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Kosovomarker's declaration of independence from Serbiamarker was enacted on Sunday, 17 February 2008 by a unanimous quorum of the Assembly of Kosovo, with 109 in favour and with no opposition, with all 11 representatives of the Serb minority boycotting the proceedings. International reaction was mixed, and the world community continues to be divided on the issue of the international recognition of Kosovo.

Background

As of 9 November 2009, 63 out of 192 (33%) sovereign United Nations member states have formally recognised the Republic of Kosovo as an independent state. Notably, a majority of member states of the European Union (22 out of 27) and NATOmarker (24 out of 28) have recognised Kosovo. Of the four countries that border Kosovo, only Serbiamarker refuses to recognise it.

A number of states expressed concern over the unilateral character of Kosovo's declaration, or announced explicitly that they will not recognise an independent Kosovo. The UN Security Council remains divided on this issue: of its five members with veto power, three (the United Statesmarker, United Kingdommarker, Francemarker) have recognised the declaration of independence, while the People's Republic of Chinamarker has expressed concern, urging the continuation of previous negotiation framework. Russiamarker has rejected the declaration and considers it illegal. On 15 May 2008, Russia, China, and Indiamarker released a joint statement where they called for new negotiations between the authorities of Belgrademarker and Pristina.

Although EU member states decide individually whether to recognise Kosovo, by consensus the EU has commissioned the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo to ensure peace and continued external oversight. Due to the dispute in the UN Security Council, the reconfiguration of the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo and partial handover to the EULEX mission met with difficulties. In spite of Russian and Serbian protests, the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon proceeded with the reconfiguration plan. On 15 July 2008, he stated: "In the light of the fact that the Security Council is unable to provide guidance, I have instructed my Special Representative to move forward with the reconfiguration of UNMIK... in order to adapt UNMIK to a changed reality". According to the Secretary-General, the "United Nations has maintained a position of strict neutrality on the question of Kosovo's status".

On November 26, 2008, the UN Security Council gave the green light to the plan by Secretary General Ban Ki-moon on the deployment of the EULEX mission in Kosovo. Under the plan, the EU mission is to assume police, justice and customs duties from the UN, while remaining neutral regarding Kosovo's status and operating under the 1244 resolution that first placed Kosovo under UN administration in 1999.

A UN General Assembly resolution adopted on 8 October 2008 backed the request of Serbia to seek an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justicemarker on the legality of Kosovo's unilaterally proclaimed independence.

As of late July 2008, UNMIK no longer provides the citizens of Kosovo with travel documents, while their ability to travel using the new Kosovan passport does not coincide with diplomatic recognition: for example Greecemarker, Romaniamarker and Slovakiamarker make it possible, despite not recognising Kosovo. The three neighbouring states that recognise Kosovo—Albaniamarker, Montenegromarker and Macedoniamarker—all accept the Kosovan passport, which Serbia refuses.

Serbia's reaction

Serbia claims Kosovo as part of its sovereign territory.

Among its reactions, Serbia recalled its ambassadors from countries that recognised Kosovo for consultations for several months, indicted the Kosovar leaders on charges of high treason, and announced plans to litigate the case at the International Court of Justicemarker. Serbia also expelled ambassadors from countries that recognised Kosovo after the vote in the United Nations General Assembly in which the initiative of Serbia to seek an advisory opinion by the International Court of Justice was adopted.

Positions taken by states

Map of states that have recognised Kosovo independence


States which formally recognise Kosovo as independent

UN member states

Country Date of recognition Status of reciprocal diplomatic relations Relevant international membership
1
2 Current United Nations Security Council (UNSC) non-permanent member (member at time of declaration and recognition)
3 Embassy of Albania in Pristina from 19 February 2008

Embassy of Kosovo in Tiranamarker
See Albanian–Kosovan relations
North Atlantic Treaty Organizationmarker (NATO) member
4 Embassy of France in Pristina

Embassy of Kosovo in Parismarker
See French–Kosovan relations
UNSC permanent member

European Union (EU) member

NATO member
5 Embassy of Turkey in Pristinamarker

Embassy of Kosovo in Ankaramarker
See Kosovan–Turkish relations
Current UNSC non-permanent member (not member at time of declaration or recognition)

NATO member

EU candidate

6 Embassy of United States in Pristina

Embassy of Kosovo in Washington, D.C.marker
See American–Kosovan relations
UNSC permanent member

NATO member
7 British Embassy in Pristina from 5 March 2008

Embassy of Kosovo in Londonmarker
See Kosovo – United Kingdom relations
UNSC permanent member

EU member

NATO member
8 Diplomatic relations established on 21 May 2008

Ambassador of Australia to Kosovo resident in Viennamarker
See Australia–Kosovo relations
9
10 Diplomatic relations established on 10 June 2008
Ambassador of Latvia to Kosovo resident in Ljubljanamarker
See Kosovan–Latvian relations

