is the arrival of new individuals into
a habitat or population. It is a biological concept and is
important in population ecology, differentiated from emigration
The term "immigration" is usually used to mean international
immigration. International migration has been split into two types
by most governments, based on the UN: long and short term.The
considers a long term
international migrant to be
It also considers a short term migrant to be
This specifically excludes "temporary travel abroad for purposes of
recreation, holiday, visits to friends and relatives, business,
medical treatment or religious pilgrimage". The UN has also
directly linked international immigration into one country with
emigration from another.
The modern concept of immigration is related to the development of
and nationality law
and/or citizenship law
in a nation-state confers an
inalienable right of residence in that state, but residency
of non-citizens is subject to
conditions set by immigration law
The emergence of modern nation-states made immigration a political
issue: by imagining its populations, in violation of multi-ethnic,
multi-'racial', multi-cultural realities 'on the ground', as
homogenous blocks, constituting a nation
defined by shared, single ethnicity, 'race' and/or culture. Legal
and political restrictions on the presence of foreigners is a
highly controversial political theme because such restrictions are
introduced and maintained by states whose citizens have had a
major, sustained and deeply consequential presence in states other
than their own (see: colonialism
Legal immigrants are people who obtain legal status marked, at a
minimum, by some form of residence permit that regulates the terms
of their employment (see also expatriates
). Some, but by no means all, foreign
workers and expatriates seek and reach citizenship
in the state where they work. Legal
immigrants are different from the undocumented labor force
in that the
latter does not have legal status in the country in which he or she
works. Not all undocumented workers are, strictly speaking,
illegal, because of the complex history of global migrations.
Organization for Migration
said there are more than 200 million
migrants around the world today. Europe
hosted the largest number of immigrants, with 70.6 million people
in 2005, the latest year for which figures are available. North America
, with over 45.1 million
immigrants, is second, followed by Asia
hosts nearly 25.3 million. Most of today's migrant workers come
The United Nations found that, in 2005, there were nearly 191
million international migrants worldwide, 3 percent of the world
population. This represented a rise of 26 million since 1990. Sixty
percent of these immigrants were now in developed countries, an
increase on 1990. Those in less devloped countries stagnated,
mainly because of a fall in refugees. Contrast that to the average
rate of globalization (the proportion of cross-border trade in all
trade), which exceeds 20 percent. The numbers of people living
outside their country of birth is expected to rise in the
The Middle East, some parts of Europe, small areas of South East
Asia, and a few spots in the West Indies have the highest
percentages of immigrant population recorded by the UN Census 2005.
The reliability of immigrant censuses is, however, lamentably low
due to the concealed character of undocumented labor migration. The
Organization for Migration
has estimated the number of foreign
migrants to be over 200 million worldwide today.
Recent surveys by Gallup
700 million adults would like to migrate to another country
permanently if they had the chance. The United States is the top desired destination
Understanding of immigration
General theories behind immigration
One theory of immigration distinguishes between push factors
and pull factors
. Push factors refer
primarily to the motive for emigration
from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration
(usually labour migration), differentials in wage rates
are prominent. If the value of wages in
the new country surpasses the value of wages in one’s native
country, he or she may choose to migrate as long as the travel
costs are not too high. Particularly in the 19th century, economic
expansion of the U.S. increased migrant flow, and in effect, nearly
20% of the population was foreign born versus today’s value of 10%,
making up a significant amount of the labor force. Poor individuals
from less developed countries can
have far higher
standards of living in developed countries than in their
originating countries. The cost of emigration, which includes both
the explicit costs, the ticket price, and the implicit cost, lost
work time and loss of community ties, also play a major role in the
pull of emigrants away from their native country. As transportation
technology improved, travel time and costs decreased dramatically
between the 18th and early 20th century. Travel across the Atlantic
used to take up to 5 weeks in the 1700s, but around the time of the
1900s it took a mere 8 days. When the opportunity cost
is lower, the immigration
rates tend to be higher. Escape from poverty
(personal or for relatives staying behind) is a traditional push
factor, the availability of jobs
related pull factor. Natural
and can amplify poverty-driven migration flows.
of migration may be illegal
immigration in the destination country (emigration is also
illegal in some countries, such as North Korea, Myanmar, Zimbabwe, and
The main problem with push-and-pull theories is three-fold: first,
they state the obvious (i.e., people from poorer places will seek
to go to richer ones); second, they are unable to explain the
emergence of migrant flows (if push and pull were the only things
in existence, people from the poorest countries would migrate to
the richest ones, when in reality such flows are well-nigh
non-existent); third, they are unable to explain the stability of
the emerging patterns of migration (i.e., once a flow from country
A to country B is established, it will stay on for a relatively
long time, even if the initial conditions that had given the push
and pull to the migration are not there any more (as the case of
the German case of the Gastarbeiter
Emigration and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of
employment: religious missionaries
employees of transnational
, international non-governmental
and the diplomatic
expect, by definition, to work 'overseas'. They are
often referred to as 'expatriates
their conditions of employment are typically equal to or better
than those applying in the host country (for similar work).
