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The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet, devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech pathologists and therapists, singers, actors, lexicographers, and translator.

The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are distinctive in spoken language: phonemes, intonation, and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech such as tooth gnashing, lisping, and sounds made with a cleft palate, an extended set of symbols called the Extensions to the IPA is used.

Occasionally symbols are added, removed, or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of 2008, there are 107 distinct letters, 52 diacritics, and four prosody marks in the IPA proper.

History

In 1886, a group of Frenchmarker and Britishmarker language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known (from 1897 onwards) as the International Phonetic Association (in French, l’Association phonétique internationale). The original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound (the sh in shoe) was originally represented with the letter ‹c› in English, but with the letter ‹x› in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.

Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993, with the addition of four mid-central vowels and the removal of symbols for voiceless implosives. The alphabet was last revised in May 2005, with the addition of a symbol for the labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories and modifying typefaces.

Extensions of the alphabet are relatively recent; "Extensions to the IPA" was created in 1990 and officially adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994.

Description

A chart of the full International Phonetic Alphabet.


The general principle of the IPA is to provide one symbol for each distinctive sound (or speech segment). This means that it does not use letter combinations to represent single sounds, or single letters to represent multiple sounds (the way represents or in English). There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values (as does in English and other European languages), and finally, the IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them (a property known as "selectiveness").

Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 represent consonants and vowels, 31 are diacritics that are used to further specify these sounds, and 19 are used to indicate such qualities as length, tone, stress, and intonation.

Letterforms

The symbols chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most symbols are either Latin or Greek letters, or modifications thereof. However, there are symbols that are neither: for example, the symbol denoting the glottal stop, , has the form of a "gelded" question mark, and was originally an apostrophe. In fact, there are a few symbols, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, , which, though modified to blend with the Latin alphabet, were inspired by glyphs in other writing systems (in this case, the Arabic letter , `ain).

Despite its preference for letters that harmonize with the Latin alphabet, the International Phonetic Association has occasionally admitted symbols that do not have this property. For example, before 1989, the IPA symbols for click consonants were , , , and , all of which were derived either from existing symbols, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for , none of these symbols was widely used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, and as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols , , , , and at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989.

Symbols and sounds

The International Phonetic Alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, using as few non-Latin forms as possible. The Association created the IPA so that the sound values of most consonants taken from the Latin alphabet would correspond to “international usage”. Hence, the letters , , , (hard) , (non-silent) , (unaspirated) , , , , (unaspirated) , (voiceless) , (unaspirated) , , , and have the values used in English; and the vowels from the Latin alphabet ( , , , , ) correspond to the sound values of Latin: is like the vowel in mach'ine, is as in rule, etc. Other letters may differ from English, but are used with these values in other European languages, such as , , and .

This inventory was extended by using capital or cursive forms, diacritics, and rotation. There are also several derived or taken from the Greek alphabet, though the sound values may differ. For example, is a vowel in Greek, but an only indirectly related consonant in the IPA. Two of these ( and ) are used unmodified in form; for others (including , , , , and ) subtly different glyph shapes have been devised, which may be encoded in Unicode separately from their "parent" letters.

The sound values of modified Latin letters can often be derived from those of the original letters. For example, letters with a rightward-facing hook at the bottom represent retroflex consonants; and small capital letters usually represent uvular consonants. Apart from the fact that certain kinds of modification to the shape of a letter generally correspond to certain kinds of modification to the sound represented, there is no way to deduce the sound represented by a symbol from the shape of the symbol (unlike, for example, in Visible Speech).

Beyond the letters themselves, there are a variety of secondary symbols which aid in transcription. Diacritic mark can be combined with IPA letters to transcribe modified phonetic values or secondary articulations. There are also special symbols for suprasegmental feature such as stress and tone that are often employed.

Brackets and phonemes

There are two principal types of brackets used to set off IPA transcriptions:
  • [square brackets] are used for phonetic details of the pronunciation, possibly including details that may not be used for distinguishing words in the language being transcribed, but which the author nonetheless wishes to document.
  • /slashes/ are used to mark off phonemes, all of which are distinctive in the language, without any extraneous detail.
For example, while the /p/ sounds of pin and spin are pronounced slightly differently in English, and this difference would be meaningful in some languages, it is not meaningful in English, but rather is an automatic variation due to one of the /p/ sounds being preceded by an /s/. Thus phonemically the words are and , with the same /p/ phoneme. However, if one wishes to capture the difference between them (the allophones of /p/), one can transcribe them phonetically as and .

