  32. Woodard (2008)
  33. Christidis et al. (2007)
  34. Krahe, Hans. Die alten balkanillyrischen geographischen Namen. Heidelberg 1925
  35. Krahe, Hans. Die Sprache der Illyrier. Wiesbaden 1955
  36. Alföldy, Géza Die Namengebung der Urbevölkerung in der römischen Provinz Dalmatia" BzN 15, 55-104. (1964a)
  37. Katičić, Radoslav (1964b) "Die neuesten Forschungen über die einheimische Sprachschicht in den illyrischen Provinzen" in Benac (1964a) 9-58 Katičić, Radoslav (1965b) "Zur Frage der keltischen und panonischen Namengebieten im römischen Dalmatien" ANUBiH 3 GCBI 1, 53-76
  38. Katičić (1976)
  39. Woodard (2008)
  40. Katičić (1976, p. 179–180)
  41. Suić and Katičić question the existence of a separate people of Illyrii. For them, Illyrii proprie dicti are peoples inhabitating the heartland of the Illyrian kingdom; Suić, M (1976d) "Illyrii proprie dicti" ANUBiH 11 gcbi 11, 179-197. Katičić, R (1964a) "Illyrii proprie dicti" ZAnt 13-14, 87-97 Katičić, R (1965a) "Nochmals Illyrii proprie dicti" ZAnt 16, 241-244. This view is also supported in Papazoglu, F (1989) "L'organisation politique de l'Illyrie meridionale (A propos du livre de P. Cabanes sur "Les Illyriens de Bardylis a Genthios") ZAnt. 39, 31-53.
  42. Kossinna, Gustav. "Die indogermanische Frage archaologisch beantwortet" (1902)
  43. Pokorny, supported it by claiming that the suggested connection between Lat aes (copper) and Skr ayas (metal) with Celtic *isarnon is wrong, because the latter is not of Celtic origin, but the long i of the Celtic word is best explained if we regard Illyrian as the source of the Celtic term. He claimed that this was supported by archaeological data and concluding that the Illyrian word for iron passed into Celtic when Celts first learned the use of the new metal by Illyrians. Pokorny Sprachforschung, xlvi, 1914 p, 293
  44. Pokorny, J. (1936) "Substrattheorie und Urheimat der Indogermanen", p. 213
  45. Vasmer, Max. 1928 "Beitrage zur alten Geographie der Gebiete zwischen lbe und Weischel" Zeitschrift fur slavische Philologie 5.360-370.
  46. Krahe, Hans. Lexikon altillyrischen Personennamen (Dictionary of Old Illyrian personal names) (1929).
  47. (but in fact they were two different tribes a fact that he himself noticed later (Krahe, 1950, 20) also according to Steinacher (2002: 32), the Adriatic Veneti, the Veneti of Gaul and the North Balkan/Paphlagonian Enetoi mentioned by Herodotus and Appian were not related to each other, nor to the Veneti/Venedi mentioned by Tacitus, Pliny and Ptolemy.
  48. Homer Illiad II, 852
  49. Herodotus I, 196
  50. Herodotus V, 9
  51. Krahe (1950, p. 37)
  52. Mayer, A. 1957-59/I,4
  53. Harmatta, J. 1967a ""Zum Illyrischen" Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae1967/1-4, 231-234
  54. Wilkes (1992): "… the beginnings of the Iron Age around 1000 BC is held to coincide with the formation of the historical Illyrian peoples." (p. 39)
  55. Krahe, Hans. Die Strukture der alteuropäischen Hydronomie (The structure of Old-European river names) Wiesbaden, 1963
  56. Krahe, Hans. Unsere altesten Flussnamen (Our oldest river names) Wiesbaden, 1964
  57. Krahe (1964, p. 13)
  58. Krahe (1964, p. 32–33)
  59. Krahe (1964, p. 77)
  60. Tovar, A. (1977) "Krahe's alteuropaische Hydronymie und die westindogermanischen Sprachen" Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenscheften, 1977/2
  61. Theo Vennemann, Patrizia Noel Aziz Hanna, Europa Vasconica, Europa Semitica, Published by Walter de Gruyter, 2003, ISBN 311017054X, 9783110170542
  62. Katičić, Radoslav. "Suvremena istrazivanja o jeziku starosjedilaca ilirskih provincija" (current research on the language of the autochthon people of Illyrian provinces) in Benac 1964, 9-58
  63. Benać, A. "Vorillyrier, Protoillyrier und Urillyrier" in: A. Benac(ed.) "Symposium sur la delimitation Territoriale et chronologique des Illyriens a l’epoque Prehistorique", Sarajevo 1964, pp. 59-94.