For some migrants, education
primary pull factor (although most international students
classified as immigrants). Retirement
migration from rich countries to lower-cost countries with better
, is a new type of international
migration. Examples include immigration of retired
British citizens to
Spain or Italy and of
retired Canadian citizens to
the U.S. states of Florida and Texas).
Non-economic push factors include persecution
(religious and otherwise), frequent
and even genocide
, and risks
to civilians during war
. Political motives
traditionally motivate refugee flows—to escape dictatorship
Some migration is for personal reasons, based on a relationship
(e.g. to be with
family or a partner), such as in family reunification
or transnational marriage
. In a few
cases, an individual may wish to emigrate to a new country in a
form of transferred patriotism
of criminal justice
) is a personal motivation. This type
of emigration and immigration is not normally legal, if a crime is
internationally recognized, although criminals may disguise their
identities or find other loopholes to evade detection. There have
been cases, for example, of those who might be guilty of war crimes
disguising themselves as victims of war or conflict and then
pursuing asylum in a different country.
Barriers to immigration come not only in legal form; natural and
social barriers to immigration can also be very powerful.
Immigrants when leaving their country also leave everything
familiar: their family, friends, support network, and culture. They
also need to liquidate their assets often at a large loss, and
incur the expense of moving. When they arrive in a new country this
is often with many uncertainties including finding work, where to
live, new laws, new cultural norms, language or accent issues,
and other exclusionary
behaviour towards them and their family. These barriers act to
limit international migration (scenarios where populations move
to other continents, creating huge population
surges, and their associated strain on infrastructure and services,
ignore these inherent limits on migration.)
The politics of immigration have become increasingly associated
with other issues, such as national
, and in western
Europe especially, with the presence of Islam
as a new major religion. Those with security concerns cite the
2005 civil unrest in
that point to the Jyllands-Posten
Muhammad cartoons controversy
as an example of the value
conflicts arising from immigration of Muslims in Western Europe
failing to recognize the fact that most participants of the 2005
civil unrest were citizens of France, not immigrants themselves,
and the essence of their protest was denial of equal rights, and
blatant racism, on the part of the state. Because of all these
associations, immigration has become an emotional political issue
in many European nations.
Region-specific factors for immigration
As a principle, citizens of one member nation of the European Union
are allowed to work in other
member nations with little to no restriction on movement. For
non-EU-citizen permanent residents in the EU, movement between
EU-member states is considerably more difficult. After new waves of
accession to the European Union, earlier members have often
introduced measures to restrict participation in "their" labour
markets by citizens of the new EU-member states. For instance,
Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain each restricted their
labour market for up to seven years both in the 2004 and 2007 round
Due to the
European Union's—in principle—single internal labour market policy,
societies that have seen relatively low levels of labour
immigration until recently—which have sent a significant portion of
their population overseas in the past—such as Italy and the
Ireland are seeing an influx of immigrants from EU
countries with lower per capita annual earning rates, triggering
nationwide immigration debates.
is seeing growing illegal immigration from Africa. As Spain is the closest EU member nation to
Africa—Spain even has two autonomous cities (Ceuta and Melilla) on the
African continent, as well as an autonomous community (the Canary Islands) west of North Africa, in the Atlantic—it is
physically easiest for African emigrants to reach.
led to debate both within Spain and between Spain and other EU
members. Spain has asked for border control assistance from other
EU states; the latter have responded that Spain has brought the
wave of African illegals on itself by granting amnesty to hundreds
of thousands of immigrants.
Kingdom, France and Germany have seen
major immigration since the end of World War II and have been
debating the issue for decades.