Two other conventions are less commonly seen:
  • //Double slashes//, |pipes|, ||double pipes||, or {braces} may be used for the theoretical underlying structure of a word, more abstract even than that of phonemes. See [[morphophonology]] for examples. *‹Angle brackets› are used to clarify that the letters represent the original orthography of the language, or sometimes an exact transliteration of a non-Latin script, not the IPA; or, within the IPA, that the letters themselves are indicated, not the sound values that they carry. For example, {{IPA|‹pin›}} and {{IPA|‹spin›}} for our two words, which do not contain the ''ee'' sound {{IPA|[i]}} of the IPA letter {{IPA|‹i›}}. Italics are perhaps more commonly used for this purpose when full words are being written (as ''pin, spin'' above), but may not be considered sufficiently clear for individual letters and digraphs. ==Usage== {{further|[[Phonetic transcription]]}} [[Image:Phonetik.svg|thumb|left|100px|[[Ébauche]] is a French term meaning "outline" or "blank".]] Although the IPA offers over a hundred symbols for transcribing speech, it is not necessary to use all relevant symbols at the same time; it is possible to transcribe speech with various levels of precision. A precise phonetic transcription, in which sounds are described in a great deal of detail, is known as a ''narrow transcription''. A coarser transcriptions which ignores some of this detail is called a ''broad transcription.'' Both are relative terms, and both are generally enclosed in square brackets. Broad phonetic transcriptions may restrict themselves to easily heard details, or only to details that are relevant to the discussion at hand, and may differ little if at all from phonemic transcriptions, but they make no theoretical claim that all the distinctions transcribed are necessarily meaningful in the language. [[Image:RPGA international.svg|200px|thumb|Phonetic transcriptions of the word ''international'' in two English dialects. The square brackets indicate that the differences between these dialects are not necessarily sufficient to distinguish different words in English.]] For example, the English word ''little'' may be transcribed broadly using the IPA as {{IPA|[ˈlɪtəl]}}, and this broad (imprecise) transcription is an accurate (approximately correct) description of many pronunciations. A more narrow transcription may focus on individual or dialectical details: {{IPA|[ˈlɪɾɫ]}} in [[General American]], {{IPA|[ˈlɪʔo]}} in [[Cockney]], or {{IPA|[ˈlɪːɫ]}} in Southern US English. It is customary to use simpler letters, without a lot of diacritics, in phonemic transcriptions. The choice of IPA letters may reflect the theoretical claims of the author, or merely be a convenience for typesetting. For instance, in English, either the vowel of ''pick'' or the vowel of ''peak'' may be transcribed as {{IPA|/i/}} (for the pairs {{IPA|/pik, piːk/}} or {{IPA|/pɪk, pik/}}), and neither is identical to the vowel of the French word ''pique'' which is also generally transcribed {{IPA|/i/}}. That is, letters between slashes do not have absolute values, something true of broader phonetic approximations as well. A narrow transcription may, however, be used to distinguish them: {{IPA|[pʰɪk], [pʰiːk], [pik]}}. ===Linguists=== Although IPA is popular for transcription by linguists, it is also common to use [[Americanist phonetic notation]] or IPA together with some [[Obsolete and nonstandard symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet|nonstandard symbols]], for reasons including reducing the error rate on reading handwritten transcriptions or avoiding perceived awkwardness of IPA in some situations. The exact practice may vary somewhat between languages and even individual researchers, so authors are generally encouraged to include a chart or other explanation of their choices.{{cite web |url=http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/005287.html |title=Why I Don't Love the International Phonetic Alphabet |author=Sally Thomason |date=January 2, 2008 |work=Language Log }} ===Language study=== {{Expand section|date=November 2009}} Some language study programs use the IPA to teach pronunciation. For example, in Russia (and earlier in the Soviet Union) textbooks for childrenFor example, the English school textbooks by I.N.Vereshagina, K.A. Bondarenko and T.A. Pritykina. and adultsFor example, "Le Français à la portée de tous" by K.K. Parchevsky and E.B. Roisenblit (1995) and "English Through Eye and Ear" by L.V. Bankevich (1975). for studying English and French consistently used the IPA. ===Dictionaries=== ====English==== Many British dictionaries, among which are [[Monolingual learner's dictionary|learner's dictionaries]] such as the [[Advanced learner's dictionary|Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary]] and the [[Advanced learner's dictionary|Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary]], now use [[Pronunciation respelling for English#International Phonetic Alphabet|the International Phonetic Alphabet]] to represent the pronunciation of words.{{cite web|url=http://dictionary.cambridge.org/help/phonetics.htm |title=Phonetics |year=2002 |publisher=Cambridge Dictionaries Online|accessdate=2007-03-11}} However, most American (and some British) volumes use one of a variety of [[Pronunciation respelling for English|pronunciation respelling]] systems, intended to be more comfortable for readers of English. For example, the respelling systems in many American dictionaries (such as [[Merriam–Webster]]) use ‹y› for IPA {{IPA|[j]}} and ‹sh› for IPA {{IPA|[ʃ]}}, reflecting common representations of those sounds in written English,{{cite web |url=http://mw1.merriam-webster.com/pronsymbols.html |title=Merriam-Webster Online Pronunciation Symbols |accessdate=2007-06-04 |work=}}
    {{cite book |first=Michael |last=Agnes|title=Webster's New World College Dictionary|year=1999|publisher=Macmillan USA|location=New York, NY|isbn=0-02-863119-6|pages=xxiii|nopp=true}}
    ''[[Pronunciation respelling for English]]'' has detailed comparisons. using only letters of the English [[Latin alphabet|Roman alphabet]] and variations of them. (In IPA, {{IPA|[y]}} represents the sound of the French ‹u› (as in ''tu''), and {{IPA|[sh]}} represents the pair of sounds in ''gra'''ssh'''opper''.) One of the benefits of using an alternative to the IPA is the ability to use a single symbol for a sound pronounced differently in different dialects. For example, [[The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language]] uses ‹ŏ› for the vowel in ''cot'' [http://www.bartleby.com/61/46/C0674600.html (kŏt)] but ‹ô› for the one in ''caught'' [http://www.bartleby.com/61/14/C0171400.html (kôt)].{{cite web|title=Pronunciation Key|work=The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language |url=http://www.bartleby.com/61/12.html |year=2000 |publisher=Bartleby.com|accessdate=2006-09-19 }} Some American speakers [[phonological history of English low back vowels|pronounce these the same way]] (for example, like IPA {{IPA|[ɒ]}} in the [[Boston accent|Boston dialect]]); for those speakers who maintain the distinction, depending on the accent, the vowel in ''cot'' may vary from {{IPA|[ɑ]}} to {{IPA|[a]}}, while the vowel in ''caught'' may vary from {{IPA|[ɔ]}} to {{IPA|[ɑ]}}, or may even be a diphthong. Using one symbol for the vowel in ''cot'' (instead of having different symbols for different pronunciations of the ''o'') enables the dictionary to provide meaningful pronunciations for speakers of most dialects of English. ====Other languages==== The IPA is also not universal among dictionaries in languages other than English. Monolingual dictionaries of languages with generally [[phonemic orthography|phonemic orthographies]] generally don't bother with indicating the pronunciation of most words, and tend to use respelling systems for words with unexpected pronunciations. Dictionaries produced in [[Israel]] use the IPA rarely and sometimes use the [[Hebrew alphabet]] for transcription of foreign words. Monolingual Hebrew dictionaries use pronunciation respelling for words with unusual spelling; for example, [[Even-Shoshan Dictionary]] respells תָּכְנִית as תּוֹכְנִית because this word uses [[kamatz katan]]. Bilingual dictionaries that translate from foreign languages into [[Russian language|Russian]] usually employ the IPA, but monolingual Russian dictionaries occasionally use pronunciation respelling for foreign words; for example, [[Ozhegov's dictionary]] adds ''нэ́'' in brackets for the [[French language|French]] word ''пенсне'' ([[Pince-nez]]) to indicate that the ''[[е]]'' doesn't [[Iotation|iotate]] the ''[[н]]''. The IPA is more common in bilingual dictionaries, but there are exceptions here too. Mass-market bilingual Czech dictionaries, for instance, tend to use the IPA only for sounds not found in the [[Czech language]].