EU member

NATO member
11 Embassy of Germany in Pristina from 27 February 2008

Embassy of Kosovo in Berlinmarker
See German–Kosovan relations
EU member

NATO member
12 Diplomatic relations established on 24 April 2008

Ambassador of Estonia to Kosovo, residing in Brussels

See Estonia–Kosovo relations
EU member

NATO member
13 Embassy of Italy in Pristina from 15 May 2008

Embassy of Kosovo in Romemarker
See Italian–Kosovan relations
EU member

UNSC non-permanent member at time of declaration and recognition (not currently a member)

NATO member
14 Ambassador of Denmark to Kosovo resident in Viennamarker from 6 March 2008
See Danish–Kosovan relations
EU member

NATO member
15 Liaison Office of Luxembourg in Pristina EU member

NATO member
16
17 Liaison Office of Belgium in Pristina

Embassy of Kosovo in Brusselsmarker
See Belgian–Kosovan relations
EU member

UNSC non-permanent member at time of declaration and recognition (not currently a member)

NATO member
18 See Kosovan–Polish relations EU member

NATO member
19 Embassy of Switzerland in Pristina from 28 March 2008

Embassy of Kosovo in Bernmarker
See Kosovan–Swiss relations
20 Embassy of Austria in Pristina from 20 March 2008

Embassy of Kosovo in Vienna
See Austrian–Kosovan relations
Current UNSC non-permanent member (not member at time of declaration or recognition)

EU member
21 Ambassador of Ireland to Kosovo resident, in Budapest, submitted credentials on 11 November 2008 EU member
22 Liaison Office of Sweden in Pristina, satellite office of the Embassy in Skopjemarker

Embassy of Kosovo in Stockholmmarker, to open.
See Kosovan–Swedish relations
EU member
23 Embassy of the Netherlands in Pristina from 27 June 2008

Embassy of Kosovo in The Haguemarker.
See Dutch–Kosovan relations
EU member

NATO member
24 NATO member
25 Embassy of Slovenia in Pristina from 15 May 2008

Embassy of Kosovo in Ljubljanamarker.
See Kosovan–Slovenian relations
EU member

President country of Council of the European Union at time of declaration

NATO member
26 Embassy of Finland in Pristina
See Finnish–Kosovan relations
EU member
27 Liaison Office of Japan in Pristina, satellite office of the Embassy in Vienna

Embassy of Kosovo in Tokyomarker, to open.
See Japanese–Kosovan relations
Current UNSC non-permanent member (not member at time of declaration or recognition)
28 Ambassador of Canada to Kosovo resident in Zagrebmarker NATO member
29
30 Embassy of Hungary in Pristina
See Hungarian–Kosovan relations
EU member

NATO member
31 Embassy of Croatia in Pristina from 6 November 2008

Embassy of Kosovo in Zagrebmarker, to open.

See Croatian–Kosovan relations
Current UNSC non-permanent member (member at time of declaration and recognition)

EU candidate

NATO member
32 Embassy of Bulgaria in Pristina
Embassy of Kosovo in Sofiamarker
See Bulgarian–Kosovan relations

EU member

NATO member
33 Liechtenstein's interests are represented by the Swiss embassy
34
35 Embassy of Norway in Pristina
See Kosovan–Norwegian relations
NATO member
36
37
38 Current UNSC non-permanent member (member at time of declaration and recognition)
39 Diplomatic relations with Kosovo established on 1 September 2008.
See Kosovan–Lithuanian relations
EU member

NATO member
40
41 Embassy of the Czech Republic in Pristina from 16 July 2008
Embassy of Kosovo in Prague, to open.
See Czech–Kosovan relations

EU member

NATO member
42
43
44 Embassy of Kosovo in Bogotámarker, to open.
45
46 EU member

47
48 Embassy of Kosovo in Lisbonmarker, to open
See Kosovan–Portuguese relations
EU member

NATO member
49 Embassy of Kosovo in Podgoricamarker, to open.
See Kosovan–Montenegrin relations
50 Embassy of Macedonia in Pristina..

Embassy of Kosovo in Skopjemarker, to open.

Diplomatic relations established on 17 October 2009.
See Kosovan–Macedonian relations
EU candidate
51 Embassy of Kosovo in Abu Dhabimarker, to open.
See Emirati–Kosovan relations
52 Liaison Office of Malaysia in Pristina
See Kosovan–Malaysian relations
53
54 UNSC non-permanent member at time of declaration (not a member at time of recognition; not currently a member)
55 Diplomatic relations established on 16 April 2009.
See Kosovan–Maldivian relations
56
57
58 Diplomatic relations established on 7 August 2009

Embassy of Kosovo in Riyadhmarker, to open.
Liaison office of Saudi Arabia in Pristina.
See Kosovan–Saudi Arabian relations

59
60
61
62
63 Diplomatic relations established on 9 November 2009



Non-UN member states

Country Date of recognition Status of reciprocal diplomatic relations
(Taiwanmarker) Has official diplomatic relations with states. Kosovo has not reciprocated, courting recognition from People's Republic of Chinamarker