Foreign workers were brought
in to those countries to help rebuild after the war, and many
stayed. Political debates about immigration typically focus on
statistics, the immigration law and policy, and the implementation
of existing restrictions. In some European countries the debate in
the 1990s was focused on asylum seekers, but restrictive policies
within the European Union, as well as a reduction in armed conflict
in Europe and neighboring regions, have sharply reduced asylum
states, such as Japan, have opted
for technological changes to increase profitability (for example,
greater automation), and designed
immigration laws specifically to prevent immigrants from coming to,
and remaining within, the country.
as well as low birth rates and an aging work force, has forced
Japan to reconsider its immigration policy. Japan's colonial past
has also created considerable number of non-Japanese in Japan. Many
of these groups, especially Chinese and Koreans, have faced extreme
levels of discrimination in Japan.
In the United States political debate on immigration has flared
repeatedly since the US became independent. Some on the far-left of
the political spectrum attribute anti-immigration rhetoric to an
all-"white", under-educated and parochial minority of the
population, ill-educated about the relative advantages of
immigration for the US economy and society. While this mentality
shows an obvious bias, it is often hard for civil discussion to
occur regarding immigration due to its highly emotional
The term economic migrant refers to someone who has emigrated from
one country to another country for the purposes of seeking
employment or improved financial position. An economic migrant is
distinct from someone who is a refugee
fleeing persecution. An economic migrant can be someone from the
United States immigrating to the UK or vice versa.
Many countries have immigration and visa restrictions that prohibit
a person entering the country for the purposes of gaining work
without a valid work visa. Persons who are declared an economic
migrant can be refused entry into a country.
Although freedom of movement
often recognized as a civil right
freedom only applies to movement within national borders: it may be
guaranteed by the constitution
human rights legislation. Additionally, this freedom is often
limited to citizens
and excludes others. No
currently allows full freedom
of movement across its borders, and international human rights
treaties do not confer a general
right to enter another state. According to Article 13 of the
Declaration of Human Rights
, everyone has the right to leave or
enter a country, along with movement within it (internal
migration). Some argue that the freedom of movement both within and
between countries is a basic human right, and that the restrictive
immigration policies, typical of nation-states, violate this human
right of freedom of movement. Such arguments are common among
anti-state ideologies like anarchism
. As philosopher and
"Open Borders" activist Jacob Appel
written, "Treating human beings differently, simply because they
were born on the opposite side of a national boundary, is hard to
justify under any mainstream philosophical, religious or ethical
Where immigration is permitted, it is typically selective. Ethnic
selection, such as the White
, has generally disappeared, but priority is
usually given to the educated, skilled, and wealthy—which is in
direct contradiction to the needs of the labour market (demanding
un-skilled and poor people with low levels of education, willing to
do jobs wealthier locals refuse to do). Less privileged
individuals, including the mass of poor people in low-income
countries, cannot avail of the legal and protected immigration
opportunities offered by wealthy states. This inequality has also
been criticised as conflicting with the principle of equal opportunities
, which apply (at
least in theory) within democratic nation-states. The fact that the
door is closed for the unskilled, while at the same time many
developed countries have a huge demand for unskilled labour, is a
major factor in undocumented
. The contradictory nature of this policy—which
specifically disadvantages the unskilled immigrants while
exploiting their labour—has also been criticised on ethical
Immigration polices which selectively grant freedom of movement to
targeted individuals are intended to produce a net economic gain
for the host country. They can also mean net loss for a poor donor
country through the loss of the educated minority—the brain drain
. This can exacerbate the global inequality
in standards of living
that provided the
motivation for the individual to migrate in the first place. An
example of the 'competition for skilled labour' is active
recruitment of health workers by First
countries, from the Third
to Eurostat, Some EU member states are
currently receiving large-scale immigration: for instance Spain, where the
economy has created more than half of all the new jobs in the EU
over the past five years.
The EU, in 2005, had an overall
net gain from international migration of +1.8 million people. This
accounts for almost 85% of Europe's total population growth in
2004, total 140,033 people immigrated to France.
them, 90,250 were from Africa
and 13,710 from
. In 2005, immigration fell slightly to
135,890.many problems can form, like in the book The Shifting Heart
towards Southern Europe
special relevance. Citizens from the European Union make up a
growing proportion of immigrants in Spain.
mainly come from countries like the UK and Germany, but the British
case is of special interest due to its magnitude. The British
authorities estimate that the British population in Spain at
years, immigration has accounted for more than half of Norway's population
In 2006, Statistics Norway's (SSB) counted a record
45,800 immigrants arriving in Norway—30% higher than 2005. At the
beginning of 2007, there were 415,300 persons in Norway with an
immigrant background (i.e. immigrants, or born of immigrant
parents), comprising 8.3 per cent of the total population.
