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Indian Armed Forces
भारतीय सशस्त्र सेनाएं


Emblem of India
Components
Indian Army
Indian Navy
Indian Air Force
Indian Coast Guard
Border Security Force (BSF)
Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
Paramilitary Forces of India (PMF)
Strategic Nuclear Command Integrated Space Cell
Military manpower
Total armed forces 2,414,700 (Ranked 2nd)
Active troops 1,414,000 (Ranked 3rd)
Total troops 3,773,300 (Ranked 6th)
Paramilitary 1,089,700
Availability 290 million (2005)
Fit for military service 220 million (2005)
Military expenditures
$ figure 32.35 billion (nominal), 100 billion (PPP) (2006 est.)
Percent of GDP 2.0% (2006 est.) [358818]
History
Military history of India British Indian Army INA
Ranks and insignia
Air Force Army Navy
Related Info
IAF aircraft list Indian Army regiments list Indian naval fleet


The Indian Armed Forces (Devanāgarī: भारतीय सशस्त्र सेनाएं, Bhāratīya Saśastra Sēnāēṃ) is the overall unified military of the Republic of Indiamarker encompassing the Indian Army, the Indian Navy, the Indian Air Force and various other inter-service institutions.

With an estimated total active force of 1,414,000 personnel, India maintains the world's third largest armed forces. Auxiliary services include the Indian Coast Guard, the Central Paramilitary Forces (CPF) and the Strategic Forces Command. India's official defense budget stands at $32.35 billion but the actual spending on the armed forces is estimated to be much higher than that. Undergoing rapid expansion and modernization, the Indian Armed Forces plans to have an active military space program and is currently developing a potent missile defense shield and nuclear triad capability.

India is moving to build a $2 billion or Rs 9,970.16 crore dedicated,highly secure and state-of-the-art optical fiber cable (OFC) network for the Army, Navy and Air Force.This will be one of the world’s largest, closed user group (CUG) networks for exclusive use by the million-plus personnel of the Indian armed forces.

Military history of India



Indiamarker has a long military history dating back several millennia. The first reference of armies is found in the Vedas and the epics Ramayana and Mahabaratha.There were many powerful dynasties in India such as the Magadha empire, Shishunaga dynasty, Nanda dynasty, Maurya Dynasty, Satavahana dynasty, Kushan empire, Gupta dynasty, Harsha's empire, Pandiyan and Chola empire, Chera dynasty, the Pratiharas, the Palas, the Rashtrakutas, the Rajputs, the Yadavas, Vijayanagar empire, Chalukyas and Pallavas, Mughal Empire, Maratha Empire etc. Classical Indian texts on archery in particular, and martial arts in general are known as Dhanurveda.

India has a maritime history dating back to 5,000 years. The first tidal dock is believed to have been built at Lothalmarker around 2300 BCE during the Indus Valley Civilization, near the present day Mangrolmarker harbour on the Gujarat coast. The Rig Veda written around 1500 BCE, credits Varuna with knowledge of the ocean routes and describes naval expeditions. There is reference to the side wings of a vessel called Plava, which give stability to the ship under storm conditions. A compass, Matsya yantra was used for navigation in the fourth and fifth century AD.

The earliest known reference to an organization devoted to ships in ancient India is to the Mauryan Empire from the 4th century BCE. Emperor Chandragupta Maurya's Prime Minister Kautilya's Arthashastra devotes a full chapter on the state department of waterways under navadhyaksha (Sanskrit for Superintendent of ships) . The term, nava dvipantaragamanam (Sanskrit for sailing to other lands by ships, i.e. Exploration) appears in this book in addition to appearing in the Buddhist text, Baudhayana Dharmasastra as the interpretation of the term, Samudrasamyanam.

Sea lanes between India and neighboring lands were the usual form of trade for many centuries, and are responsible for the widespread influence of Indian Culture on other societies. Powerful navies included those of the Maurya, Satavahana, Chola, Vijayanagaramarker, Kalingamarker, Maratha and Moghul empires . The Cholas excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their influence overseas to China and Southeast Asia.

