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An intergovernmental organization, sometimes rendered as an international governmental organization and both abbreviated as IGO, is an organization comprised primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations. Intergovernmental organizations are often called international organizations, although that term may also include international nongovernmental organization such as international non-profit organizations (NGOs) or multinational corporations.

Intergovernmental organizations are an important aspect of public international law. IGOs are established by treaty that acts as a charter creating the group. Treaties are formed when lawful representatives (governments) of several states go through a ratification process, providing the IGO with an international legal personality.

Intergovernmental organizations in a legal sense should be distinguished from simple groupings or coalitions of states, such as the G8 or the Quartet. Such groups or associations have not been founded by a constituent document and exist only as task groups.

Intergovernmental organizations must also be distinguished from treaties. Many treaties (such as the North American Free Trade Agreement, or the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade before the establishment of the World Trade Organization) do not establish an organization and instead rely purely on the parties for their administration becoming legally recognized as an ad hoc commission. Other treaties have established an administrative apparatus which was not deemed to have be granted international legal personality.

Types and purposes

Intergovernmental organizations differ in function, membership and membership criteria. They have various goals and scopes, often outlined in the treaty or charter. Some IGOs developed to fulfill a need for a neutral forum for debate or negotiation to resolve disputes. Others developed to carry out mutual interests in a unified form.

Common stated aims are to preserve peace through conflict resolution and better international relations, promote international cooperation on matters such as environmental protection, to promote human rights, to promote social development (education, health care), to render humanitarian aid, and to economic development. Some are more general in scope (the United Nations) while others may have subject-specific missions (such as Interpol or the International Organization for Standardization and other standards organizations). Common types include:



Some organizations, such as NATOmarker, have collective security or mutual defense provisions.

The Union of International Associations publishes an annual directory of organizations and provides ancillary information on most international organizations, both intergovernmental and non-governmental.

Examples of IGOs

The United NationsMission:
  1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;
  2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
  3. To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and
  4. To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.
Membership:192 Member StatesMembership is "...open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations."

World BankMission Statement:
  • "To fight poverty with passion and professionalism for lasting results. To help people help themselves an their environment by providing resources, sharing knowledge, building capacity and forging partnerships in the public and private sectors."
Membership:186 Members made up of government-owned organizations.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)Mission:
  • "The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments.
They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law. They seek to promote stability and well-being in the North Atlantic area.They are resolved to unite their efforts for collective defence and for the preservation of peace and security. They therefore agree to this North Atlantic Treaty."

Members:"NATO is an Alliance that consists of 28 independent member countries."

History

While treaties, alliances, and multilateral conferences had existed for centuries, IGOs only began to be established in the 19th century. Among the first were the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, initiated in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, and the future International Telegraph Union, which was founded by the signing of the International Telegraph Convention by 20 countries in May 1865. Of notable significance was the emergence of the League of Nations following World War One, designed as an institution to foster collective security in order to sustain peace.

Expansion and growth of IGOs

There currently are more than 250 IGOs worldwide, and this number continues to rise. This increase may be attributed to globalization, which increases and encourages the cooperation among and within states. Globalization has also provided easier means for IGO growth, as a result of increased international relations. This is seen economically, politically, militarily, as well as on the domestic level. Economically, IGOs gain material and non-material resources for economic prosperity. IGOs also provide more political stability within the state and among differing states. Military alliances are also formed by establishing common standards in order to ensure security of the members to ward off outside threats. Lastly, the formation has encouraged autocratic states to develop into democracies in order to form an effective and internal government.Shannon, Megan. "The Expansion of International Organizations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Sep 02, 2004 . 2009-05-26 [1987]/meta/p59961_index.html>

Participation and involvement in IGOs

There are several different reasons a state may choose membership in an intergovernmental organization. But there are also reasons membership may be rejected. These reasons are explored in the sections below.

Reasons for participation

1) Economic rewards: In the case of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), many different countries receive economic benefits from membership in the free trade agreement. For example, Mexican companies are given better access to U.S.marker markets due to their membership.

2) Political influence: Smaller countries, such as Portugalmarker and the Netherlandsmarker, who do not carry much political clout on the international stage, are given a substantial increase in influence through membership in IGOs, such as the European Union.

3) Security: Membership in an IGO such as NATOmarker gives security benefits to member countries. This provides an arena where political differences can be resolved.

4) Improve democracy and the likelihood of democratic survival: It has been noted that member countries experience a greater degree of democracy and those democracies survive longer.

Reasons for rejecting membership

1) Loss of sovereignty: Membership often comes with a loss of state sovereignty as treaties are signed which require cooperation on the part of all member states.

2) Insufficient benefits: Often membership does not bring about substantial enough benefits to warrant membership in the organization.

Impact of IGOs on world politics

Strengths and weaknesses of IGOs

These are some of the strengths and weaknesses of IGOs:

Strengths:
  1. They hold state authority.
  2. Their institutions are permanent.
  3. They provide a forum for discussion.
  4. They are issue specific.
  5. They provide information.
  6. They allow multilateral cooperation.


Weaknesses:
  1. Membership is limited. Prohibits the membership of private citizens. This makes IGOs undemocratic. In addition, not all IGOs allow universal membership.
  2. IGOs often overlap resulting in a complex network.
  3. States have to give up part of their sovereignty, which weakens the state's ability to assert its authority.
  4. Inequality among state members creates biases and can lead powerful states to misuse these organizations.


References

See also



Further readings and external references

  • Claude, I.L. (1959). Swords into Plowshares: The problems and progress of international organization. New York: Random House
http://untreaty.un.org/English/Seminar/Laos_03/intorganizations.ppt

http://www.aallnet.org/sis/fcilsis/Syllabi/kuehl/Introduction%20to%20Intergovernmental%20Organizations%20and%20Non-Governmental.ppt
  • IGO search Free service allowing search through websites of all intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) as recognized and profiled by the Union of International Associations.
  • ASIL-RIO reportsReports on the activities of various intergovernmental organizations maintained by the American Society of International Law.
  • Walker, Gloria. "Consolidation and Corruption: The Effect of IGO Membership on Level of Corruption in Emerging Democracies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Sep 02, 2004 . 2009-05-26 /www.allacademic.com/meta/p61398_index.html>



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