Italy now has an estimated 4 million to 5 million immigrants —
about 7 percent of the population.Since the expansion of the
European Union, the most recent wave of migration has been from
surrounding European nations, particularly Eastern Europe, and
increasingly Asia, replacing North Africa as the major immigration
area. Some 900,000 Romanians are officially registered as living in
Italy, replacing Albanians and Moroccans as the largest ethnic
minority group, but independet estimates put the actual number of
Romanians at double that figure or perhaps even more. Others
immigrants from Eastern Europe are Ukrainians ( 200 000 ), Polish (
100 000 ), Moldovans ( 90 000 ), Macedonians ( 81 000 ), Serbs ( 75
000 ), Bulgarians ( 54 000 ) East german people ( 41 000 ),
Bosnians ( 40 000 ), Russians ( 39 600 ), Croatians ( 25 000 ),
Slovakians ( 9000 ), Hungarians ( 8600 ). (  As of 2009, the
foreign born population origin of Italy was subdivided as follows:
Europe (53.5%), Africa (22.3%), Asia (15.8%), the Americas (8.1%)
and Oceania (0.06%). The distribution of foreign born population is
largely uneven in Italy: 87.3% of immigrants live in the northern
and central parts of the country (the most economically developed
areas), while only 12.8% live in the southern half of the
In 2007, net immigration to the UK was 237,000, a rise of 46,000 on
2004 the number of people who became British citizens
rose to a record 140,795—a rise of 12% on the previous year.
This number had risen dramatically since 2000. The overwhelming
majority of new citizens come from Asia (40%)
and Africa (32%), the largest three groups
being people from Pakistan, India and Somalia.
an estimated 565,000 migrants arrived to live in the UK for at
least a year, most of the migrants were people from Asia (particularly the Indian subcontinent) and Africa, while 380,000 people emigrated from the UK
for a year or more, with Australia,
Spain and France most popular
destinations. Following Poland's entry into
the EU in May 2004 it is estimated that by the start of 2007,
375,000 Poles have registered to work in the UK, although the total
Polish population in the UK is believed to be 500,000.
Poles work in seasonal occupations and a large number are likely to
move back and forth over time. The current UK Immigration Minister
is Phil Woolas.
Spain is the most favoured European destination for Britons leaving
the UK.Since 2000, Spain has absorbed
more than three million immigrants, growing its population by
Immigrant population now tops over 4.5 million.
to residence permit data for 2005, about 500,000 were Moroccan, another 500,000 were Ecuadorian, more than 200,000 were Romanian, and 260,000 were Colombian.
In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme
increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people.
Portugal, long a country of emigration, has now become a
country of net immigration, and not just from the former colonies; by the end of 2003, legal
refugees immigrants represented about 4% of the population, and the
largest communities were from Cape Verde, Brazil, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, UK, Spain and Ukraine.
Canada has the
capita net immigration rate in the world, driven by economic policy and
In 2001, 250,640 people immigrated to
Canada. Newcomers settle mostly in the major urban
areas of Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal.
Since the 1990s, the majority of Canada's
immigrants have come from Asia
. Accusing a
person of racism in Canada is usually considered a serious slur.
All political parties are now cautious about criticising of the
high level of immigration, because, as noted by the Globe and Mail
, "in the early 1990s, the old
'racist' for suggesting that immigration levels be lowered from
250,000 to 150,000."
immigration to Palestine
during the 19th century was promoted by
in the late 19th century
following the publication of "Der
". His Zionist
to encourage Jewish migration
immigration, to Palestine
. Its proponents
regard its aim as self-determination
for the Jewish
people.The percentage of world Jewry living in the former Palestinian Mandate
has steadily grown
from 25,000 since the movement came into existence. Today about 40%
of the world's Jews live in Israel, more than in any other country.
The Israeli Law of Return
, passed in
1950, gives those born Jews (having a Jewish mother or
grandmother), those with Jewish ancestry (having a Jewish father or
grandfather) and converts to Judaism (Orthodox, Reform, or
Conservative denominations—not secular—though Reform and
Conservative conversions must take place outside the state, similar
to civil marriages) the right to immigrate to Israel. A 1970
amendment, extended immigration rights to "a child and a grandchild
of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and
the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew". The Ethiopian Jewish
community's integration to
Israeli society has been complicated by racist attitudes on the
part of some elements of Israeli society and the official
establishment. Over 16,000 African asylum seekers have entered
Israel in recent years.