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Maratha and Kerala fleets were expanded, and became the most powerful Naval Forces in the subcontinent, even defeating European Navies at various times (See the Battle of Colachel). The fleet review of the Maratha navy took place at the Ratnagiri fort in which the ships Pal and Qalbat participated. The Maratha Kanhoji Angre and Kunjali Marakkar, the Naval chief of Saamoothiri were two notable naval chiefs of the period.

Colonial Era



The British Indian Navy was established by the Britishmarker while India was a colony. The first Indian to be granted a commission was Sub Lieutenant D.N Mukherji who joined the Royal Indian Marine as an engineer officer in 1928. Indian sailors started a rebellion also known as the The Royal Indian Navy mutiny, in 1946 on board ships and shore establishments which spread all over India. A total of 78 ships, 20 shore establishments and 20,000 sailors were involved in the rebellion. When India became a republic on 26 January 1950, it became known as the Indian Navy, and its vessels as Indian Naval Ships (INS). On 22 April 1958 Vice Admiral R. D. Katari assumed office as the first Indian Chief of the Naval Staff.

Structure

The headquarters of the Indian Armed Forces is in New Delhimarker, the capital city of India. The President of India serves as the de jure commander-in-chief of the armed forces while the de facto executive power is held by the Union Government headed by the Prime Minister of India. The Ministry of Defence (MoD) is the ministry charged with the responsibilities of countering insurgency and ensuring external security of India.

Command organisation

Gen Kapoor is new head of Armed Forces Chiefs panel. The Indian armed force are split into different groups based on their region of operation. The Indian Army is administratively divided into 7 tactical commands, each under the control of different Lieutenant Generals.The Indian Air Force is divided into five operational and two functional commands. Each Command is headed by an Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief with the rank of Air Marshal. The Indian Navy operates four Commands. Each Command is headed by a Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief in the rank of Vice Admiral.

Doctrine

The Armed Forces have five main tasks:

  1. To assert the territorial integrity of India.
  2. To defend the country if attacked by a foreign nation.
  3. To send own amphibious warfare equipment to take the battle to enemy shores.
  4. To support the civil community in case of disasters (e.g. flooding).
  5. To deploy forces to international peace support operations.


Personnel



Component Active Reserve
Indian Army 1,414,000 1,800,000
Indian Navy 67,000
Indian Air Force 220,000
Indian Coast Guard 19,741
Paramilitary forces of India 1,300,300


Service branches

Indian Army

The Indian Army is the world's second largest army in terms of military personnel, and the largest in terms of active manpower. It is a completely voluntary service, the military draft having never been imposed in India. The army has rich combat experience in diverse terrains, due to India's diverse geography, and also has a distinguished history of serving in United Nations peacekeeping operations. Initially, the army's main objective was to defend the nation's frontiers. However, over the years, the army has also taken up the responsibility of providing internal security, especially in insurgent-hit Kashmirmarker and north-eastmarker.

The force is headed by the Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army, currently Deepak Kapoor. The highest rank in the Indian Army is Field Marshal, but it is a largely ceremonial rank and appointments are made by the President of India, on the advice of the Union Cabinet of Ministers, only in exceptional circumstances. (See Field Marshal ). Late General S.H.F.J. Manekshaw and the late General K.M. Cariappa are the only two officers who have attained this rank.The Indian Army has seen military action during the First Kashmir War, Operation Polo, the Sino-Indian War, the Second Kashmir War, the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Sri Lankan Civil War and the Kargil War. Currently, the Indian army has dedicated one brigade of troops to the UN's standby arrangements. Through its large, sustained troop commitments India has come in for much praise for taking part in difficult operations for prolonged periods.
Indian Army has participated in several UN peacekeeping operations, including the ones in Cyprusmarker, Lebanonmarker, Congomarker, Angolamarker, Cambodiamarker, Vietnammarker, Namibiamarker, El Salvadormarker, Liberiamarker, Mozambiquemarker and Somaliamarker. The army also provided a paramedical unit to facilitate the withdrawal of the sick and wounded in Korea. The 1965 war resulted into a ceasefire mandated by the United Nations on Indian request. However, it lost much territory in the Sino-Indian War which till date it has not managed to gain.