States which do not recognise Kosovo as independent

UN member states

Country Position Relevant international membership
In March 2008, Mourad Medelci, Foreign Affairs Minister, said that "although Algeria sympathises with all Muslim countries, we cannot yet recognise Kosovo as an independent state. There are international laws and they must be respected. We are following the situation very closely". On 19 June 2008, during the meeting of Organisation of the Islamic Conference, Algeria was among countries that opposed the recognition of Kosovo as an independent country. In March 2009, Algerian Foreign Minister Mourad Medelci, following a meeting with Serbian counterpart, said "We also talked about Kosovo, and I had the opportunity to confirm to Mr Jeremic the constancy of the position of Algeria, in conformity with international legality. We believe that Kosovo is an integral part of the Republic of Serbia. We supported the effort of Serbia when it asked the UN General Assembly to take the problem to the International Court of Justice".
In May 2009, the Ambassador of Algeria to Serbia, Abdelkader Mesdoua stated "The Algerian government's position on the issue of Kosovo is clear.

We consider this to be a problem of partition, secession, not of self-determination...

We will not recognize Kosovo as independent and we will remain firmly on this position, unless there is a development that would have Serbia change its stance, but that would be a different question that we would consider then".
At a meeting in September 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Xavier Espot Miró, Andorran Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Miró said that Andorra was considering the recognition of Kosovo, but had not yet made a final decision.
On 23 June 2008, President José Eduardo dos Santos sent a message to his Serbian counterpart, Boris Tadić, regarding the unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo through Vicente Muanda, chargé d'affaires of the Angolan Embassy in Serbia. Muanda handed over the letter to Jovan Ratković, foreign policy advisor to the President. It reiterated the solidarity of President Eduardo dos Santos and Angola to Serbia, in regard to the preservation of its sovereignty and integrity.
In February 2008, Argentine Foreign Minister Jorge Taiana said "if we were to recognize Kosovo, which has declared its independence unilaterally, without an agreement with Serbia, we would set a dangerous precedent that would seriously threaten our chances of a political settlement in the case of the Falkland Islandsmarker". He said that President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner would not give any official statement on the issue, reiterating that there would be no recognition of Kosovo. Argentina will not recognise also because it "supports the principle of territorial integrity". Additionally, he stressed that the 1999 UN Resolution 1244 called for the mutual agreement of all parties to solve the dispute.
On 12 March 2008, President Serzh Sargsyan stated that "Armenia's possible recognition of Kosovomarker's independence will not strain the Armenian-Russianmarker relations" but also noted that "Kosovo recognition issue needs serious discussion... Armenia has always been an adherent to the right of nations to self-determination and in this aspect we welcome Kosovo's independence."
On 3 September 2008 President Serzh Sargsyan stated: "Today one is wondering from time to time why Armenia is not recognizing the independence of Abkhaziamarker and South Ossetiamarker.

The answer is simple: for the same reason that it did not recognize Kosovo's independence.

Having the Nagorno-Karabakhmarker conflict, Armenia can not recognize another entity in the same situation as long as it has not recognized the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic".

A nation's right to self-determination "takes times", requiring the understanding of "all interested parties".

Accordingly, Armenia is trying to "convince" Azerbaijan to accept the loss of Karabakh, stated the president.

In November 2008, whilst commenting on Russia's recognition of Georgia's break away regions, Sargsyan said "In case with Kosovo the right of nations to self-determination was applied.

However, Russia's similar step was given a hostile reception".

At a meeting in May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Armen Martirosyan, the representative of Armenia to the UN, Mr. Martirosyan reportedly promised that the request for recognition would be forwarded to his government.


On a July 2009 state visit to Armenia, Serbian President Boris Tadić discussed the issues of Kosovo and Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan. The two leaders agreed that regional conflicts must be resolved without the use of force and only by peaceful means in keeping with international law. Tadić also met with Prime Minister Tigran Sargsyan where the same issues were discussed. The Kosovo and Nagorno-Karabakh issues can only be solved through negotiations and "any imposed solutions are absolutely unacceptable and we fully agree on that," Tadić said afterwards.
In February 2008, a spokesman of the Foreign Ministry, Khazar Ibrahim, said "We view this illegal act as being in contradiction with international law. Proceeding from this, Azerbaijan's position is clear: it does not recognise [Kosovo's] independence". Azerbaijan has also withdrawn peacekeepers from Kosovo. Zahid Oruj, member of the parliamentary committee on defence and security, explained it by saying "Owing to the change of situation in Kosovo, the Azeri peacekeeping battalion performing its mission within the Turkish contingent will be withdrawn. Azerbaijan acts in compliance with the country's political stance". At the summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference on 10 March 2008, Azerbaijan opposed adoption of the document, proposed by Turkey, that would lend support to Kosovo's declaration of independence. On 19 June 2008, during the meeting of Organisation of the Islamic Conference, Azerbaijan was among countries that opposed the recognition of Kosovo as an independent country.
At a meeting on 18 June 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Paulette A. Bethel, the representative of the Bahamas to the UN, Ms. Bethel reportedly said that she would forward the request for recognition to her government.
On 29 June 2008 the Prime Minister, Fakhruddin Ahmed, during a meeting with the United States Ambassador to Bangladesh, James F. Moriarty, affirmed that "Bangladesh will recognize the new European country". The Prime Minister also assured the US ambassador that "Bangladesh is committed to lobbing Asian Muslim countries to recognize Kosovo. Bangladesh will actively contribute to the development of Kosovo".

