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Indore (Hindi: इंदौर/ ) is the largest city and commercial capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradeshmarker . It is also known as The City of Holkars. The city was built by Rani Ahilyabai Holkar, one of the famous queens of India. Formerly a major trading centre, the city, along with its satellite townships of Pithampur, Mhow and Dewas, has established itself as a strong industrial base. The era of liberalisation has seen Indore at the forefront of a number of privatisation initiatives which include the country's first toll road and private telephone network. In the midst of such vibrant industrial activity, the city still manages to maintain its link with its glorious past. Indore is also called as 'Mini Mumbai', due to the similar lifestyles of people residing here.

Etymology

Theories explaining the origins and etymology behind Indore's name differ. Formerly, the city of Indore was known by many different names.The first expected name of the city was Indreshwar which was named after the Indreshwar Templemarker in the city. Before this name was used, it was known as Ahilyanagari (The city of Queen Ahilyabai Holkar).

Year 1607 to 1793 - Ahilyanagarimarker,Year 1800 to 1950 - Indhurmarker,Year 1958 till Present - Indore

The present name Indore originated from the Indreshwar temple constructed in 1741 by Ved Manuj.

History

The ancestors of the founders of Indore were the Zamindars of the region which spread from the banks of Narmada to the borders of rajputana. In Mughal times, the founders of these families received the title of Chaudhari, which established their claim to the land. In the 18th century, the control of Malwa passed to the Peshwa clan, and the Chaudharis came to be known as "Mandloi"s (derived from Mandalsmarker) because of the language they used and eventually the Holkars conferred the title of Rao Raja upon the family. The family retained its possessions of royalty, which included having an elephant, Nishan, Danka and Gadi even after the advent of Holkars and also retained the right of performing the first puja of Dushera (Shami Pujan) before the Holkar rulers.

Under Mughal rule, the family enjoyed great influence and was accorded confirmatory sanads by the Emperors Aurangzeb, Alamgir, and Farukhshayar, confirming their 'Jagir' rights. Rao Nandlal Chaudhary Zamindar, upon visiting the court of Delhi, received a special place in the emperor’s court along with two jewel studded swords (now on display in the Royal British Museum under the family's name) and confirmatory sanads. Raja Savai Jai singh of Jaipur, a personal friend of his, gifted him with a special "Gold Langar" which guaranteed a special place to him in all the Durbars of India. The family’s respectability and influence over Malwa was instrumental in the ascent of the Peshwas and Holkars to rulership of this region.

Rao Nandlal Chaudhary, the founder of Indore, was the Chief Zamindar (landlord), and had an army of 2000 soldiers. In 1713, Nizam was appointed as the controller of the Deccan plateau area, which renewed the struggle between the Marathas and the Mughals.

While visiting the temple of Indreshwarmarker near the banks of river Saraswati, Nandlalsingh found the location to be safe and strategically located, being surrounded by rivers on all sides. He started moving his people in, and constructed the fort of Shree Sansthan Bada Rawala to protect them from harassment by Mughals. The city was named Indrapur (after Lord Indreshwar), and eventually came to be known as Indore.

Baji Rao Peshwa finally took control of Malwa in 1733 A.D. Malhar Rao Holkar was one of the four signatories who guaranteed the proper fulfillment of the conditions. Upon victory the Peshwas appointed Malhar Rao Holkar as a “Subhedar”, which marked the beginning of Holkars' reign in Malwa.Major General Sir John Malcolm, Memoirs of Malwa (1912)

Image:indpalac.JPG|Durbar Hall - Lal Bagh PalaceThus, Indore came to be ruled by the Maratha Maharajas of the Holkar dynasty. The dynasty's founder, Malhar Rao Holkar, (1694-1766), was granted control of Malwa Maratha armies in 1724, and in 1733, was installed as the Maratha governor of the region. By the end of his reign, the Holkar state was de facto independent. He was succeeded by his daughter Ahilyabai Holkar who ruled from 1767 to 1795. She ruled from a palace-fort at Maheshwarmarker, south of Indore on the Narmada Rivermarker. Ahilyabai Holkar was an architectural patron who donated money for the construction of Hindu temples across India. In 1818, the Holkars were defeated by the Britishmarker in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, and the Holkar kingdom became a part of the British Raj. As a result of this defeat in the Battle of Mahidpur, the treaty of Mandsaurmarker was signed, through which the Cantonment town of Mhowmarker was handed over to the British. The treaty also decreed that the capital of the Holkar state would shift from Maheshwar to Indore.