{{cs icon}} {{cite book |last=Fronek|first=J.|title=Velký anglicko-český slovník|year=2006|publisher=Leda|location=Praha|language=Czech|isbn=80-7335-022-X|quote=In accordance with long-established Czech lexicographical tradition, a modified version of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is adopted in which letters of the Czech alphabet are employed.}} ===Standard orthographies and capital variants=== {{See also|Latin characters in Unicode}} IPA symbols have been incorporated into the standard orthographies of various languages, notably in [[Sub-Saharan Africa]] but in other regions as well. These include for example: [[Hausa language|Hausa]]; [[Fula language|Fula]]; [[Akan language|Akan]]; [[Gbe languages]]; and [[Manding languages]]. An example of capital letter forms for IPA symbols is [[Kabiyé language|Kabiyé]] of northern [[Togo]], which has {{unicode|[[Open O|Ɔ]] [[Latin epsilon|Ɛ]] [[African D|Ɖ]] [[Eng (letter)|Ŋ]] [[Latin gamma|Ɣ]] [[Esh (letter)|Ʃ]] [[Ʊ]] (or [[Ʋ]]) }} (capital {{IPA|ɔ ɛ ɖ ŋ ɣ ʃ ʊ (or ʋ)}}): ''{{Unicode|MBƱ AJƐYA KIGBƐNDƱƱ ŊGBƐYƐ KEDIƔZAƔ SƆSƆƆ TƆM SE}}.'' Other IPA-paired capitals include {{unicode|[[Latin alpha|Ɑ]] [[Ɓ]] [[Ƈ]] [[Ɗ]] [[Ə]]/[[Ə|Ǝ]] [[G with hook|Ɠ]] [[Ħ]] [[Ɯ]] [[M with hook|Ɱ]] [[Ɲ]] [[Ɵ]] [[Ʈ]] [[Ezh (letter)|Ʒ]] [[R with tail|Ɽ]]}}. The abovementioned and other capital forms are supported by [[Unicode]], but appear in Latin ranges other than the IPA extensions. ===Classical singing=== IPA has widespread use among classical singers for preparation, especially among English-speaking singers who rarely sing in their native language. Opera librettos are authoritatively transcribed in IPA, such as [[Nico Castel]]'s volumes{{cite web | url=http://www.castelopera.com/libretti.htm | title=Nico Castel's Complete Libretti Series | publisher=Castel Opera Arts | accessdate=2008-09-29}} and Timothy Cheek's book ''Singing in Czech''.{{cite book | url=http://scarecrowpress.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=%5EDB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0810840030 | last=Cheek | first=Timothy | title=Singing in Czech | year=2001 | pages=392 | isbn=0-8108-4003-0 ISBN 978-0-8108-4003-4 | publisher=The Scarecrow Press}} Opera singers' ability to read IPA was recently used by the [http://www.visualthesaurus.com/howitworks/ Visual Thesaurus], which employed several opera singers "to make recordings for the 150,000 words and phrases in VT's lexical database. ...for their vocal stamina, attention to the details of enunciation, and most of all, knowledge of IPA."{{cite web | url=http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=155 | title=Operatic IPA and the Visual Thesaurus | last=Zimmer | first=Benjamin | authorlink=Benjamin Zimmer | work=[[Language Log]] | publisher=[[University of Pennsylvania]] | accessdate=2009-09-29 | date=2008-05-14}} ==Letters== The International Phonetic Alphabet divides its letter symbols into three categories: [[Egressive|pulmonic]] consonants, non-pulmonic consonants, and vowels."Segments can usefully be divided into two major categories, consonants and vowels." (International Phonetic Association, ''Handbook'', p. 3)International Phonetic Association, ''Handbook'', p. 6. Each character is assigned a number, to prevent confusion between similar letters (such as {{IPA|ɵ}} and {{IPA|θ}}), for example in printing manuscripts. Different categories of sounds are assigned different ranges of numbers. ===Pulmonic consonants=== {{Main|Consonant}} A [[Egressive|pulmonic]] consonant is a consonant made by obstructing the [[glottis]] (the space between the vocal cords) or [[Mouth|oral cavity]] (the mouth) and either simultaneously or subsequently letting out air from the lungs. Pulmonic consonants make up the majority of consonants in the IPA, as well as in human language. All consonants in the English language fall into this category.{{cite book|last=Fromkin|first=Victoria|authorlink=Victoria Fromkin|coauthors=Rodman, Robert|title=An Introduction to Language|origyear=1974|year=1998|publisher=Harcourt Brace College Publishers|location=Fort Worth, TX |edition= 6th|isbn=0-03-018682-X}} The pulmonic consonant table, which includes most consonants, is arranged in rows that designate [[manner of articulation]], meaning how the consonant is produced, and columns that designate [[place of articulation]], meaning where in the vocal tract the consonant is produced. The main chart includes only consonants with a single place of articulation. {| class="IPA wikitable" style="text-align: center" ! colspan=17 | [[Media:IPA consonants 2005.png|View this table as an image.]] |- |- style="vertical-align: center; font-size: x-small; height: 2em" | rowspan="2" style="font-size: 90%;" | [[Place of articulation]] → ! colspan="2" | [[Labial consonant|Labial]] ! colspan="4" | [[Coronal consonant|Coronal]] ! colspan="4" | [[Dorsal consonant|Dorsal]] ! colspan="4" | [[Radical consonant|Radical]] ! colspan="2" rowspan="3" style="width: 4em;" | [[Glottal consonant|Glottal]] |- style="vertical-align: center; font-size: x-small; height: 3em" ! rowspan="2" style="width: 4em;" | [[Bilabial consonant|Bi­la­bial]] ! rowspan="2" style="width: 4em;" | [[Labiodental consonant|La­bio­dental]] ! rowspan="2" style="width: 4em;" | [[Dental consonant|Den­tal]] ! rowspan="2" style="width: 4em;" | [[Alveolar consonant|Al­veo­lar]] ! rowspan="2" style="width: 4em;" | [[Postalveolar consonant|Post­al­veo­lar]] ! rowspan="2" style="width: 4em;" | [[Retroflex consonant|Re­tro­flex]] ! rowspan="2" style="width: 4em;" | [[Palatal consonant|Pa­la­tal]] ! rowspan="2" style="width: 4em;" | [[Velar consonant|Ve­lar]] ! rowspan="2" colspan="2" style="width: 4em;" | [[Uvular consonant|Uvu­lar]] ! rowspan="2" colspan="2" style="width: 4em;" | [[Pharyngeal consonant|Pha­ryn­geal]] ! rowspan="2" colspan="2" style="width: 4em;" | [[Epiglottal consonant|Epi­glot­tal]] |- style="vertical-align: center; font-size: x-small; height: 3em" | style="font-size: 90%;" | [[Manner of articulation]] ↓ |- style="font-size: 120%;" ! style="font-size: x-small; text-align:left" | [[Nasal consonant|Nasal]] |    [[bilabial nasal|{{IPA|m}}]] |    [[labiodental nasal|{{IPA|ɱ}}]] | colspan="3" |   [[alveolar nasal|{{IPA|n}}]] |    [[retroflex nasal|{{IPA|ɳ}}]] | |   [[palatal nasal|{{IPA|ɲ}}]] |    [[velar nasal|{{IPA|ŋ}}]] | colspan="2" |    [[uvular nasal|{{IPA|ɴ}}]] | colspan="6" style="background:#ccc" |   |- style="font-size: 120%;" ! style="font-size: x-small; text-align:left" | [[Stop consonant|Plosive]] | [[voiceless bilabial plosive|{{IPA|p}}]] [[voiced bilabial plosive|{{IPA|b}}]] | [[voiceless labiodental plosive|{{IPA|p̪}}]] [[voiced labiodental plosive|{{IPA|b̪}}]] | colspan="3" |[[voiceless alveolar plosive|{{IPA|t}}]] [[voiced alveolar plosive|{{IPA|d}}]] | [[voiceless retroflex plosive|{{IPA|ʈ}}]] [[voiced retroflex plosive|{{IPA|ɖ}}]] | [[voiceless palatal plosive|{{IPA|c}}]] [[voiced palatal plosive|{{IPA|ɟ}}]] | [[voiceless velar plosive|{{IPA|k}}]] [[voiced velar plosive|{{IPA|ɡ}}]] | colspan="2" | [[voiceless uvular plosive|{{IPA|q}}]] [[voiced uvular plosive|{{IPA|ɢ}}]] | colspan="2" style="background:#ccc" |   | colspan="2" | [[epiglottal plosive|{{IPA|ʡ}}]] | style="width: 1em;" | [[glottal stop|{{IPA|ʔ}}]] | style="width: 1em; background:#ccc" |   |- style="font-size: 120%;" ! style="font-size: x-small; text-align:left" | [[Fricative consonant|Fricative]] | [[voiceless bilabial fricative|{{IPA|ɸ}}]] [[voiced bilabial fricative|{{IPA|β}}]] | [[voiceless labiodental fricative|{{IPA|f}}]] [[voiced labiodental fricative|{{IPA|v}}]] | [[voiceless dental fricative|{{IPA|θ}}]] [[voiced dental fricative|{{IPA|ð}}]] | [[voiceless alveolar fricative|{{IPA|s}}]] [[voiced alveolar fricative|{{IPA|z}}]] | [[voiceless postalveolar fricative|{{IPA|ʃ}}]] [[voiced postalveolar fricative|{{IPA|ʒ}}]] | [[voiceless retroflex fricative|{{IPA|ʂ}}]] [[voiced retroflex fricative|{{IPA|ʐ}}]] | [[voiceless palatal fricative|{{IPA|ç}}]] [[voiced palatal fricative|{{IPA|ʝ}}]] | [[voiceless velar fricative|{{IPA|x}}]] [[voiced velar fricative|{{IPA|ɣ}}]] | style="width: 1em;" | [[voiceless uvular fricative|{{IPA|χ}}]] | rowspan="2" style="width: 1em;" | [[voiced uvular fricative|{{IPA|ʁ}}]] | style="width: 1em;" | [[voiceless pharyngeal fricative|{{IPA|ħ}}]] | rowspan="2" style="width: 1em;" | [[voiced pharyngeal fricative|{{IPA|ʕ}}]] | style="width: 1em;" | [[voiceless epiglottal fricative|{{IPA|ʜ}}]] | rowspan="2" style="width: 1em;" | [[voiced epiglottal fricative|{{IPA|ʢ}}]] | rowspan="2" colspan="2" | [[voiceless glottal fricative|{{IPA|h}}]] [[voiced glottal fricative|{{IPA|ɦ}}]] |- style="font-size: 120%;" ! style="font-size: x-small; text-align:left" | [[Approximant consonant|Approximant]] |    [[bilabial approximant|{{IPA|β̞}}]] |    [[labiodental approximant|{{IPA|ʋ}}]] | colspan="3" |    [[alveolar approximant|{{IPA|ɹ}}]] |    [[retroflex approximant|{{IPA|ɻ}}]] |    [[palatal approximant|{{IPA|j}}]] |    [[velar approximant|{{IPA|ɰ}}]] |   |   |   |- style="font-size: 120%;" ! style="font-size: x-small; text-align:left" | [[Trill consonant|Trill]] |    [[bilabial trill|{{IPA|ʙ}}]] | | colspan="3" |    [[alveolar trill|{{IPA|r}}]] |    [[retroflex trill| ]] | | style="background:#ccc" | | colspan="2" |    [[uvular trill|{{IPA|ʀ}}]] | colspan="2" style="background:#ccc" | | colspan="2" |    [[epiglottal trill|{{IPA|я}}]]* | colspan="2" style="background:#ccc" |   |- style="font-size: 120%;" ! style="font-size: x-small; text-align:left" | [[Flap consonant|Tap or Flap]] | |   [[bilabial flap|ⱱ̟]] |    [[labiodental flap|]] | colspan="3" |   [[alveolar tap|{{IPA|ɾ}}]] |    [[retroflex flap|{{IPA|ɽ}}]] |   | style="background:#ccc" | | colspan="2" |    [[Uvular flap|ɢ̆]] | colspan="2" style="background:#ccc" |   | colspan="2" |    [[epiglottal flap|{{IPA|ʡ̯}}]] | colspan="2" style="background:#ccc" |   |- style="font-size: 120%;" ! style="font-size: x-small; text-align:left" | [[Lateral consonant|Lateral Fricative]] | colspan="2" style="background:#ccc" | | colspan="3" | [[voiceless alveolar lateral fricative|{{IPA|ɬ}}]] [[voiced alveolar lateral fricative|{{IPA|ɮ}}]] | [[voiceless retroflex lateral fricative|]]*    | [[voiceless palatal lateral fricative|]]*    | [[voiceless velar lateral fricative|]]*    | colspan="2" |   | colspan="7" style="background:#ccc" |   |- style="font-size: 120%;" ! style="font-size: x-small; text-align:left" | [[Lateral consonant|Lateral Approx­imant]] | colspan="2" style="background:#ccc" | | colspan="3" |    [[alveolar lateral approximant|{{IPA|l}}]] |    [[retroflex lateral approximant|{{IPA|ɭ}}]] |    [[palatal lateral approximant|{{IPA|ʎ}}]] |    [[velar lateral approximant|{{IPA|ʟ}}]] | colspan="2" |   | colspan="7" style="background:#ccc" | |- style="font-size: 120%;" ! style="font-size: x-small; text-align:left" | [[Lateral consonant|Lateral Flap]] | colspan="2" style="background:#ccc" |   | colspan="3" |    [[alveolar lateral flap|{{IPA|ɺ}}]] |    [[retroflex lateral flap|]]* |    [[palatal lateral flap|{{IPA|ʎ̯}}]] |    [[velar lateral flap|{{IPA|ʟ̆}}]] | colspan="2" |   | colspan="7" style="background:#ccc" |   |} ;Notes *Asterisks (*) next to symbols mark reported sounds that do not (yet) have official IPA symbols. See the respective articles for ''ad hoc'' symbols found in the literature. * Daggers (†) mark IPA symbols that have recently been added to [[Unicode]]. As of Unicode 5.1.0, this is the case of the [[labiodental flap]], symbolized by a ''v'' with a right-hook: [[Image:Labiodental flap (Gentium).svg|10px]]. These display properly with a recent version of [[Charis SIL]], [[Doulos SIL]] or [[DejaVu fonts]] installed. *In rows where some symbols appear in pairs (the ''[[obstruent]]s''), the symbol to the right represents a [[voice (phonetics)|voiced consonant]] (except [[breathy voice|breathy-voiced]] {{IPA|[ɦ]}}). However, {{IPA|[ʔ]}} cannot be voiced, and the voicing of {{IPA|[ʡ]}} is ambiguous.Ladefoged and Maddieson, 1996, ''Sounds of the World's Languages,'' §2.1. In the other rows (the ''[[sonorant]]s''), the single symbol represents a voiced consonant. *Although there is a single symbol for the coronal places of articulation for all consonants but fricatives, when dealing with a particular language, the symbols may be treated as specifically dental, alveolar, or post-alveolar, as appropriate for that language, without diacritics. *Shaded areas indicate articulations judged to be impossible. *The symbols {{IPA|[ʁ, ʕ, ʢ]}} represent either voiced fricatives or approximants. *In many languages, such as English, {{IPA|[h]}} and {{IPA|[ɦ]}} are not actually glottal, fricatives, or approximants. Rather, they are bare [[phonation]].Ladefoged and Maddieson, 1996, ''Sounds of the World's Languages,'' §9.3. *It is primarily the shape of the tongue rather than its position that distinguishes the fricatives {{IPA|[ʃ ʒ]}}, {{IPA|[ɕ ʑ]}}, and {{IPA|[ʂ ʐ]}}. ====Coarticulation==== [[Co-articulated consonant|Coarticulated consonants]] are sounds that involve two simultaneous [[Place of articulation|places of articulation]] (are pronounced using two parts of the [[vocal tract]]). In English, the [w] in "went" is a coarticulated consonant, because it is pronounced by rounding the lips and raising the back of the tongue. Other languages, such as [[French language|French]] and [[Swedish language|Swedish]], have different coarticulated consonants. {| class="IPA wikitable" ! colspan=2 | [[media:IPA co-articulated 2005.png|View this table as an image]] |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger; width:2em;" | [[voiceless labio-velar approximant|ʍ]] | Voiceless labialized velar approximant |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[Voiced labio-velar approximant|w]] | Voiced labialized velar approximant |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[labial-palatal approximant|ɥ]] | Voiced labialized palatal approximant |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative|ɕ]] | Voiceless palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiced alveolo-palatal fricative|ʑ]] | Voiced palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiceless palatal-velar fricative|ɧ]] | Voiceless "palatal-velar" fricative |} ;Note *{{IPA|[ɧ]}} is described as a "simultaneous {{IPA|[ʃ]}} and {{IPA|[x]}}".{{cite book |last=Ladefoged |first=Peter |coauthors=[[Ian Maddieson]]|year=1996 |title=The sounds of the world's languages |location=Oxford |publisher=Blackwell|pages=329–330|isbn=0-631-19815-6}} However, this analysis is disputed. (See [[voiceless palatal-velar fricative]] for discussion.) ====Affricates and double articulation==== [[Affricate consonant|Affricate]]s and [[Doubly articulated consonant|doubly articulated]] stops are represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar, either above or below the symbols. The six most common affricates are optionally represented by [[Typographic ligature|ligatures]], though this is no longer official IPA usage, because a great number of ligatures would be required to represent all affricates this way. Alternatively, a superscript notation for a consonant release is sometimes used to transcribe affricates, for example {{IPA|tˢ}} for {{IPA|t͡s}}, paralleling {{IPA|kˣ}} ~ {{IPA|k͡x}}. The symbols for the palatal plosives, {{IPA|‹c ɟ›}}, are often used as a convenience for {{IPA|[t͡ʃ d͡ʒ]}} or similar affricates, even in official IPA publications, so they must be interpreted with care. {| class="IPA wikitable" ! colspan=3 | [[Media:Affricate ligatures.png|View this table as an image.]] |- ! Tie bar ! Ligature ! Description |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiceless alveolar affricate|{{IPA|t͡s}}]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ʦ}} | voiceless alveolar affricate |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiced alveolar affricate|{{IPA|d͡z}}]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ʣ}} | voiced alveolar affricate |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiceless postalveolar affricate|{{IPA|t͡ʃ}}]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ʧ}} | voiceless postalveolar affricate |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiced postalveolar affricate|{{IPA|d͡ʒ}}]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ʤ}} | voiced postalveolar affricate |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate|{{IPA|t͡ɕ}}]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ʨ}} | voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiced alveolo-palatal affricate|{{IPA|d͡ʑ}}]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ʥ}} | voiced alveolo-palatal affricate |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiceless alveolar lateral affricate|{{IPA|t͡ɬ}}]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" |  – | voiceless alveolar lateral affricate |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiceless labial-velar plosive|{{IPA|k͡p}}]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" |  – | voiceless labial-velar plosive |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiced labial-velar plosive|{{IPA|ɡ͡b}}]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" |  – | voiced labial-velar plosive |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[labial-velar nasal|{{IPA|ŋ͡m}}]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" |  – | labial-velar nasal stop |} ;Note * On browsers that use ''[[Arial Unicode MS]]'' to display IPA characters, the following incorrectly