The Indian Army has also started modernization program from 2012 to 2020 under Futuristic Infantry Soldier As a System(F-INSAS).

Indian Navy



The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. With 55,000 men and women, including 5,000 naval aviation personnel and 2,000 Marine Commandos , it is the world's fifth largest navy.

The Indian Navy currently operates more than 155 vessels, including the aircraft carrier INS Viraat. In recent years, India has started many ambitious projects to bolster its maritime capabilities including efforts to acquire ships from foreign countries.

In recent years, the Indian Navy has undergone extensive modernization and expansion with an intention to increase its capabilities as a recognized blue-water navy. It is fairly advanced in terms of technology and is in control of one of two Asian aircraft carriers. Two more aircraft carriers are currently being produced. The ships of the Indian Navy are of Indian and foreign origin. In addition, three ballistic missile submarine are to enter service by 2010 end. It is also only one of the six navies in the world that has nuclear capabilities. Others include US, Russia, China, France and the UK. In addition it is in command of the BrahMos which is the fastest cruise missile in the world with speeds of 2.8 Mach.

In its maritime doctrine, the Indian Navy establishes its role in providing support to maritime neighbors during natural disasters. This was demonstrated during the Asian tsunamimarker crisis during which the Indian Navy sent 35 ships to support relief efforts in neighbouring countries. The Indian navy has taken part in UN missions in the coast of Somalia and has provided security to an African Union summit held in Mozambique.The Indian Navy is increasing its capabilities as a true blue-water navy; the Indian Navy's doctrine states that this is for the collective good of nations.

Indian Navy is expected to spend about US$40 billion on military modernization from 2008 to 2013. The modernization program includes INS Vikramadityamarker,Vikrant class aircraft carrier,P-8 Poseidon ,Arihant class nuclear-powered submarines,Shivalik class frigate,Kolkata class destroyer,Scorpène class submarine and Improved Talwar class frigate.

Indian Air Force



With a strength of approximately 170,000 personnel, 1,130 combat and 1,700 non-combat aircraft in active service, the Indian Air Force is the fourth largest air force in the world. In recent years, the IAF has undertaken an ambitious expansion and modernization program and is increasingly used for India's power projection beyond South Asia. In its history, the IAF has generally relied on Sovietmarker, Britishmarker, Israelimarker and Frenchmarker military craft and technology to support its growth. In recent times, however, India has successfully made its own original aircraft, including the HAL Tejas, a 4.5th generation fighter, and the HAL Dhruv, a multi-role helicopter, which has been exported to many countries, including Israelmarker, Burmamarker, Nepalmarker and Ecuadormarker. India also maintains UAV squadrons which can be used to carry out ground attacks and aerial surveillance.

India is testing its own long range BVR air to air missile named Astra and also building a Medium Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) called Rustom . India and Russia are building number of next generation aircraft like 5th generation stealth aircraft called Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft and medium-lift military transport aircraft called Multirole Transport Aircraft.

Indian Coast Guard

The Indian Coast Guard is the maritime Para Military Force (PMF)created to guard Republic of India's vast coastline. It was created on 18 August 1978 as an independent entity as per the Coast Guard Act. its primary objective is to guard Indiamarker's vast coastline and operates under the effective control of the Ministry of Defense.

The coast guard works closely with the Indian Navy and the Indian Customs Department, and is usually headed by a naval officer of the rank of Vice-Admiral. India's coast guard has a large number of fast craft including hovercrafts and hydrofoils. They patrol the seas and river mouths. The coast guard has performed a number of commendable tasks of rescuing distressed personnel. It has also apprehended pirates on high seas and cleaned up oil spills. Heavy patrolling of sensitive areas such as Karnatakamarker,Gujaratmarker, West Bengalmarker and Mumbaimarker have resulted in the nabbing of a large number of smugglers and illegal immigrants.