In early 20th century, Indore was the home of Seth Hukumchand Jain, who became the first Indian to establish a jute mill in India. He is regarded to a pioneer of Indian industry, and a founder of several institutions and industries in Indore and nearby area.

After India's independence in 1947, Indore, along with a number of neighbouring princely states, became part of the Indian state of Madhya Bharat. Indore was designated the summer capital of this newly created state. On November 1, 1956, Madhya Bharat was merged into Madhya Pradesh and Bhopalmarker was chosen as the capital.The city palace was the seat of administration of the rulers of the Malwa region – The Holkars (26 May 1728 to 20 April 1948). The Rajbada was burnt in the 1984 riots, and thus converted into a garden, till 2006 when the present Maharani of Indore, H.H. Ushadevi Holkar, decided to rebuild the wada to its past glory. H.H. Ushadevi Holkar invited architects Himanshu Dudwadkar and Shreya Bhargava to design this challenging project and in 2007 the Rajwada found its place back in history. It became the only historic structure in India to have been rebuilt with exactly the same style, materials and method of construction as those of 250 years ago.

Geography

Indore is located in the western region of Madhya Pradesh, and is close to the centre of India. Indore has an average elevation of 1 metre. It is located on an elevated plain, with the Yadri range to the south. Indore's maximum width is increasing to Dewas on one side to Mhow on other side which is makes total distance of 65 km.

Climate

Indore has a transitional climate between a tropical wet and dry and a humid sub-tropical climate. Three distinct seasons are observed, summer, monsoon and winter. Summers start in mid-March and can be extremely hot in April and May. The highest temperatures recorded was 48 °C in 1994. Average Summer Temperature may go as high as 42-44.c (100.4 °F) but humidity is very low. Due to Indore's location on the southern edge of the Malwa Plateau, a cool breeze (also referred to as Shab-e-Malwa) in the evenings makes summer nights quite pleasant. The monsoon season starts in late June, with temperatures averaging around , with sustained, torrential rainfall and high humidity. The average rain fall is 36 inches. Winters start in mid-November and are dry, mild and sunny. Temperatures average about , but can fall close to freezing on some nights. In summer temperature can be sometimes as high as and in winters it can be as low as .

Indore gets moderate rainfall of during July-September due to the southwest monsoon.

Transport

The city is well connected via Rail, Road and Air transport services. Indore has for a long time been a rail and road transportation hub.

The major bus terminals are Sarwate bus terminal, Gangwal bus terminal, Navlakha bus stand & Jinsi bus stand.

Railways

The City Railway Division comes under Western Railways of Ratlam Division. The City of Indore has Indore Junction BG as the main and terminal station on the broad gauge line connecting it to the rest of the country. This has been builted earlier as a reason for lack of rail connectivity improvement to the north Indore city. In the Railway budget of 2009 Indore main railway station was listed to be transformed in Modern railway station with other 300 stations across India.

Indore is one of the several places in India with both meter gauge and broad gauge railways operational. Regular train services connect Indore to most parts of the country. Trains are also available from nearby Ratlam Junction, Ujjain Junction, Khandwamarker, and Bhopal Junction stations. These can be reached by train or road within 2-5 hrs.

Indore lies on the longest remaining functional meter gauge line in India, between Ratlammarker and Akolamarker. This meter gauge section is scheduled for conversion to standard broad gauge under Indian Railways' projected Unigauge system.

Roadways

Indore is well connected to other parts of India through national and state highways. There are some major highways which pass through Indore and connect it to some major cities. The major highways passing through the city are:

There are daily Bus Services operated by private operators as well as government transport agencies of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan connecting Indore to major cities across Central and Western India.

Local Transport

(I.C.T.S.C.L INDORE) has proud of launching 125 General Low Floor, 120 New Semi-Low Floor and 50 AC Special City Buses within the City of Indore. The Indore City Bus came in existence in year-2004. It now operates more than 200 GPS and IVR enabled CITY BUSES, with 30 Routes. The Corporation set up more than 130 Bus Stop Stations with GPS LED Display of Bus Timings. Indore also brought up metro taxis and cabs. It becomes easy transportation with the help of buses, taxis, autos, vans and cabs.Image:Indorecityre.jpg|India's first of its concept - GPS & IVR enabled city buses



Airport

Indore is served by the Devi Ahilyabai Holkar International Airportmarker. Indore airport is about 5 km from the city centre and currently is restricted to domestic services. An international terminal is under construction and the integrated control room tower and building is supposed to be completed by February 2010.

