The Ilyushin Il-14
(NATO reporting name
was a Soviet twin-engine commercial and military personnel and
cargo transport aircraft that first flew in 1950
, and entered service in 1954.
also manufactured in East
Germany by VVB Flugzeugbau,
in Czechoslovakia as the Avia 14, and in China under the
Chinese designation Y-6 .
Il-14 was typically replaced by the Antonov An-24
and Yakovlev Yak-40
Design and development
The Il-14 was developed as a replacement for the widespread Douglas
and its Soviet built version, the Lisunov Li-2
. A development of the earlier
, (that first flew in
1945), the Il-14 was intended for use in both military and civil
applications. The Il-12 had major problems with poor engine-out
behaviour. Also, it had less payload capability than was originally
planned (although the Il-12 was intended to carry 32 passengers, in
service, it only carried 18, which was uneconomic).
The development into the Il-14 was a vast improvement over the
Il-12, with a new wing and a broader tailfin. It was powered by two
1,400 hp (1,900 hp) Shvetsov ASh-82T-7 radial piston
engines. These changes greatly improved aerodynamic performance in
engine-out conditions. By 1960, 3,680 examples had been built, with
production both in the Soviet Union and licenced production in
Germany and Czechoslovakia.
It was rugged and reliable, and thus was
widely used in rural areas with poor quality airfields.
It was also used by the East German aircraft industry as a test
aircraft for the horizontal
of the Baade 152
- Il-14 : Twin-engined passenger, cargo
- Il-14P : Commercial transport aircraft.
- Il-14M : Commercial transport aircraft, fitted
with a lengthened fuselage, 24-32 seat.
- Il-14T : Military transport aircraft.
- Il-14G : Freight or cargo aircraft.
- Crate-C : Electronic warfare version.
- Avia 14 / 14P : Ilyushin
Il-14s and Il-14Ps built by Avia under licence
- Avia 14-32 : 32-seat version of the Ilyushin
- Avia 14-42 : Enlarged 42-seat version with a
- Avia 14T : Freight or cargo version of the
- Avia 14FG : Aerial survey aircraft.
- Avia 14 Salon : VIP transport aircraft.
- Avia 14 Super :
- Y-6 : Chinese production version.
soldiered on in the Soviet
Union until the 1980s, and also in other Soviet satellite
nations including Cuba and Vietnam.
Countries which have operated the
However, the unlicenced Chinese built Y-6
in the People's
Liberation Army Air Force
as a trainer until late 1980s.
There are no current military operators of the Ilyushin Il-14.
- : Afghan Air Force. 26 were
supplied to the Afghan Air Force from 1955 onwards. By 1979, the
force was reduced to 10, equipping a single squadron.
- : Albanian Air Force. 11 have
been operated by the Albanian Air Force from 1957. None remain in
service as of 1999. 8 Il-14M were delivered from 1957, with four
remaining by 1979. A single Avia built Il-14T along with 2 East
Germany built Il-14P transports were delivered in 1983 and retired
- : Algerian Air Force. 12 were
delivered to the from 1962, with the last phased out in 1997. Only
four were operational by 1979.
- : Bulgarian Air Force. 20
were delivered from 1960, including Il-14M and East Germany built
Il-14P examples. The Il-14P was retired by 1974, and only 4 Il-14M
remained by 1979.
- : More than 50 have been operated by the People's Liberation Army Air
Force from 1955, mostly of the Il-14M and locally produced Y-6
variations. Some have been reported in use by the People's Liberation Army Navy
as well. Final examples were withdrawn by the late 1990s.
- : Congolese Air Force. 5
were delivered from 1960 and remained in service until 1997. All
were reported on strength in 1979.
- : Cuban Air Force. 20 were
delivered from 1961, and served as late as 1992.
- : Czechoslovakian Air
Force. 50 were operated from 1958, though most were locally
built examples delivered from 1968. Most were retired prior to the
split of Czechoslovakia, though a small number may have served
briefly with its successor states.
- : East German Air Force.
30 were delivered, beginning with 11 Ilyushin built aircraft from
1956 and deliveries of East Germany built aircraft commencing the
following year and totalling 19 examples. 20 remained by 1979, and
all were withdrawn by 1990, with none being passed on to the
unified German Luftwaffe.
- : Egyptian Air Force. 70 were
operated by the Egyptian Air
Force from 1955. Most were Soviet built models, but at least
one East Germany built Il-14P was delivered in 1957. Numerous aircraft were
destroyed by Israel during
conflicts, but 26 survived to the peace of 1979. Acquisition
of Western aircraft from then on led to the retirement of the Il-14
- : Ethiopian Air Force. 2
were acquired in 1965, with one remaining in service by 1979 and
finally retired by 1994.
- : 4 were in operation in 1979.
- : Indian Air Force. 26 were
delivered from 1955 but were withdrawn by 1979.
- : Indonesian Air Force. 22
were delivered from 1957 and withdrawn by 1975.
- : Iraqi Air Force. 13 Il-14M
were delivered in 1958, with 3 remaining by 1979. The last aircraft
were withdrawn after the first Gulf
- : Mongolian People's
Air Force. 7 were delivered from 1956, with 6 remaining in
service by until 1974.
- : North Korean Air Force.
About 15 have been operated from 1958 with fewer than 10 in service
by 1979 and the last withdrawn by 1998.
- : 6 or more were delivered from 1958, with a single example
flying in 1979. This was passed on to the unified Yemen.
- : Polish Air Force. 12 or more
served from 1955, including Soviet built Il-14P, Il-14S, and
Il-14T, as well as East Germany built Il-14P and Il-14T models.
These served as late as 1995.
- : Romanian Air Force. 33 were
delivered from 1955, including 30 East Germany built Il-14P models
as well as 3 Il-14M aircraft delivered in 1961. Only 4 remained in
service by 1979, with the last Il-14M being retired in 1983. None
remained in service by 1993.
- : 4 were delivered from 1966, serving as late as 1988.
- : Soviet Air Force and Soviet Naval Aviation. Serving from
1954, 235 were in service in 1979.
- : Syrian Air Force. 16 were
delivered from 1957, with 8 remaining in service by 1979. Final
examples were in service as late as 1998.
- : Vietnam People's Air
Force. 45 were delivered from 1958, with 12 remaining in
service by 1979. None remained in service by 1998.
- : Yemen Air Force. 1 was
inherited from North Yemen in 1990, serving for a short time before
- : SFR Yugoslav Air Force.
12 were delivered from 1963, with up to 10 still in service by
1979. None remained in service by 1998.
Very few examples remain airworthy, with some still in use for
freight duties, and a handful maintained by aviation clubs and
enthusiasts. Today at least one aircraft remains airworthy
in Russia, while
another is possibly airworthy in the United States.
[[File:Bundesarchiv DH 2 Bild-F-04180, Berlin-Schönefeld,
Flughafenbau, Il14.jpg|right|thumb|1961 photograph of an Ilyushin
Il-14 operated by East-German airlineInterflug
- Malev – 10 were operated in Hungary from
1956, two of them by the Hungarian government, eight of them by
Airlines. The first three of Malév's planes were built in the
Soviet Union, with the remaining five Il-14P produced by East
Germany. Malév's planes remained operational until 1970, the two
planes of the government were retired in 1978. All the Hungarian
Il-14 were sold to the Soviet Union for use by the Arctic aviation.
Incidents and accidents
- Ogden, Bob (2008). Aviation Museums and Collections of The Rest
of the World. UK: Air-Britain. ISBN 9780851303949