Border Security Force



The Border Security Force (BSF) is a border patrol agency of the Government of India. Established on December 1, 1965, it is a component of the paramilitary forces of India (PMF) and its primary role is to guard Indiamarker's international borders during peacetime and also prevent transnational crime. Like most paramilitary units of India, the BSF is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Home Affairs. It is one of the many law enforcement agencies of India.

Indo-Tibetan Border Police

The Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) is an Indianmarker paramilitary force conceived on October 24, 1962 for security along the India's border with the Tibet Autonomous Region of Chinamarker, border covering 2115 kilometers.The border posts manned by ITBP are exposed to high velocity storms, snow blizzards, avalanches, and landslides, besides the hazards of high altitude and extreme cold, where temperature dips up to minus 40 degree Celsius. ITBP conducts Long Range and Short Range patrols to keep an effective vigil on inaccessible and unmanned areas on the border.

Nuclear Command Authority

Agni missile range.
Indiamarker possesses an arsenal of nuclear weapons and maintains a no-first use, non-use against non-nuclear nations and a credible nuclear deterrence policy against nuclear adversaries. India's nuclear missiles include the Prithvi, the Agni, the Shaurya, Sagarika, Dhanush, and others. India has long range strategic bombers like the Tupolev Tu-22 M3 and Tupolev Tu-142 as well as fighter jets like Sukhoi Su-30MKI, Dassault Mirage 2000 , MiG-29 and HAL Tejas capable of being armed with nuclear tipped bombs and missiles. Since India doesn't have a nuclear first use against an adversary, it becomes important to protect from a first strike. Presently, this protection is provided by the two layered Anti-ballistic missile defense system. The first test of Agni-V, which is a MIRVed ICBM is expected in the year 2010.India's Strategic Nuclear Command controls its land-based nuclear warheads, while the Navy controls the ship and in future submarine based missiles and the Air Force the air based warheads. India's nuclear warheads are deployed in four areas:

  1. Ship based mobile, like Dhanush.(operational)
  2. Land-based mobile, like Agni.(operational)
  3. Submarine based, like Sagarika.(under deployment)
  4. Air-based warheads of the Indian Air Forces' strategic bomber force(operational)


Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program

The Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program is an initiative to develop and deploy a multi-layered Ballistic missile defense system to protect Indiamarker from missile attacks.

Development

Launching of Advanced Air Defense (AAD) missile

Phase 1

Development of ABM System began in 1999. Around 40 public and private Companies were involved in the development of ABM System. They include Bharat Electronics Ltd and Bharat Dynamics Ltd, Astra Microwave, ASL, Larsen & Toubro, Vem Technologies Private Limited and KelTech. Development of LRTR (Long Range Tracking Radar) and MFCR (Multi-function Fire Control Radar) was lead by Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (ERDE).

For the AAD Missile System, Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL) developed the mission control software. Research Centre, Imarat (RCI) developed navigation, electromechanical actuation systems and Active Radar Seeker. Advanced System Laboratory (ASL) provided the motors, jet vanes and structures for the two missiles. High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) supplied the propellants for the missile.

Phase 2

  • Two new anti-ballistic missiles that can intercept IRBM/ICBMs are being developed. These high speed missiles (AD-1 and AD-2) are being developed to intercept ballistic missiles with the range of 5000 km. The test trials of these two systems is expected to take place in 2011. The new missile will be similar the THAAD missile deployed by the U.S.Amarker. These missiles will have to travel at hypersonic speeds and will require radars with scan capability of over 1500 kilometers to successfully intercept the target.
  • India is also planning to develop a laser based weapon system as part of its Ballistic Missile Defence to intercept and destroy missiles soon after they are launched towards the country. DRDO's Air Defence Programme Director V K Saraswat says its ideal to destroy a ballistic missile carrying nuclear or conventional warhead in its boost phase. Saraswat further added that it will take another 10–15 years for the premier defence research institute to make it usable on the ground.