In the early 1990s, Japan relaxed its relatively tight immigration
laws to allow special entry permits for foreigners of Japanese
ancestry in South America
to make up for a labor shortage.
According to Japanese immigration centre, the number of foreign
resdents in Japan has been steadily increased, and the number of
foreign residents (including permanent residents
, but excluding
and short-term visitors
such as foreign
nationals staying less than 90 days in Japan ) were more than 2.2
million people in 2008. The biggest groups are, Koreans (both south
and north), Chinese (including Taiwan, Hong
nationalities), and Brazilians (Many of Brazilians in Japan have
some Japanese ancestry).
Among the immigrants, Japan accepts steady flow of 15,000 new
by naturalization (帰化)
Indeed, the concept of the ethnic groups
by the Japanese
statistics is different from the ethnicity census of North American
or some Western European statistics. For example, the United
Kingdom Census asks ethnic or racial background
which composites the population of the United Kingdom, regardless
of their nationalities.
The Japanese Statistics Bureau,
however, does not have this question yet. Since the Japanese
population census asks the people's nationality rather than their
ethnic background, naturalized Japanese citizens and Japanese
nationals with multi-ethnic background are considered to be
ethnically Japanese in the population census of Japan.
Also, according to Japanese Association for
, (or JAR
for short), the number
who applied to live in Japan
rapidly increased since 2006, and there were more than a thousand
applications from all over the world, who seek refugee status to
live in Japan in the year of 2008. However, the refugee policy of
Japanese government has been criticized both domestically and
internationally, because the number of refugees in Japan is still
small compared to the countries like Canada
in North America or France
in Western Europe. For example,
according to the UNHCR, in 1999 Japan accepted
16 refugees for resettlement, while the United States took in 85,010, and New Zealand, which is smaller than Japan, accepted
Between 1981, when Japan ratified the U.N. Convention
Relating to the Status of Refugees
, and 2002, Japan recognized
only 305 persons as refugees.
The overall level of immigration to Australia
has grown substantially during the last
decade. Net overseas migration increased from 30,000 in 1993 to
118,000 in 2003-04. The largest components of immigration are the
skilled migration and family re-union programs. In recent years the
of unauthorised arrivals
has generated great levels of
controversy. During the 2004-05, total 123,424 people immigrated to
Australia. Of them, 17,736 were from Africa, 54,804 from Asia, 21,131
from Oceania, 18,220 from United Kingdom, 1,506 from South
America, and 2,369 from Eastern
131,000 people migrated to Australia in 2005-06
and migration target for 2006-07 was 144,000.
New Zealand has relatively open immigration policies.
the population was born overseas, mainly in Asia, Oceania, and UK, one of the
highest rates in the world.
In 2009-2010, a target of
45,000±5000 immigrants was set by the Immigration New
United States of America
From 1850 to 1930, the foreign born population of the United States
increased from 2.2 million to 14.2 million. The highest percentage
of foreign born people in the United States were found in this
period, with the peak in 1890 at 14.7%. During this time, the lower
costs of Atlantic Ocean travel in time and fare made it more
advantageous for immigrants to move to the U.S. than in years
prior. Following this time period immigration fell because in 1924
Congress The Immigration Act of
favored immigrant source countries that already had many
immigrants in the U.S. by 1890. Immigration continued to fall
throughout the 1940s and 1950s, but it increased again afterwards.
but was still low by historical standards.
and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965
(the Hart-Cellar Act)
removed quotas on large segments of the immigration flow and legal
immigration to the U.S. surged. In 2006, the number of immigrants
totaled record 37.5 million. After 2000, immigration to the United
numbered approximately 1,000,000 per year. Despite
tougher border scrutiny after 9/11, nearly 8 million immigrants
came to the United States from 2000 to 2005 – more than in any
other five-year period in the nation's history. Almost half entered
illegally. In 2006, 1.27 million immigrants were granted legal residence
. Mexico has been
the leading source of new U.S. residents for over two decades; and
since 1998,China, India and the
Philippines have been in the top four sending countries every
The U.S. has often been called the "melting
pot"(derived from Carl N. Degler, a historian, author of Out of Our
Past), a name derived from United States' rich tradition of
immigrants coming to the US looking for something better and having
their cultures melded and incorporated into the fabric of the
country. Emma Lazarus, in a poem entitled "The New Colossus," which
is inscribed on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty tells of the
invitation extended to those wanting to make the US their
Since September 11, 2001, the politics of immigration has become an
extremely hot issue. It was a central topic of the 2008 election
cycle. The Mayor of New York City, Michael Bloomberg
is noted for having a
Since World War II
, more refugees
have found homes in the U.S. than any
other nation and more than two million refugees
have arrived in the U.S. since 1980 (representing less than 1% of
the entire United States population). Of the top ten countries
accepting resettled refugees in 2006, the United States accepted
more than twice as much as the next nine countries combined. Some
smaller countries, however, accept more refugees per capita.