Following a meeting on 17 December 2008 between Bangladeshi Foreign Adviser Dr. Iftekhar Ahmed Chowdhury and United States Ambassador James F. Moriarty, the media were told that the question of Kosovo recognition was under "active consideration of the [Bangladeshi] government."

In a press briefing on 22 August 2009, Bangladesh's Foreign Secretary Mohamed Mijarul Quayes said "We don't feel the necessity to recognize Kosovo at this moment". He said that his government would consider "many factors" before making its decision. "If we recognize Kosovo, we are certainly taking a side. But if we don't, we are not leaning to any side," he said.

In a meeting with US Ambassador James F. Moriarty on 15 November 2009, Quayes said that an independent decision would be made on Bangladesh's recognition of Kosovo, keeping the country's national interests in consideration. It has been reported that Bangladesh has not yet recognised Kosovo as it is focusing on strengthening ties with Moscow - Russia had formally requested Bangladesh not to recognise.
At a meeting in January 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Kurt Mach, Barbados' general consul assigned to Vienna, Mr. Mach promised to inform his government about Kosovo's achievements, and that he would encourage his country to consider recognising Kosovo.
In February 2008, President Alexander Lukashenko wrote in a letter to Serbian President Boris Tadić that "Belarus expresses its solidarity with the Serbians' intention to defend their sovereignty and territorial integrity". The National Assembly of the Republic of Belarus had issued a statement condemning the declaration of independence and encouraged all nations to call the move "illegal" under international law.

The Foreign Ministry of the Republic of Belarus published a statement saying "that the settlement of the Kosovo and Metochia status should progress under international law, based on UN Security Council resolution 1244 (of 1999) which is a fundamental document for the Kosovo settlement certifying the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Serbia, and based on the key provisions of the UN Charter and Helsinki Final Act, with the essential role of the UN Security Council bearing a predominant responsibility for safeguarding international peace and security".
At a meeting on 24 March 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Jean-Francis Regis Zinsou, the head of Benin's mission to the UN, Mr. Zinsou said that his government would review Kosovo's request for recognition.
At a meeting on 28 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Lhatu Wangchuk, the representative of Bhutan to the UN, Mr. Wangchuk reportedly said that he had conveyed Kosovo's request for recognition to his government on 3 February, and he is awaiting the decision of his government.
In February 2008, President Evo Morales refused to recognise Kosovo's independence and compared Kosovo separatists to the leaders of four eastern Bolivian states who have demanded greater autonomy from the federal government.
On 21 February 2008, Republika Srpska, one of the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker, adopted a resolution through which it denounced and refused to recognise the unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo from Serbia. In addition, the parliament adopted a resolution stating that in the event that a majority of EU and UN states recognise Kosovo's independence, Republika Srpska would cite the Kosovo secession as a precedent and move to hold a referendum on its own constitutional status within Bosnia and Herzegovina. Finally, the resolution called upon all Republika Srpska officials to do everything in order to prevent Bosnia and Herzegovina from recognising Kosovo's declared independence.

On 27 August 2008, former Bosnian ambassador in Turkey Hajrudin Somun wrote an editorial discussing Kosovan passports, where he summarised to-date the Bosnian position on Kosovo: "As in many other matters, Bosnia and Herzegovina is deeply divided over Kosovo's independence. The parliament of the 'Republika Srpska' entity, which covers 49 percent of the country's territory, adopted a special resolution denouncing Kosovo's independence and wide demonstrations have been organized there in protest. Keeping in mind that Serb leaders of that entity have threatened to secede from Bosnia and Herzegovina and join Serbia as compensation for losing Kosovo, Bosnian Presidency Chairman Haris Silajdžić said simply that his country is 'unlikely to recognize Kosovo's independence any time soon due to strong objections from its own Serb community .

The Foreign Minister Sven Alkalaj informed the public on 2 August 2008 that by law Bosnia and Herzegovina cannot accept Kosovan passports, until the Bosnian presidency makes such a determination.

On 26 September 2008 while attending General Assembly of the United Nations in New York, Bosnian President Haris Silajdžić said in a Voice of America interview broadcast back to Bosnia in Bosnian language that he supports Kosovo's independence and is opposed to Serbia's request that the International Court of Justice issue an opinion on the legitimacy of Kosovo's independence. Silajdžić spoke in his own name as the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina did not adopt a platform which would allow him to speak officially.