formed sequences may look better due to a bug in that font: {{IPA|ts͡, tʃ͡, tɕ͡, dz͡, dʒ͡, dʑ͡, tɬ͡, kp͡, ɡb͡, ŋm͡}}. ===Non-pulmonic consonants=== Non-pulmonic consonants are sounds whose airflow is not dependent on the lungs. These include clicks (found in the [[Khoisan languages]] of Africa), [[Implosive consonant|implosives]] (found in languages such as [[Swahili language|Swahili]]) and [[ejective consonant|ejectives]] (found in many [[Indigenous languages of the Americas|Amerindian]] and [[Languages of the Caucasus|Caucasian languages]]). {| class="IPA wikitable" ! colspan=6 | [[media:IPA non-pulmonic 2005.png|View this table as an image]] |- valign=top ! colspan="2" | [[Click consonant|Clicks]] ! colspan="2" | [[Implosive consonant|Implosives]] ! colspan="2" | [[Ejective consonant|Ejectives]] |- valign=top | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger; width:2em;" | [[bilabial click|{{IPA|ʘ}}]] | Bilabial | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger; width:2em;" | [[voiced bilabial implosive|{{IPA|ɓ}}]] | Bilabial | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger; width:2em;" | {{IPA|ʼ}} | ''For example:'' |- valign=top | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[dental click|{{IPA|ǀ}}]] | Laminal alveolar ("dental") | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiced alveolar implosive|{{IPA|ɗ}}]] | Alveolar | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[bilabial ejective|{{IPA|pʼ}}]] | Bilabial |- valign=top | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[postalveolar click|{{IPA|ǃ}}]] | Apical (post-) alveolar ("retroflex") | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiced palatal implosive|{{IPA|ʄ}}]] | Palatal | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[alveolar ejective|{{IPA|tʼ}}]] | Alveolar |- valign=top | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[palatal click|{{IPA|ǂ}}]] | Laminal postalveolar ("palatal") | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiced velar implosive|{{IPA|ɠ}}]] | Velar | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[velar ejective|{{IPA|kʼ}}]] | Velar |- valign=top | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[alveolar lateral click|{{IPA|ǁ}}]] | Lateral coronal ("lateral") | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[voiced uvular implosive|{{IPA|ʛ}}]] | Uvular | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | [[alveolar ejective fricative|{{IPA|sʼ}}]] | Alveolar fricative |} ;Notes *Clicks are double articulated and have traditionally been described as having a forward 'release' and a rear 'accompaniment', with the click letters representing the release. Therefore all clicks would require two letters for proper notation: {{IPA|‹k͡ǂ, ɡ͡ǂ, ŋ͡ǂ, q͡ǂ, ɢ͡ǂ, ɴ͡ǂ›}} ''etc.'', or {{IPA|‹ǂ͡k, ǂ͡ɡ, ǂ͡ŋ, ǂ͡q, ǂ͡ɢ, ǂ͡ɴ›}}. When the dorsal articulation is omitted, a {{IPA|[k]}} may usually be assumed. However, recent research disputes the concept of 'accompaniment'.Amanda L. Miller ''et al.'', [http://ling.cornell.edu/plab/amanda/amiller_jipa.pdf "Differences in airstream and posterior place of articulation among Nǀuu lingual stops"]. Submitted to the ''Journal of the International Phonetic Association''. Retrieved 2007-05-27. In these approaches, the click letter represents both articulations, there is no velar-uvular distinction, and the accompanying letter represents the manner of the click: {{IPA|‹ǂ, ɡǂ, ŋǂ›}} ''etc.'' *Symbols for the [[voiceless]] implosives {{IPA|‹ƥ, ƭ, ƈ, ƙ, ʠ›}} are no longer supported by the IPA, though they remain in Unicode. Instead, the IPA typically uses the voiced equivalent with a voiceless diacritic: {{IPA|‹ɓ̥, ʛ̥›}}, ''etc''. *Although not confirmed as contrastive in any language, and therefore not explicitly recognized by the IPA, a letter for the [[Voiced retroflex implosive|retroflex implosive]], {{Unicode|‹ᶑ›}}, is supported in the Unicode Phonetic Extensions Supplement, added in version 4.1 of the Unicode Standard, or can be created as a composite {{IPA|‹ɗ̢›}}. *The ejective symbol often stands in for a superscript glottal stop in [[Glottalic consonant|glottalized]] but pulmonic [[sonorant]]s, such as {{IPA|[mˀ], [lˀ], [wˀ], [aˀ]}}. These may also be transcribed as creaky {{IPA|[m̰], [l̰], [w̰], [a̰]}}. ===Vowels=== {{Main|Vowel}} [[Image:Cardinal vowels-Jones x-ray.jpg|thumb|200px|An [[Radiography|X-ray film]] shows the sounds {{IPA|[i, u, a, ɑ]}}]] [[Image:Cardinal vowel tongue position-front.svg|thumb|200px|Tongue positions of [[Cardinal vowel|cardinal]] front vowels with highest point indicated. The position of the highest point is used to determine vowel height and backness]] The IPA defines a vowel as a sound which occurs at a syllable center.International Phonetic Association, ''Handbook'', p. 10. Below is a chart depicting the vowels of the IPA. The IPA maps the vowels according to the position of the tongue. The vertical axis of the chart is mapped by [[vowel|vowel height]]. Vowels pronounced with the tongue lowered are at the bottom, and vowels pronounced with the tongue raised are at the top. For example, {{IPA|[ɑ]}} (said as the "a" in "palm") is at the bottom because the tongue is lowered in this position. However, {{IPA|[i]}} (said as the vowel in "meet") is at the top because the sound is said with the tongue raised to the roof of the mouth. In a similar fashion, the horizontal axis of the chart is determined by [[vowel|vowel backness]]. Vowels with the tongue moved towards the front of the mouth (such as {{IPA|[ɛ]}}, the vowel in "met") are to the left in the chart, while those in which it is moved to the back (such as {{IPA|[ʌ]}}, the vowel in "but") are placed to the right in the chart. In places where vowels are paired, the right represents a [[Roundedness|rounded vowel]] (in which the lips are rounded) while the left is its unrounded counterpart. *[[media:IPA vowel chart 2005.png|View the vowel chart as an image]] {{CSS IPA vowel chart}} ;Notes *{{IPA|‹a›}} officially represents a front vowel, but there is little distinction between front and central open vowels, and {{IPA|‹a›}} is frequently used for an open central vowel. However, if disambiguation is required, the [[Relative articulation#Retracted|retraction diacritic]] or the [[Relative articulation#Centralized vowels|centralized diacritic]] may be added to indicate an open central vowel, as in {{IPA|‹a̠›}} or {{IPA|‹ä›}}. ==Diacritics== [[Diacritic]]s are small markings which are placed around the IPA letter in order to show a certain alteration or more specific description in the letter's pronunciation.International Phonetic Association, ''Handbook'', pp. 14–15. Sub-diacritics (markings normally placed below a letter or symbol) may be placed above a symbol having a descender (informally called a tail), e.g. {{IPA|ŋ̊, ȷ̈}}. The dotless ''i,'' {{Unicode|‹ı›}}, is used when the dot would interfere with the diacritic. Other IPA symbols may appear as diacritics to represent phonetic detail: {{IPA|tˢ}} (fricative release), {{IPA|bʱ}} (breathy voice), {{IPA|ˀa}} (glottal onset), {{Unicode|ᵊ}} (epenthetic [[schwa]]), o{{IPA|ʊ}} ([[Vowel breaking|diphthongization]]). Additional diacritics were introduced in the [[Extensions to the IPA]], which were designed principally for speech pathology. {| class="IPA wikitable" ! colspan=4|[[media:IPA diacritics 2005.png|View the diacritic table as an image]] |- ! colspan=4|Syllabicity diacritics |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ɹ̩ n̩}} | [[Syllabic consonant|Syllabic]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|e̯ ʊ̯}} | [[Semivowel|Non-syllabic]] |- ! colspan=4|Consonant-release diacritics |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|tʰ dʱ}} | [[Aspiration (phonetics)|Aspirated]]{{ref label|Aspirated|a|}} | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|d̚}} | [[Unreleased stop|No audible release]] |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|dⁿ}} | [[Nasal release]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|dˡ}} | [[Lateral release (phonetics)|Lateral release]] |- ! colspan=4|Phonation diacritics |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger; width:4em;" | {{IPA|n̥ d̥}} | [[Voiceless]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|s̬ t̬}} | [[Voice (phonetics)|Voiced]] |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger; width:4em;" | {{IPA|b̤ a̤}} | [[Breathy voice]]d{{ref label|Breathy|b|}} | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|b̰ a̰}} | [[Creaky voice]]d |- ! colspan=4|Articulation diacritics |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger; width:4em;" | {{IPA|t̪ d̪}} | [[Dental consonant|Dental]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|t̼ d̼}} | [[Linguolabial consonant|Linguolabial]] |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|t̺ d̺}} | [[Apical consonant|Apical]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|t̻ d̻}} | [[Laminal consonant|Laminal]] |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|u̟ t̟}} | [[Relative articulation|Advanced]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|i̠ t̠}} | [[Relative articulation|Retracted]] |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ë ä}} | [[Relative articulation|Centralized]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|e̽ ɯ̽}} | [[Relative articulation|Mid-centralized]] |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|e̝ ɹ̝ ˔}} | colspan=3 | [[Relative articulation#Raised_and_lowered|Raised]] ({{IPA|ɹ̝}} = [[Voiced alveolar fricative#Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative|voiced alveolar nonsibilant fricative]]) |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|e̞ β̞ ˕}} | colspan=3 | [[Relative articulation#Raised_and_lowered|Lowered]] ({{IPA|β̞}} = [[Voiced bilabial fricative|bilabial approximant]]) |- ! colspan=4|Co-articulation diacritics |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ɔ̹ x̹}} | More [[Roundedness|rounded]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ɔ̜ x̜ʷ}} | Less [[Roundedness|rounded]] |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|tʷ dʷ}} | [[Labialisation|Labialized]] or labio-velarized | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|tʲ dʲ}} | [[Palatalization|Palatalized]] |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|tˠ dˠ}} | [[Velarization|Velarized]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|tˁ aˁ}} | [[Pharyngealization|Pharyngealized]] |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|tɥ dɥ}} | [[Labio-palatalization|Labio-palatalized]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|[[Velarized alveolar lateral approximant|ɫ]] z̴}} | Velarized ''or'' pharyngealized |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|e̘ o̘}} | [[Advanced and retracted tongue root|Advanced tongue root]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|e̙ o̙}} | [[Advanced and retracted tongue root|Retracted tongue root]] |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ẽ z̃}} | [[Nasalization|Nasalized]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ɚ ɝ}} | [[R-colored vowel|Rhotacized]] |} ;Notes :'''a'''{{note|Aspirated}}With aspirated voiced consonants, the aspiration is also voiced. Many linguists prefer one of the diacritics dedicated to breathy voice. :'''b'''{{note|Breathy}}Some linguists restrict this breathy-voice diacritic to [[sonorant]]s, and transcribe obstruents as {{IPA|bʱ}}. The state of the [[glottis]] can be finely transcribed with diacritics. A series of alveolar plosives ranging from an open to a closed glottis [[phonation]] are: {| class="IPA wikitable" |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger; width:2em;" | {{IPA|[t]}} | [[voiceless]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|[d̤]}} | [[breathy voice]], also called ''murmured'' |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|[d̥]}} | [[slack voice]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|[d]}} | [[modal voice]] |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|[d̬]}} | [[stiff voice]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|[d̰]}} | [[creaky voice]] |- |style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|[ʔ͡t]}} | glottal closure |} ==Suprasegmentals== These symbols describe the features of a language above the level of individual consonants and vowels, such as [[prosody (linguistics)|prosody]], [[tone (linguistics)|tone]], [[length (phonetics)|length]], and [[stress (linguistics)|stress]], which often operate on syllables, words, or [[phrase]]s: that is, elements such as the intensity, pitch, and gemination of the sounds of a language, as well as the [[rhythm]] and [[Intonation (linguistics)|intonation]] of speech.International Phonetic Association, ''Handbook'', p. 13. Although most of these symbols indicate distinctions that are phonemic at the word level, symbols also exist for intonation on a level [[Phonological hierarchy|greater than that of the word]]. {| class="IPA wikitable" ! colspan=5|[[media:IPA suprasegmentals 2005.png|View this table as an image]] |- ! colspan=5|Length, stress, and rhythm |- | colspan=2 style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ˈa}} | Primary [[stress (linguistics)|stress]] (symbol goes
    before stressed syllable) | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ˌa}} | [[Secondary stress]] (symbol goes
    before stressed syllable) |- | colspan=2 style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|aː kː}} | [[Length (phonetics)|Long]] ([[Vowel length|long vowel]] or
    [[gemination|geminate consonant]]) | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|aˑ}} | Half-long |- | colspan=2 style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ə̆}} | [[Extra-short]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|a.a}} | [[Syllable]] break |- | colspan=2 style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|s‿a}} | colspan=3 | [[Liaison (French)|Linking (absence of a break)]] |- ! colspan=5|Intonation |- | colspan=2 style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA||}} | [[Prosody (linguistics)|Minor (foot) break]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|‖}} | [[Prosody (linguistics)|Major (intonation) break]] |- | colspan=2 style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|↗}} | [[Intonation (linguistics)#Transcription|Global rise]] | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|↘}} | [[Intonation (linguistics)#Transcription|Global fall]] |- ! colspan=5|Tone diacritics and [[tone letter]]s |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger; width:2em;" | {{IPA|ŋ̋ e̋}} || style="text-align:center; font-size:larger; width:2em;" | {{IPA|e˥}} | Extra high / top | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ꜛke}} | colspan=3 | [[Upstep (phonetics)|Upstep]] |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ŋ́ é}} | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|e˦}} | High | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ŋ̌ ě}} | Rise |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ŋ̄ ē}} | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|e˧}} | Mid | | |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ŋ̀ è}} | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|e˨}} | Low | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ŋ̂ ê}} | Fall |- | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ŋ̏ ȅ}} | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|e˩}} | Extra low / bottom | style="text-align:center; font-size:larger;" | {{IPA|ꜜke}} | [[Downstep (phonetics)|Downstep]] |} Finer distinctions of tone may be indicated by combining the tone diacritics and letters shown here, though not many fonts support this. The primary examples are high (mid) rising {{IPA|ɔ᷄, ɔ˧˥}}; low rising {{IPA|ɔ᷅, ɔ˩˧}}; high falling {{IPA|ɔ᷇, ɔ˥˧}}; low (mid) falling {{IPA|ɔ᷆, ɔ˧˩}}; peaking {{IPA|ɔ᷈, ɔ˧˥˧}}; and dipping {{IPA|ɔ᷉, ɔ˧˩˧}}. A work-around for diacritics sometimes seen when a language has more than one rising or falling tone, and the author does not wish to completely abandon the IPA, is to restrict generic rising {{IPA|ɔ̌}} and falling {{IPA|ɔ̂}} for the higher-pitched of the rising and falling tones, {{IPA|ɔ˥˧}} and {{IPA|ɔ˧˥}}, and to use the non-standard subscript diacritics {{IPA|ɔ̗}} and {{IPA|ɔ̖}} for the lower-pitched rising and falling tones, {{IPA|ɔ˩˧}} and {{IPA|ɔ˧˩}}. When a language has four level tones, the two mid tones are sometimes transcribed as high-mid {{IPA|ɔ̍}} (non-standard) and low-mid {{IPA|ɔ̄}}. ==Obsolete symbols and nonstandard symbols== {{Main|Obsolete and nonstandard symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet}} The IPA inherited alternate symbols from various traditions, but eventually settled on one for each sound. The other symbols are now considered obsolete. An example is {{IPA|‹ɷ›}} which has been standardised to {{IPA|‹ʊ›}}. Several symbols indicating secondary articulation have been dropped altogether, with the idea that such things should be indicated with diacritics: {{IPA|‹ƍ›}} for {{IPA|‹zʷ›}} is one. In addition, the rare voiceless implosive series {{IPA|‹ƥ ƭ ƈ ƙ ʠ›}} has been dropped; they are now written {{IPA|‹ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ʄ̊ ɠ̊ ʛ̥›}} or {{IPA|‹pʼ↓ tʼ↓ cʼ↓ kʼ↓ qʼ↓›}} respectively. A rejected competing proposal for transcribing clicks, {{IPA|‹ʇ, ʗ, ʖ›}}, is still sometimes seen, as the official letters {{IPA|‹ǀ, ǃ, ǁ›}} may cause problems with legibility, especially when used with brackets, the letter {{IPA|‹l›}}, or the [[Prosody (linguistics)|prosodic]] marks {{IPA|‹|, ‖›}}.