  64. Anamali, Skënder, Myzafer Korkuti. Ilirët dhe gjeneza e shqiptarëve. Tiranë, 1969
  65. Stipčević, Alexander. "Iliri" (2nd edition). Zagreb, 1989 (also published in Italian as "Gli Illiri").
  66. Krahe, Die Sprache der Illyrier I. Die Quellen (1955).
  67. Gustav Must, reviewing Krahe 1955 in Language 32.4 (October 1956) p. 721.
  68. [1]
  69. A Grammar Of Modern Indo-European: Language & Culture, Writing System & Phonology, Morphology And Syntax by Carlos Quiles,2007,ISBN 8461176391,"sibina(Lat), sibyna(Lat), sybina(Lat); σιβυνης(Gk.) σιβυνη(Gk.) συβινη(Gk.) ζυβινη(Gk.); a 'hunting spear' generally 'spear', 'pike'; an Illyrian word according to Festius citing Ennius; is compared to συβηνη (Gk.) found in Aristophanes Thesmophoriazusai; the word appears in context of a barbarian speaking.Akin to Persian zopin,Arm savin 'spit'"
  70. Hamp 2007
  71. Wilkes (1992)
  72. Catilinarians By Marcus Tullius Cicero, Andrew R. Dyck Edition: illustrated Published by Cambridge University Press, 2008 ISBN 0521832861, 9780521832861 link [2]
  73. Basic Albanian etymologies By Martin E. Huld Edition: illustrated Published by Slavica Publishers, 1984 Original from the University of Michigan ISBN 0893571350, 9780893571351
  74. Hamp 2007
  75. Strabo 7.43, "élos loúgeon kaloúmenon"
  76. This group is considered to be cognate with the Italian city name of Trieste; Alb treg "market" might be a borrowing from South Slavic.
  77. Wilkes (1992): "Thus it seems generally agreed that the name of the Illyrian queen Teuta of the third century BC derives from teutana, which means `queen'." (p. 72)
  78. Wilkes (1992): "The names Daza, Dasius and Dazomenus have been connected with Das- menus in Pannonia and Dazos in southern Italy. The meaning of these plausible correspondences is hard to determine: neither the internal links between the three principal Illyrian onomastic provinces nor those between ..." (p. 71)
  79. Wilkes (1992): "… around the head of the Adriatic were the Liburni, who occupied the coast and islands between Istria and the river Titus (Krka) and had been known to the Greeks since at least the eighth century BC." (p. 186)
  80. Wilkes (1992): "So far no satisfactory scheme for the analysis of Illyrian names has been proposed. The common name Bato may derive from the same root as the Latin battuere meaning `to strike', …" (p. 73)
  81. Martial's Epigrams Book Two by Craig A. Williams, 2004, ISBN 0195155319, p. 182: "... Some Italian humanists unnecessarily emended to the feminine loteras. 1 Dasius: The Latin form of a Messapic name from southern Italy
  82. Wilkes (1992): "Illyrian deities are named on monuments of the Roman era, some in equation with gods of the classical pantheon." (p. 245) "Thus several deities occur only in Istria, including Eia, Malesocus, Boria and Iria. Anzotica was the Liburnian Venus and appears in the traditional image of the classical goddess." "Other local deities were Latta, Sentona and the nymph Ica, praying in relief sculpture), Knez 1974 (ritual vessel), Baçe 1984 (temple architecture in Illyrian Albania)."
  83. Wilkes. ...including altars dedicated by chiefs of the Japodes at the shrine of Bindus Neptunus at a spring near Bihaé (see figure 30).17 The first reported contact between Japodes and Romans occurred in 171...
  84. Wilkes. North of the Japodes, the altars to Vidasus and Thana dedicated at the hot springs of Topusko reveal the local 246 Roman Illyrians...
  85. Wilkes. North of the Japodes, the altars to Vidasus and Thana dedicated at the hot springs of Topusko reveal the local 246 Roman Illyrians...
  86. Wilkes. ...the short cloak streaming out behind. The Illyrian town Rhizon (Risinium) on the Gulf of Kotor had its protective deity Medaurus...
  87. Wilkes. ...Armatus at Delminium (Duvno) who was evidently a war god of the Delmatae, and the Latin Liber who appears with the...