Security pacts and Overseas Bases

In 1958, the then-Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visited Bhutan and reiterated India's support for Bhutan's independence and later declared in the Indian Parliament that any aggression against Bhutan would be seen as aggression against India. India also operates the Farkhor Air Basemarker in Tajikistanmarker.India started the process to bring the island country Maldives into India’s security grid. India can use Iranian bases for war with Pakistan. India is also one of three countries with whom Japan has a security pact, the other being Australia and the United States. India and Russia have a military cooperation pact until 2010 which is likely to be extended or renewed. India had signed a pact to develop ports in Myanmar and various bilateral issues, including economic cooperation, connectivity, security and energy. India and Israel have increased cooperation in military and intelligence ventures since the establishment of diplomatic relations. While India and Israel were officially "rivals" during the Cold War, the fall of the Soviet Union and the rise of Islamic terrorism in both countries have generated a solid strategic alliance.India has maritime security arrangement in place with Omanmarker and Qatar. In 2008, a landmark defense pact was signed, under which India committed its military assets to protect "Qatar from external threats".

Budget

Military spending of the world
India has the world's 9th largest defense budget. In 2009, India's official military budget stood at $32.7 billion. In 2004, the GlobalSecurity.org estimated India's budget to be around $100 billion in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). According to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, India's military budget (PPP) stood at $72.7 billion in 2007. A major portion of India's current defense budget is devoted to the ambitious modernization program of the country's armed forces. Between 2007 and 2012, India is expected to spend about $50 billion on the procurement of new weapons.

Gallantry awards

The highest wartime gallantry award given by the Military of India is the Param Vir Chakra (PVC), followed by the Maha Vir Chakra (MVC) and the Vir Chakra (VrC). Its peacetime equivalent is the Ashoka Chakra. The highest decoration for meritorious service is the Param Vishisht Seva Medal.

Future

Analysis of the Central Intelligence Agency indicates that India is projected to possess the fourth most capable concentration of power by 2015. According to a report published by the US Congress, India is the developing world's leading arms purchaser.

Recruitment and training

Recruitment is through four military related academies. These include the National Defence Academy, Indian Military Academy , Indian Naval Academy and Officers Training Academy. For entrance, one must display that they are both physically and mentally fit to be in the military by sitting examinations and undergoing medical checkups. The complete list of institutions training Indian army were listed in Military academies in India section.

Indian Peace Keeping And Anti-piracy Mission

India is regular contributor to United Nation Peacekeeping mission and were other peacekeeping Mission.The troop-contributing to UN peacekeeping operations as of March 2007 were 9,471. It also suffer 127 soldier died while serving on peacekeeping missions. India also provided army contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990 as Indian Peace Keeping Force and In November 1998, India also helped restore government of Maumoon Abdul Gayoom in Maldivesmarker under Operation Cactus.

Anti-piracy Mission

India sought to augment its naval force in the Gulf of Aden by deploying the larger INS Mysore to patrol the area. Somalia also added India to its list of states, including the U.S. and France, who are permitted to enter its territorial waters, extending up to from the coastline, in an effort to check piracy. An Indian naval official confirmed receipt of a letter acceding to India's prerogative to check such piracy. "We had put up a request before the Somali government to play a greater role in suppressing piracy in the Gulf of Aden in view of the United Nations resolution. The TFG government gave its nod recently." India also expressed consideration to deploy up to four more warships in the region. And in response increased activity of the INS Tabar.

Relief Operation of IAF

Indian Air Force provides regular relief operation for food and medical facility around the World by its Cargo aircraft most notably Ilyushin Il-76.The most recent relief operation of IAF was in Sri Lankamarker.

See also



References

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 Does not include members of the Indian Police Service


Further reading



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