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An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (German singular: Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was an entity in the Holy Roman Empire with a vote in the Reichstag or Imperial Diet. Several states had no seats in the Empire, while some officials (such as the Hereditary Usher) were non-voting members; neither qualified as Imperial States. Rulers of Imperial States had no authority above them except the Holy Roman Emperor himself; furthermore, they possessed several important rights and privileges, including a degree of autonomy in the rule of their territories.

Composition

Imperial States could be either ecclesiastic or secular. The ecclesiastical states were led, for the most part, by Archbishops, Bishops and Abbots (some were led by Priors, Provosts and Grand Master). Secular states were ruled by rulers of princely rank (including Grand Dukes, Dukes, Counts Palatine, Margraves, Landgraves and most Princes) and rulers of comital rank (including Counts, Lords and some Princes). The rulers who participated in the elections of German Kings ranked as Prince-electors. None of the rulers below the Holy Roman Emperor ranked as Kings, with the exception of the King of Bohemia. There were also the Free and Imperial Cities, whose votes were only advisory.

Statehood was normally attached to a particular territory within the Empire, but there were some reichsständische Personalisten, or Imperial Stately Personalists. Originally, the Emperor alone could grant statehood, but in 1653, several restrictions on the Emperor's power were introduced. The creation of a new state required the assent of the College of Electors and of the College of Princes (see Reichstag below). The ruler was required to agree to accept imperial taxation and military obligations. Furthermore, the state was required to obtain admittance into one of the Imperial Circle. Theoretically, personalist states were forbidden after 1653, but exceptions were often made.

Once a territory attained statehood, it could lose the attribute under very few circumstances. A territory ceded to a foreign power ceased to be a state; furthermore, a mediatized state (that is, a state that came to be under the authority but not the sovereignty of a foreign power) could lose statehood. From 1648 onwards, inheritance of the state was limited to one family; a territory inherited by a different family ceased to be a state unless the Emperor explicitly allowed otherwise. Finally, a territory could lose statehood by being subjected to the imperial ban (the most notable example involved the Count Palatine of the Rhine, who was banned in 1621 for his participation in the Bohemian Revolt).

Rights and privileges

Rulers of Imperial States enjoyed precedence over other subjects in the Empire. Electors were originally styled Durchlaucht (Serene Highness), princes Hochgeboren Fürst (High-Born Prince) and counts Hoch- und Wolhgeboren (High and Well-Born). In the eighteenth century, the electors were upgraded to Durchläuchtigste (Most Serene Highness), princes to Durchlaucht (Serene Highness) and counts to Erlaucht (Illustrious Highness).

Imperial States enjoyed several rights and privileges. Rulers had autonomy insofarasmuch as their families were concerned; in particular, they were permitted to make rules regarding the inheritance of their states without imperial interference. They were permitted to make treaties and enter into alliance with other Imperial States as well as with foreign nations. The electors, but not the other rulers, were permitted to exercise certain regalian powers, including the power to mint money, the power to collect toll and a monopoly over gold and silver mines.

Reichstag

The Reichstag, or Imperial Diet, was divided into three collegia: the Council of Electors, the Council of Princes and the Council of Cities. Electoral states belonged to the first of the aforementioned councils; other states, whether ecclesiastical or secular, belonged to the Council of Princes.

Votes were held in right of the states, rather than personally. Consequently, an individual ruling several states held multiple votes; similarly, multiple individuals ruling parts of the same state shared a single vote. These rules were not formalized until 1582; prior to this time, when multiple individuals inherited parts of the same state, they sometimes received a vote each. Votes were either individual or collective. Princes and senior clerics generally held individual votes (but such votes, as noted above, were sometimes shared). Prelates without individual votes were classified into two benches — the Bench of the Rhinemarker and the Bench of Swabia — each of which enjoyed a collective vote. Similarly, Counts and Lords were grouped into four benches with a collective vote each — the Bench of Wetteraumarker, the Bench of Swabia, the Bench of Franconia and the Bench of Westphalia.

No elector ever held multiple electorates; nor were electorates ever divided between multiple heirs. Hence, in the Council of Electors, each individual held exactly one vote. Electors who ruled states in addition to their electorates also voted in the Council of Princes; similarly, princes who also ruled comital territories voted both individually and in the comital benches. In the Reichstag in 1792, for instance, the Elector of Brandenburgmarker held eight individual votes in the Council of Princes and one vote in the Bench of Westphalia. Similarly, among ecclesiastics, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order held one individual vote in the Council of Princes and two in the Bench of the Rhine.

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