There are also unsupported or ad hoc symbols from local traditions that find their way into publications that otherwise use the standard IPA. This is especially common with affricates such as the "barred lambda" for .

IPA extensions

Extensions to the IPA, also often abbreviated as extIPA, is a group of symbols whose original purpose was to accurately transcribe disordered speech. At the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989, a group of linguists drew up the initial set of symbols for the Extended IPA. Extensions to the IPA were first published in 1990, and modified over the next few years before its official publication in the Journal of the International Phonetic Association in 1994 allowed it to be officially adopted by the ICPLA. While its original purpose was to transcribe disordered speech, linguists have used it to designate a number of unique sounds within standard communication, such as hushing, gnashing teeth, and smacking lips. The Extensions to the IPA have also been used to record certain peculiarities in an individual's voice, such as nasalized voicing.

Aside from the extIPA, another set of symbols is used for voice quality (VoQS), such as whispering.

Segments that have no symbols

The remaining blank cells on the IPA chart can be filled without too much difficulty if the need arises. Some ad hoc symbols have appeared in the literature, for example for the retroflex lateral flap and the voiceless lateral fricative series, the epiglottal trill, and the labiodental plosives. (See the grey symbols in the PDF chart.) Diacritics can supply much of the remainder, which would indeed be appropriate if the sounds were allophones.

Consonants without letters

Representations of consonant sounds outside of the core set are created by adding diacritics to symbols for similar sound values. The Spanish bilabial and dental approximants are commonly written as lowered fricatives, and respectively. Similarly, voiced lateral fricatives would be written as raised lateral approximants, . A few languages such as Banda have a bilabial flap as the preferred allophone of what is elsewhere a labiodental flap. It has been suggested that this be written with the labiodental flap symbol and the advanced diacritic, .

Similarly, a labiodental trill would be written (bilabial trill and the dental sign), and labiodental stops rather than with the ad hoc symbols sometimes found in the literature. Other taps can be written as extra-short plosives or laterals, e.g. , though in some cases the diacritic would need to be written below the letter. A retroflex trill can be written as a retracted , just as retroflex fricatives sometimes are. The remaining consonants, the uvular laterals ( etc.) and the palatal trill, while not strictly impossible, are very difficult to pronounce and are unlikely to occur even as allophones in the world's languages.

Vowels without letters

The vowels are similarly manageable by using diacritics for raising, lowering, fronting, backing, centering, and mid-centering. For example, the unrounded equivalent of can be transcribed as mid-centered , and the rounded equivalent of as raised . True mid vowels are lowered , while centered and are near-close and open central vowels, respectively. The only known vowels that cannot be represented in this scheme are vowels with unexpected roundedness, which would require a dedicated diacritic, such as or .

Symbol names

An IPA symbol is often distinguished from the sound it is intended to represent since there is not a one-to-one correspondence between symbol and sound in broad transcription. While the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association states that no official names exist for symbols, it admits the presence of one or two common names for each character that are commonly used. The symbols also have nonce names in the Unicode standard. In some cases, the Unicode names and the IPA names do not agree. For example, IPA calls "epsilon", but Unicode calls it "small letter open E".

The traditional names of the Latin and Greek letters are usually used for unmodified symbols. Letters which are not directly derived from these alphabets, such as , may have a variety of names, sometimes based on the appearance of the symbol, and sometimes based on the sound that it represents. In Unicode, some of the symbols of Greek origin have Latin forms for use in IPA; the others use the symbols from the Greek section.