Demographics

Indore's total population in 2001 was reported to be 1, 516, 918. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. As per 2001 census, the city of Indore has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. Male literacy was 75%, and Female literacy was 64% which have been increased recently by year 2009 to 89% average literacy rate with Male literacy of 95% and Female literacy of 84% In Indore, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. The average annual growth rate of population is around 2.85% as per the statistics of census 2001. Hindi is the main language spoken here. A considerable population of Indore can speak as well as understand Marathi due to the rule of Marathas (Holkars). Malwi is the local language spoken in Indore and its surrounding regions.

Economy

Like all other large cities, Indore too has several shopping malls, movie cinemas, restaurants and hotels. The Trade and Commerce is mostly same in all seasons except a special hike in retailing during the Diwali and New Year season. Indore's main trade is in clothing, Medicines and Educational services. Pithampur, Sanwer, Mhow, are industrial areas of Indore having more than 2000 factories in the city . Pithampur is also known as the Detroit of India.

Image:treasure islandindore.jpg|Treasure Island won Asia's Best Mall Concept Award

Education

Daly College, Indore
Indore has many well-known institutions & serves as education hub of central India. The city is excellent in primary and secondary education too. Most of the schools in Indore include affiliation of Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) board as well as ICSE board or NIOS board.

Indore has developed as a center for preparing students for higher education.Indore University, now Devi Ahilya Vishwa Vidyalaya (DAVV), is main & oldest university of Indore.Indore is the only Indian city which hosts both an Indian Institute of Management Indoremarker and an Indian Institute of Technology Indore. There are also several Business Schools, engineering colleges and medical institutions.

Media

Local media in Indore is strong and flourished. Indore has been seat of journalism in the state for a long time. There are a number of Theatres, newspapers, magazines, and local radio and television stations.

Arts and theater

Ravindra Natya Grah is an important and well known center for theatre and performing arts in the city. Many artists from around the world perform here regularly. Abhivyakti Centre of Fine Arts & Performing Arts, Deolalikar Kala Vithika are also similar centers for arts and theatre.

Electronic media

The radio industry has expanded with a number of private and government owned FM channels being introduced. The FM radio channels that broadcast in the city include AIR Vividh Bharathi FM (102.8 MHz), Radio Mirchi FM (98.3 MHz), Big FM (92.7 MHz), Red FM (93.5 MHz), My FM (94.3 MHz) and AIR Gyan Vani FM (107.6 MHz). State-owned Doordarshan transmits two terrestrial television channels and one satellite television channel from Indore.

Print media

There are about 19 Hindi dailies, two English dailies, 26 weeklies and monthlies, 3 quarterlies, 1 Bi-monthly Magazine and one annual paper published from the city.The major Hindi dailies include the Nai Dunia, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Patrika, Agnibaan, & PrabhatKiran. The major English dailies are The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, Business Standard & The Economic Times.

Communication services

Indore is covered by a large network of optical fibre cables. There are three fixed telephone line operators in the city: BSNLmarker, Reliance and Airtel. There are Six mobile phone companies in which GSM players include BSNLmarker, Reliance, Vodafone, Idea, Airtel, Tata DoCoMo, CDMA services offered by BSNLmarker, Virgin Mobile, Tata Indicom and Reliance.

Sports

Indore has two cricket stadiums, Nehru Stadium and Usha Raje Cricket Stadium. There are also some sports club for lawn tennis & table tennis. Indore has organised various International cricket matches. Usha Raje Stadium is the biggest cricket stadium of Madhya Pradesh and has a capacity of around 45, 000 spectators and has held day-night domestic and international cricket matches. Two one day international matches have been played in the Usha Raje stadium between India and England.Indore is also a traditional powerhouse for the game of basketball which has been growing in popularity over the last 3 to 4 decades. It is the home of India's first National Basketball Academy and has a world class indoor basketball stadium. Indore has successfully organised various National Basketball Championships.The list of noted cricketers include C. K. Naidu, Jamshed Nusserwanji Bhaya, Mushtaq Ali, Hiralal Gaekwad, Narendra Hirwani, Amay Khurasia and Sanjay Jagdale. Other well-known sportspersons are late Dr. Sharma (Basketball) and Manas Mishra (Powerlifting), Kishan Chand, Shankar Lakshman and Saleem Sherwani (hockey).

Culture

Indore city has a variety of cultures. Over the years the city of Indore has welcomed people from all castes, creed and colour. People from all corners of the country have migrated & settled in the heart of Madhya Pradesh for their livelihood, education or just for its peaceful culture. People here know to maintain harmony by intermixing and enjoying their life, irrespective of castes or region and by respecting every religion.Indore also has a INTACH (Indian National Trust For Art and Cultural Heritage) chapter, which is currently engaged in preserving, documenting and conserving the rich heritage of Indore.