In August 2009 the Forum of Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims) of Kosovo requested that Bosnia recognise Kosovo and the travel documents of its citizens. In response, Presidency member Nebojša Radmanović stated that the Presidency would not discuss the issue in the foreseeable future, and that those making such demands must consider "what kind of state Bosnia-Herzegovina is, what tendencies are present, and what could be the consequences of such a move". He said, "Sometimes, thinking with the heart is not good for the bigger political goals".
In February 2008, the Brazilian government reaffirmed its belief that a peaceful solution for the issue of Kosovo must continue to be sought through dialogue and negotiation, under the auspices of the United Nations and the legal framework of Resolution 1244 of the Council Security. In his recent declarations, the Minister of Foreign Relations Celso Amorim defended that Brazil should await a UN Security Council decision before defining its official position on the matter of Kosovo's independence.
According to Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić, Brazil will support Serbia by presenting their negative opinion about Kosovo independence to the ICJ.
In September 2009, Ambassador of Brazil to Serbia Dante Coelho de Lima said that "Our fundamental position is that we respect Serbia's territorial integrity.



We supported Security Council resolution 1244, under which Kosovo is a part of Serbia.



We also think that the principle of self-determination should not run counter to respect for international law".

At a meeting on 28 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Latif Tuah, the representative of Brunei Darussalam to the UN, Mr. Tuah reportedly said that Brunei is considering the case for recognition.
At a meeting in May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Antonio Pedro Monteiro Lima, the representative of Cape Verde to the UN, Mr. Lima reportedly said that the decision on recognition of Kosovo is only "a matter of time" and that "Cape Verde knows very well the price of freedom".
In a 27 February 2008 press release, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile called on the parties concerned to achieve, by peaceable means, through dialogue and adherence to the international law, a solution that respects the principles and purposes of the United Nations Charter. Chile will continue to analyse the discussions that have taken and are taking place, both in the UN Security Council, and in the Council of Ministers of the European Union.
In February 2008, the Chinese Foreign Minister has made a statement stressing that the PRC "expresses grave concern" over Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence. The Minister's remarks go on to add that "The resolution of the Kosovo issue bares on peace and stability of the Balkan region, the fundamental norms governing international relations as well as the authority and role of the UN Security Council. China always believes that a plan acceptable to both Serbia and Kosovo through negotiations is the best way to resolve this issue. The unilateral move taken by Kosovo will lead to a series of consequences. China is deeply worried about its severe and negative impact on peace and stability of the Balkan region and the goal of establishing a multi-ethnic society in Kosovo. China calls upon Serbia and Kosovo to continue negotiations for a proper resolution within the framework of the international law and work together to safeguard peace and stability of the Balkan region. The international community should create favorable conditions for that." On 15 May 2008, the Foreign Ministers of India, Russia and China made a joint statement regarding Kosovo during the conference in Ekaterinburgmarker. It was read by the host minister, Sergey Lavrov of Russia, and it said "In our statement, we recorded our fundamental position that the unilateral declaration of independence by Kosovo contradicts Resolution 1244. Russia, India and China encourage Belgrade and Pristina to resume talks within the framework of international law and hope they reach an agreement on all problems of that Serbian territory". Serbian Deputy Prime Minister Božidar Đelić told reporters after a meeting in Beijing with Politburo member Liu Yandong that China reiterated its support to help Serbia preserve her territorial integrity. "Just as Serbia supports the one China policy, China supports Serbia as its best and most stable friend in southeastern Europe." Ambassador of China to Serbia, Wei Jinghua, stated in June 2009 that "China respects the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Serbia and understands the great concern of Serbia on the issue of Kosovo. We support the negotiations between Belgrade and Pristina that would bring a mutually acceptable solution, in accordance with international law, the UN Charter and UN resolutions."
On 23 August 2009, Boris Tadić and Hu Jintao signed a joint declaration on the establishment of strategic partnerships.

In point VI this document reconfirms that China respects the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Serbia.

It considers that the best way to resolve the Kosovo issue is to develop a plan that would be acceptable for both sides, through dialogue and negotiations between the Government of Serbia and Kosovo authorities, in accordance with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and relevant resolutions of United Nations Security Council, within international law.

The declaration says that unilateral action will not contribute to resolving this issue, and that the international community should create favourable conditions for solving it.
On 26 November 2009, the President of the Parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee Dragoljub Mićunović stated that Serbia and China were on the same side in observing international law and that both countries will unite to counter any form of secessionism in the world.



Mr. Mićunović said that China and Serbia's relations were built from a very long history.



Also Zhizhen Wang Vice President of the Chinese Association for Internation Understanding (CAFIU) said that relations between China and Serbia were traditionally friendly, which should help further development of the political, cultural and economic ties.

UNSC permanent member
In November 2009, President Joseph Kabila said that Congo will not recognise the independence of Kosovo for as long as he lives.
In September 2009 Kosovar politician Behgjet Pacolli held a meeting with Ivorian president Laurent Gbagbo. In a subsequent interview, Pacolli said "I saw a notice that they are working for the recognition of Kosovo and I believe that it will happen soon".
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cuba has not issued an official statement regarding the independence of Kosovo.