  88. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC by D. M. Lewis (Editor), John Boardman (Editor), Simon Hornblower (Editor), M. Ostwald (Editor),ISBN 0521233488,1994,page 423,"Through contact with their Greek neighbors some Illyrian tribe became bilingual (Strabo Vii.7.8.Diglottoi) in particular the Bylliones and the Taulantian tribes close to Epidamnus"
  89. Dalmatia: research in the Roman province 1970-2001 : papers in honour of J.J by David Davison, Vincent L. Gaffney, J. J. Wilkes, Emilio Marin,2006,page 21,"completely Hellenised town"
  90. Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, and Sarah B. Pomeroy. A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture. Oxford University Press,page 255,
  91. The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,2003,page 426
  92. A dictionary of the Roman Empire Oxford paperback reference,ISBN-0195102339,1995,page 202,"contact with the peoples of the Illyrian kingdom and at the Celticized tribes of the Delmatae"
  93. The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,2003,page 1106,"Pannonia, a Roman province established AD 9 and named after the Pannonii, a group of Illyrian peoples (see ILLYRII) who had absorbed Celtic influences to various degrees (see CELTS)
  94. The Celts: a history by Dáithí Ó hÓgáin,2003,page 60,"... element among the more numerous local populations of Thracians and Illyrians. The most powerful such new group of mixed Celts was the Scordisci"
  95. Wilkes (1992): "Pinnes and Tato are present, from the Japodes Diteio and Ve(n)do, and a few names are of Celtic origin, Kabaletus, Litus, Nantanius, Sarnus, Sinus, Sisimbrius and Vepus." (p. 76)
  96. Wilkes (1992): "A few names which occur in the upper Neretva valley around Konjic appear to be of Celtic origin: Bolo, Bricussa, lacus, Mallaius…" (p. 75)
  97. Wilkes (1992): "The number of Illyrian names in that area, Genthena, Tatta, Dasius and Thana is small compared with the Celtic: Aioia, Andetia, Baeta, Bidna, Catta, Dussona, …" (p. 82)
  98. Wilkes (1992): "Four names are accepted as definitely Celtic: Nantia, Nonntio, Poia and Sicu. Mellito has a Greek and Celtic element, while the Celtic associations of Ammida, Matera and Seneca remain questionable." (p. 79)
  99. Wilkes (1992): "The number of Illyrian names in that area, Genthena, Tatta, Dasius and Thana is small compared with the Celtic: Aioia, Andetia, Baeta, Bidna, Catta, Dussona, Enena,laca, Madusa, Matisa, Nindia, Sarnus, …" (p. 82)
  100. Wilkes (1992): "Apart from some names of Thracian origin, Bessus and Teres, and some Celtic names, Arvus, Belzeius, Cambrius, laritus, Lautus, Madussa and Argurianus (either Thracian or Celtic), the only name of south Illyrian origin is Plares." (p. 84)
  101. Wilkes (1992). "Apart from some names of Thracian origin, Bessus and Teres, and some Celtic names, Arvus, Belzeius, Cambrius, laritus, Lautus, Madussa and Argurianus (either Thracian or Celtic), the only name of south Illyrian origin is Plares." (p. 84) "The Search for Illyrians (two examples), Varanilla and Varidius. The Thracian names include: Auluporis, Auluzon, Bithus (three examples), Celsus (two examples), Celsinus, Cocaius, Daizo, Delus, Dida, Dinentilla , Dizas, Dizo (two examples)" (p. 86)
  102. Wilkes (1992): "Four names are accepted as definitely Celtic: Nantia, Nonntio, Poia and Sicu. Mellito has a Greek and Celtic element, while the Celtic associations of Ammida, Matera and Seneca remain questionable." (p. 79)
  103. Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott
  104. Wilkes (1992): "Ceraunii whose name deriving from the Greek for `thunderbolt' links them with high mountains" (p. 217)
  105. Wilkes (1992): "… the Illyrian Enchelei, the 'eel-men', whose name points to a location near Lake Ohrid." (p. 98)


References

  • Crossland, R. A. "Linguistic problems of the Balkan area in the late prehistoric and early classical periods". The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 3, 2nd ed. Boardman, Edwards, Hammond and Sollberger. London: Cambridge University Press, 1982, pp. 834–849.
  • Demiraj, Shaban. "Prejardhja e shqiptarëve në dritën e dëshmive të gjuhës shqipe" (The origin of the Albanians through the evidencies of the Albanian language) (Lang: Sqi with English summary) Tiranë Shkenca, 1999 ISBN : 978-99927-654-7-0
  • Katičić, Radoslav. Ancient Languages of the Balkans, Part One. Paris: Mouton, 1976.
  • Polomé, Edgar C., "Balkan Languages (Illyrian, Thracian and Daco-Moesian)". The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 3, 2nd ed. Boardman, Edwards, Hammond and Sollberger. London: Cambridge University Press, 1982, pp. 866–888.


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