Food

Indore is famous for its culinary rang and is known for its wide variety of "Namkeens", Poha & Jalebi, Chaats (snacks), various types of restaurants, and Bengali & Rajasthani sweets, as well as dishes such as Bafle-Gosht - a delicacy of Indore and Malwa RegionIndore also holds the record for biggest tea party with over 30,000 people participating in an event organized by Dainik Bhaskar.

Main festivals

All national festivals like Holi, Baisakhi, Raksha Bandhan, Navratri,Dussehra, Ganeshotsav, Deepavali, Ramzan, Gudi Padwa, Bhaubeej, Eid and other others like Nagpanchmi, Ahilya Utsav, are celebrated with equal enthusiasm.

Government and politics

Total Number of Parliamentary Seats: 1

  • Member of Parliament: Mrs.Sumitra Mahajan
  • City Mayor: Dr.(Mrs.) Uma Shashi Sharma
  • Legislator: Mr. Ashwin Joshi, Mr. Sudarshan Gupta, Mr. Ramesh Mendola, Mrs. Malini Gaud, Mr. Mahendra Hardia, Mr. Jeetu Jeerati
  • District Collector: Mr. Rakesh Shrivastava - IAS
  • Superintendent of Police: Mr. Makrand Deuskar- IPS
  • Indore Development Authority (I.D.A) Chairman: Mr. Madhu Verma


Places of Interests

  • 'Rajwada - A seven storied palace built during the Holkar era. The main wada (the kings' residence) was rebuilt recently to its original glory by Ar Himanshu Dudwadkar and Shreya Bhargava and funded by Maharani Ushadevi Holkar.
  • Lal Bagh Palace - A beautiful palace spread across of land. It is now a museum and one can see the artefacts of the Holkar era.
  • Sitalamata Fall - A beautiful place near Manpur and about from Indore. You need to go around from the AB road.
  • Crystal Temple - Digambar Jain temple built by Seth Hukumchand a century ago, with exquisite glass work.
  • Krishnapura Chhatri - By the banks of the much polluted Khan river, it is at a walking distance from Rajwada.
  • Devlalikar Kala Vithika - A well-known art gallery named after famous painter Vishnu Devlalikar
  • Khajrana Ganesh Temple - Temple of Lord Ganesha.
  • Patal Pani - A beautiful waterfall near Mhow. Patal Pani has a small railway station - the first after Mhow as one travels on the metre gauge track towards Khandwa.
  • The Temple of Janapao - On the National Highway 3 road. from Mhow. The temple is on top of a hill in the village of Kuti. According to legend, it is the place where Jamadagni, the father of Parshurama, had his ashram. It is famous for a mela (fair) held on Kartik Purnima - the first full moon after Diwali,
  • Kajligarh - Nearly towards Khandwa on Khandwa road, its a very small old ruined fort situated near to a beautiful valley & small waterfall. Its worth watching during & after the rainy season. An Ideal one day outing spot which is yet unknown to even most of the Indorites
  • Thincha Falls - Located close to Kajligarh, its a beautiful waterfall near Simrol. Breathtaking beauty is what describes it the best. A must see during and after monsoons.
  • Annapurna Temple - A nice Hindu Temple, primarily of goddess Annapurna, in the west region of the city.
  • Zoo - The Zoo in Indore is famous for it's unique collection of animals.


Trivia

  • The gates of Lalbagh Palace, Indore, are a replica of the gates of Buckingham Palacemarker in Londonmarker. They were cast in Englandmarker and then shipped to Indore.
  • Vijay Balla
    has a huge cricket bat called "Vijay Balla" made out of concrete with names of the players of the Indian team who won the 1971 series against Gary Sobers' West Indies team.
  • high idol at Bada Ganapati is the largest idol of Lord Ganesh in the world.
  • Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (formerly CAT), is India's main Research center on Laser and Accelerator Technology, under the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India.
  • The famous Radio Mirchi 98.3 (then 98.4) FM was started first in Indore, then spread to ten other cities of India including 4 metros.
  • Until the early 1990s, Bollywood movies were released on Thursdays in Indore, and released elsewhere on Fridays.
  • The first private landline telephone service in India was launched in Indore by Airtel by the name Touchtel.
  • After Bombay,largest number of cotton mills were in India was in Indore,hence it was also called Mini-Bombay.
  • The 250 year old Rajvada of Indore is the only structure in India which has been reconstructed as it existed using the similar materials and methods of construction in 2007 by architects Himanshu Dudwadkar and Shreya Bhargava.
  • Only city in India to have both IIM and IIT


See also



References

External links







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