On 29 February 2008, writing in his personal "Reflections of Fidel" column, which is published in the official newspaper of the Communist Party of Cuba, Granma Internacional (and since translated into English and archived on the Trabajadores website), Fidel Castro, the ex-President and First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, attacked Javier Solana, accusing him of being the ideological father of Kosovo's "independence", and by doing so, putting at risk the ethnic cohesion and the very state integrity of Spainmarker or The United Kingdommarker, both of which experience separatist movements of their own. Referring to Kosovo "independence" (in quotes), Castro made no identifiable statement concerning Cuba possibly withholding its recognition of Kosovo, or granting it.
On 11 February 2008, then Foreign Minister Erato Kozakou Marcoullis, of the Papadopoulos administration, stated that "Cyprus will never recognize a unilateral declaration of independence outside the U.N. framework, and in particular by side-stepping the role of the Security Council".

Current President, Dimitris Christofias, confirmed in March 2008 that Cyprus would not recognise Kosovo as an independent country, out of respect for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Serbia. Christofias reiterated his opposition to recognition in an interview with a Russian newspaper, saying, "The one thing that Kosovo and Cyprus have in common, as far as the situation in these regions is concerned, is that in both cases, the basic principles of international law and legality, as well as UN decisions, are constantly being violated". The Cypriot president underlined that the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of both Serbia and the Republic of Cyprus were being violated in the most brutal manner.
On 23 February 2009, in a meeting with Serbian President Boris Tadić, Christofias said that "Cyprus has not recognized the unilaterally declared independence of Kosovo and we will not recognize it in the future.

We are on your side, not only because your case is similar to ours, but because it is a matter of principles".

On 16 June 2009, Minister of Defence of Cyprus Costas Papakostas said that Cyprus will never recognise the independence of Kosovo.

In October 2009 this stance was reiterated by President Christofias who said Cyprus would not recognise Kosovo, even if all other EU members did so.
EU member
At a meeting on 28 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Crispin S. Gregoire, the representative of Dominica to the UN, Mr. Gregoire reportedly said "we recognize the right of the Kosovo people to self-determination and having their place in the family of free nations".
In response to a request from the research department of the Faculty of Law of the University of Oxford regarding the analysis of developments related to the independence of Kosovo, in August 2008 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that there should be "unrestricted compliance with the rules and principles of the United Nations Charter and International Law".At a meeting in January 2009 between Kosovan Foreign Minister Skënder Hyseni and Maria Elena Moreira, Ecuador's Ambassador to Austria, Mrs. Moreira said that the government of her country has carefully followed developments in Kosovo, and taking into account the recognition of Kosovo by European and Latin American countries, Ecuador will seriously consider the request for recognition of Kosovo as an independent and sovereign country. At a meeting on 25 March 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Diego Morejón-Pazmino, the Ambassador of Ecuador to the UN, Mr. Morejón-Pazmino said that Ecuador has been carefully following developments in Kosovo, and he stressed the importance of building democratic institutions and a society with rights guaranteed to all communities. Mr. Morejón-Pazmino also said that Ecuador would carefully examine developments before making a decision on whether to recognise Kosovo.
Soon after Kosovo's declaration of independence, an Egyptian Foreign Ministry spokesman urged the parties to abide by international law and support regional stability, but did not say whether Egypt would recognise Kosovo.

At the summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference on 10 March 2008, Egypt opposed adoption of the document, proposed by Turkey, that would lend support to Kosovo's declaration of independence.

On 19 June 2008, during the meeting of Organisation of the Islamic Conference, Egypt was among countries that opposed the recognition of Kosovo as an independent country.

On 29 September 2008, Foreign Minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit said that his government was closely following all developments in Kosovo and the region, and that his country would act at the right time regarding the issue of the recognition of Kosovo. In an interview to Večernje novosti on 29 September 2008, the Ambassador of Egypt to Serbia, Adel Ahmed Naguib, stated that Egypt respects Serbia's sovereignty and territorial integrity, and believes that an agreement should be found to satisfy both sides, for a win-win outcome. In early November 2008, presidential adviser and former deputy foreign minister, Abdullah el-Esha'al stated "that recognition of Kosovo independence will assertively come from Egypt very soon, because we are keen to contribute to peace and stability to this part of the world, and now we are very well informed about your history and self-determination endeavors to build your independent state".In late November 2008, however, Egypt blocked Kosovo's delegation from taking part in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference's second Ministerial Conference on Women to be held in Cairo. Even though the OIC had previously allowed Kosovo to participate with guest status on the request of Albania, Egypt objected and barred the delegation from talks.

On April 1, 2009, President Hosni Mubarak assured Serbian President Boris Tadić that Egypt will not recognise Kosovo, according to Tadić. The two leaders agreed that all global problems should be resolved within the United Nations.