For diacritics, there are two methods of naming. For traditional diacritics, the IPA uses the name of the symbol from a certain language, for example, is acute, based on the name of the symbol in English and French. In non-traditional diacritics, the IPA often names a symbol according to an object it resembles, as is called bridge.

ASCII transliterations, IPA influence on other phonetic alphabets

Since the IPA uses symbols that are outside the ASCII character set, several systems have been developed that map the IPA symbols to ASCII characters. Notable systems include Kirshenbaum, SAMPA, and X-SAMPA. The usage of mapping systems in on-line text has to some extent been adopted in the context input methods, allowing convenient keying of IPA characters that would be otherwise unavailable on standard keyboard layouts.

See also



Notes

  1. "The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers [...] to the 'International Phonetic Association'. But it is now such a common practice to use the acronym also to refer to the alphabet itself (from the phrase 'International Phonetic Alphabet') that resistance seems pedantic. Context usually serves to disambiguate the two usages." (Laver 1994:561)
  2. International Phonetic Association (IPA), Handbook.
  3. International Phonetic Association, Handbook, pp. 194–196
  4. "Originally, the aim was to make available a set of phonetic symbols which would be given different articulatory values, if necessary, in different languages." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, pp. 195–196)
  5. Pullum and Ladusaw, Phonetic Symbol Guide, pp. 152, 209
  6. International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 186
  7. “From its earliest days...the International Phonetic Association has aimed to provide ‘a separate sign for each distinctive sound; that is, for each sound which, being used instead of another, in the same language, can change the meaning of a word’.” (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 27)
  8. In contrast, English sometimes uses combinations of two letters to represent single sounds, such as the digraphs sh and th for the sounds and ~ , respectively.
  9. For instance, flaps and taps are two different kinds of articulation, but since no language has (yet) been found to make a distinction between, say, an alveolar flap and an alveolar tap, the IPA does not provide such sounds with dedicated symbols. Instead, it provides a single symbol (in this case,  ) for both sounds. Strictly speaking, this makes the IPA a phonemic alphabet, not a phonetic one.
  10. There are five basic tone marks, which are combined for contour tones; six of these combinations are in common use.
  11. "The non-roman letters of the International Phonetic Alphabet have been designed as far as possible to harmonize well with the roman letters. The Association does not recognise makeshift letters; It recognises only letters which have been carefully cut so as to be in harmony with the other letters." (IPA 1949)
  12. Technically, the symbol could be considered Latin-derived, since the question mark may have originated as "Qo", an abbreviation of the Latin word quæstio, "question".
  13. Laver, Principles of Phonetics,pp. 174–175
  14. "The new letters should be suggestive of the sounds they represent, by their resemblance to the old ones." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 196)
  15. John Wells's phonetic blog
  16. "At the 1989 Kiel Convention of the IPA, a sub-group was established to draw up recommendations for the transcription of disordered speech." ("Extensions to the IPA: An ExtIPA Chart" in International Phonetic Association, Handbook, pp. 186.)
  17. "Extensions to the IPA: An ExtIPA Chart" in International Phonetic Association, Handbook, pp. 186–187.
  18. "Diacritics may also be employed to create symbols for phonemes, thus reducing the need to create new letter shapes." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 27)
  19. Olson, Kenneth S.; & Hajek, John. (1999). The phonetic status of the labial flap. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 29 (2), pp. 101–114.
  20. "The diacrtics...can be used to modify the lip or tongue position implied by a vowel symbol." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 16)
  21. "...the International Phonetic Association has never officially approved a set of names..." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 31)
  22. For example, [p] is called "Lower-case P" and [χ] is "Chi." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 171)


References

  1. "The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers [...] to the 'International Phonetic Association'. But it is now such a common practice to use the acronym also to refer to the alphabet itself (from the phrase 'International Phonetic Alphabet') that resistance seems pedantic. Context usually serves to disambiguate the two usages." (Laver 1994:561)
  2. International Phonetic Association (IPA), Handbook.
  3. International Phonetic Association, Handbook, pp. 194–196
  4. "Originally, the aim was to make available a set of phonetic symbols which would be given different articulatory values, if necessary, in different languages." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, pp. 195–196)
  5. Pullum and Ladusaw, Phonetic Symbol Guide, pp. 152, 209
  6. International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 186
  7. “From its earliest days...the International Phonetic Association has aimed to provide ‘a separate sign for each distinctive sound; that is, for each sound which, being used instead of another, in the same language, can change the meaning of a word’.” (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 27)
  8. In contrast, English sometimes uses combinations of two letters to represent single sounds, such as the digraphs sh and th for the sounds and ~ , respectively.
  9. For instance, flaps and taps are two different kinds of articulation, but since no language has (yet) been found to make a distinction between, say, an alveolar flap and an alveolar tap, the IPA does not provide such sounds with dedicated symbols. Instead, it provides a single symbol (in this case,  ) for both sounds. Strictly speaking, this makes the IPA a phonemic alphabet, not a phonetic one.
  10. There are five basic tone marks, which are combined for contour tones; six of these combinations are in common use.
  11. "The non-roman letters of the International Phonetic Alphabet have been designed as far as possible to harmonize well with the roman letters. The Association does not recognise makeshift letters; It recognises only letters which have been carefully cut so as to be in harmony with the other letters." (IPA 1949)
  12. Technically, the symbol could be considered Latin-derived, since the question mark may have originated as "Qo", an abbreviation of the Latin word quæstio, "question".
  13. Laver, Principles of Phonetics,pp. 174–175
  14. "The new letters should be suggestive of the sounds they represent, by their resemblance to the old ones." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 196)
  15. John Wells's phonetic blog
  16. "At the 1989 Kiel Convention of the IPA, a sub-group was established to draw up recommendations for the transcription of disordered speech." ("Extensions to the IPA: An ExtIPA Chart" in International Phonetic Association, Handbook, pp. 186.)
  17. "Extensions to the IPA: An ExtIPA Chart" in International Phonetic Association, Handbook, pp. 186–187.
  18. "Diacritics may also be employed to create symbols for phonemes, thus reducing the need to create new letter shapes." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 27)
  19. Olson, Kenneth S.; & Hajek, John. (1999). The phonetic status of the labial flap. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 29 (2), pp. 101–114.
  20. "The diacrtics...can be used to modify the lip or tongue position implied by a vowel symbol." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 16)
  21. "...the International Phonetic Association has never officially approved a set of names..." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 31)
  22. For example, [p] is called "Lower-case P" and [χ] is "Chi." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 171)


Further reading



External links



Sites to learn the IPA



IPA font downloads

  • Charis SIL, a very complete international font (Latin, Greek, Cyrillic) in roman, italic, and bold typefaces that includes tone letters and pre-composed tone diacritics on IPA vowels, the new labiodental flap, and many non-standard phonetic symbols. Based on Bitstream Charter, this font suffers from extremely bad hinting when rendered by FreeType on Linux.
  • DejaVu fonts [1959] have full Unicode IPA support.[1960]
  • Doulos SIL, a Times/Times New Roman style font. It contains the same characters as Charis SIL, but only in a single face, roman.
  • Gentium, a professionally designed international font (Latin, Greek, Cyrillic) in roman and italic typefaces that includes the IPA, but not yet tone letters or the new labiodental flap. For bold typefaces but only the most basic IPA letters, Gentium Basic may be used.
  • TIPA, a font and system for entering IPA phonetic transcriptions in LaTeX documents.


Keyboard input



Sound files



Unicode charts






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