- Rich world needs more foreign workers: report,
FOXNews.com, December 02, 2008
- . United
Nations. Key Findings. Retrieved on 30 October 2009.
- Global Estimates and Trends. International
Organization for Migration. 2008. Retrieved on 30 October
- " 700 Million Worldwide Desire to Migrate
- See the NIDI/Eurostat push and pull study for
details and examples: 
- Boustan, Leah. "Fertility and Immigration." UCLA. 15 Jan.
- See, e.g., EU Enlargement in 2007: No Warm Welcome for Labor
Migrants, by Catherine Drew and Dhananjayan Sriskandarajah,
Institute for Public Policy Research
- see, e.g., http://cmd.princeton.edu/papers/POM_0408.pdf or
- Theresa Hayter, Open Borders: The Case Against Immigration
Controls, London: Pluto Press, 2000.
- The Ethical Case for an Open Immigration
- Eurostat News Release on Immigration in EU
- Immigration and the 2007 French Presidential
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- 1,500 immigrants arrive in Britain daily, report
- Indians largest group among new immigrants to
- 750,000 and rising: how Polish workers have built a
home in Britain.
- Phil Woolas - Minister of State | Home
- Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Avance del
Padrón Municipal a 1 de enero de 2006. Datos provisionales
- Charis Dunn-Chan , Portugal sees integration progress, BBC
- Is the current model of immigration the best one
for Canada?, Globe and Mail, 12 December 2005. Retrieved
16 August 2006.
- Walter Laqueur (2003) The History of Zionism Tauris
Parke Paperbacks, ISBN 1860649327 p 40
- A national liberation movement: Rockaway, Robert. Zionism: The National Liberation Movement of The
Jewish People, World Zionist Organization,
January 21, 1975, accessed August 17, 2006). Shlomo Avineri:(
Zionism as a Movement of National Liberation,
Hagshama department of the World Zionist Organization,
December 12, 2003, accessed August 17, 2006). Neuberger, Binyamin.
Zionism - an Introduction, Israeli Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, August 20, 2001. Retrieved August 17, 2006.
- accessed Feb 2009
- " Ethiopian Israelis love their country but not the
racism". Ethiomedia.com. February 15, 2006.
- " Why Jews see racism in Israel". Csmonitor.com.
September 1, 2009.
- " Israel Struggles With African Refugee Dilemma".
ABC News. August 12, 2009.
- " Japan paying jobless foreigners to go home".
Msnbc.com. April 1, 2009.
- 平成20年末現在における外国人登録者統計について(Number of Foreign
residents in Japan)
- Japan Immigration,Alien Registration,One-Stop
Solution for Corporates and individuals for Immigration
- 2008年9月19日－日本での難民申請数 初の1000人突破に関するリリース (People
seeking refugee status to stay in Japan are more than 1000 this
year (September 19, 2008 article)
- " Japan's refugee policy"
- " Questioning Japan's 'Closed Country' Policy on
Refugees". Isozaki Yumi, Journalist, Mainichi Shimbun.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics, International migration
- Australian Bureau of Statistics, 3101.0 Australian Demographic Statistics
- Settler numbers on the rise
-  Jenson, Campbell, and Emily Lennon.
"Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign born population."
- Stephen Ohlemacher, Number of Immigrants Hits Record 37.5M,
- " Study: Immigration grows, reaching record
numbers". USATODAY.com. December 12, 2005.
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Washington Times. December 12, 2005.
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Policy May 4, 2009.
- Balin, Bryan. State Immigration Legislation and Immigrant
Flows: An Analysis Johns Hopkins University, 2008.
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Labor Markets, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
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Immigration Studies Refer to "Publications" for research on
illegal immigration, demographic trends, terrorism concerns,
environmental impact, and other subjects.
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Trails of Hope and Terror: Testimonies on Immigration.
Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Press, 2009.
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Immigration through Local Housing Ordinances. Immigration
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Non-EU Nationals. Lulu.com, 2007. ISBN 0-9786254-0-4
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Immigration: Bridging the Demographic Divide. Immigration
Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, November
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