At a meeting on 26 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Maged A. Abdelaziz, the representative of Egypt to the UN, Mr. Abdelaziz reportedly said that Egypt is closely tracking developments, and that Egypt will sooner or later join the countries that have recognised Kosovo.
On 15 May 2009, Arber Geci, a spokesman for the New Kosovo Alliance Party announced that party leader Behgjet Pacolli had received a promise of recognition from the President-elect of El Salvador, Mauricio Funes. Geci said that this recognition would be made when Funes took charge on 1 June. At a meeting on 27 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Carmen M.G. Hernandez, the representative of El Salvador to the UN, Ms. Hernandez reportedly said that the issue of recognition is on the agendas of both the outgoing and incoming governments. She said that El Salvador is following up the situation in Kosovo and a decision will be taken in time.
At a meeting in January 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Kongit Sinegiorgis, Ethiopia's Ambassador to Austria, Mrs. Sinegiorgis stated that the Ethiopian Government remains committed to considering Kosovo and its recognition, and will bring a decision at the right time.
Following a November 2009 tour of several African countries, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić said that Gabon had expressed support for Serbia's diplomatic struggle for Kosovo.
The Foreign Minister of Georgia, David Bakradze, said on 18 February 2008 that Tbilisi would not recognise Kosovo's independence, adding: "I think everyone in Georgia, regardless of political orientation, is unanimous on this". On 29 March 2008 the Prime Minister, Lado Gurgenidze, gave a recorded interview in Estonia, in which he clearly said in English that as Georgia's friends have recognised Kosovo, it is only natural that eventually Georgia will do likewise. The printed publication of the interview elicited demands by the opposition to impeach him, and the government spokesman stated that the Prime Minister was misinterpreted, after which the Estonian paper Postimees, which conducted and printed the interview, released the audio to the world. On 9 May 2008 President of Georgia, Mikhail Saakashvili, said "We are saying loud and clear that we have never planned to recognize Kosovo. Nor do we plan to do so in the future. The way out of the situation that has been chosen is not the best one. The Serbs should have been given more time for negotiations. The solution for Kosovo was a hasty one".
In mid-March 2008, Ghanaian president John Agyekum Kufuor stated that Ghana "would be guided by consultations through the United Nations (UN) system", and that he "wished the best for Serbia to attain genuine peace and stability". At a meeting on 25 March 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Leslie Kojo Christian, Ghana's ambassador to the UN, Mr. Christian said that in time, his government would make a decision on the recognition of Kosovo.

Following a meeting with Ghana's Deputy Foreign Minister, Chris Kpodo in November 2009, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić stated that Ghana would remain faithful to its position of not recognising the independence of Kosovo.
The day after the declaration, Greece stated that it would make a decision whether to recognise independent Kosovo or not after examining the issue in depth and that its decision would come as a result of close cooperation with European and neighbouring countries, bearing in mind Serbia's role in maintaining regional stability.

On 29 August 2008, following the crisis in the Caucasus, an MFA spokesman replied in passing during a press briefing that Greece did not recognise Kosovo and will not recognise South Ossetia and Abkhazia because "the basic principle of respect for the territorial integrity and independence of states" is of "long-standing importance to, and is a fundamental constant of, the Greek foreign policy of all Greek governments". Subsequent official statements issued by the Greek Foreign Minister Dora Bakoyannis in August and September 2008 about Greece's engagement in EULEX said that Greece has interest in the betterment of the living conditions in Kosovo, especially that of minorities.

In February 2009, a spokesman from the Greek embassy in Belgrade said that Greece has no plans to alter its stance on Kosovo despite the adoption of EP resolution calling on EU states that have not recognised Kosovo to do so. He also added that all Greek MEPs who attended the debate in Strasbourg "voted against the resolution".

In May 2009, Greece backed Kosovo's IMF bid and voted in favour of it to become the IMF's latest member.

On 2 July 2009, President of Greece, Karolos Papoulias, stated "When it comes to Kosovo, the Greek position is well known. Our country has always been in favour of a mutually acceptable solution which would be based on international law, which would respect minority rights and would produce neither winners nor losers".

In September 2009, new Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou commented on the issue of Kosovo's independence by saying that "its unilateral recognition is a flagrant violation of international law" and added that "Greece's insistence on international law is a profoundly patriotic stance". In a June 2008 letter to French President Nicolas Sarkozy, he had stated that "unilateral declaration of independence by Kosovo and its recognition by some EU member-states in violation of the principles of International Law and UN Security Council's resolutions and without a previous decision by the EU's 27 member-states, does not contribute to the region's stability".

EU member

NATO member
At a meeting on 24 March 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Dessima M. Williams, Grenada's Ambassador to the UN, Mrs. Williams (who is also chair of CARICOM in the UN) said that Grenada, along with other CARICOM member countries, is trying to achieve unity to make a decision for Kosovo. She has also said that Grenada is closely following developments in Kosovo and the decision for recognition will be considered at the right time.
At a meeting on 26 March 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Gert Rosenfal, the Ambassador of Guatemala to the UN, Mr. Rosenfal said that his country's government is carefully studying the developments in Kosovo, and the ongoing preparations to present a case to the International Court of Justice. He also said that Guatemala is working with others in Latin America to reach a decision.
On 28 August 2008, the Parliament Speaker of the Republic of Kosovo, Jakup Krasniqi, was informed in a meeting with the Ambassador of Haiti to the US, Raymond Joseph, that the "Haitian government is in the process of recognition of Kosovo independence". At a meeting on 25 March 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Léo Mérorès, the Ambassador of Haiti to the UN, Mr. Mérorès said that the government of Haiti would very soon examine Kosovo's demand for recognition. In another meeting on 26 May 2009, Mr. Mérorès reiterated that the Government of Haiti would evaluate the righteousness of the request for recognition.
At a meeting on 28 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Jorge Arturo Reina Idiaquez, the representative of Honduras to the UN, Mr. Idiaquez reportedly said that Kosovo's independence "is a concrete reality in the region," and that he would forward the call for recognition to his government.
On 18 February 2008, in response to questions on developments regarding Kosovo, an official spokesperson of the Indian Ministry of Foreign Affairs said, "It has been India's consistent position that the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all countries should be fully respected by all states. We have believed that the Kosovo issue should have been resolved through peaceful means and through consultation and dialogue between the concerned parties. We have taken note of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence by Kosovo. There are several legal issues involved in this Declaration. We are studying the evolving situation".

In March 2008, the Indian ambassador to Serbia, Ajay Swarup, told a Serbian newspaper, "India's position on Kosovo has been and still is consistent, and that is that the sovereignty and territorial integrity of every country must be fully respected by all other countries". Swarup added that a "high level of India's support to Serbia" can be seen from the comments and articles which appeared in the Indian press following Kosovo's declaration. Swarup also pointed out that Kosovo "can set a very dangerous precedent for similar cases around the world".

On 15 May 2008, the Foreign Ministers of India, Russia and China made a joint statement regarding Kosovo during the conference in Ekaterinburgmarker.
It was read by the host minister, Sergey Lavrov of Russia, and it said "In our statement, we recorded our fundamental position that the unilateral declaration of independence by Kosovo contradicts Resolution 1244. Russia, India and China encourage Belgrade and Pristina to resume talks within the framework of international law and hope they reach an agreement on all problems of that Serbian territory".

On 31 July 2008, Ambassador Swarup stated that "India abides by the principles of international law and does not recognize Kosovo's secession".

In January 2009, Ajay Swarup, the Indian ambassador to Belgrade, stated "India will support Serbia on the issue of protection of her sovereignty in all international forums".
On 19 February 2008, Foreign Ministry spokesman Kristiarto Soeryo Legowo said that the Indonesian government will closely observe developments in Kosovo and is not yet in a position to give its recognition to the unilaterally declared independence. The issue will be debated in parliament among the Indonesian parties. At the summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference on 10 March 2008, Indonesia opposed adoption of the document, proposed by Turkey, that would lend support to Kosovo's declaration of independence. On 27 March 2008, Indonesian Foreign Minister Hassan Wirajuda stated that Indonesia does not see Kosovo as a religious, but as an ethnic and political problem as well as the question of principle of respecting sovereignty and territorial integrity of a UN member. He said that "Indonesia supports a solution to the Kosovo problem with peaceful means, through dialogue and negotiations", and added that "Indonesia supports Serbia's idea that the UN General Assembly asks for opinion from the International Court of Justice on the legality of declaration of independence by Kosovo". On 19 June 2008, during the meeting of Organisation of the Islamic Conference, Indonesia was among countries that opposed the recognition of Kosovo as an independent country. On 26 August 2008, the Ambassador of Indonesia in Belgrade, Muhammad Dalimunthe, said that "Indonesia stands firmly behind the notion that every move on the international scene must be based on international law, and that is not the case with the unilateral proclamation of Kosovo's independence. Our stance starts with the fact that we respect Serbia's integrity", and that Indonesia insisted among Islamic countries that Kosovo is a political and not a religious issue. In January 2009, the Indonesian ambassador in Belgrade said that the the setting up of the Kosovo Security Force was unnecessary and that Indonesia has not changed its position that it backs UN Security Council Resolution 1244 which guarantees the territorial integrity of Serbia.Whilst giving a lecture at a London school of Economics on 31 March 2009, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono said "for now it is quite possible that Indonesia to accept the independent status of Kosovo after we examine carefully that there is a different situation in Myanmar, after the process of Balkanization you have the independent state of Kosovo" and that "we are still following the situation in Kosovo now and it is quite possible that some day Indonesia recognize the independence of Kosovo".
In August 2009, the Ambassador of Indonesia to Serbia Muhammad Abduh Dalimunthe said that Indonesia respects international law, the integrity of Serbia and all the steps that Serbia has taken with the International Court of Justice regarding the legality of Kosovo's unilaterally proclaimed independence.

He also said that every problem must be solved in a peaceful way, that the UN Security Council Resolution 1244 on Kosovo must be respected and that it is necessary to wait for the decision of the ICJ on Kosovo.

At a meeting in September 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Nur Hassan Wirajuda, Indonesian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Wirajuda said that Indonesia was closely looking at Kosovo's request and that a decision would be taken when appropriate.
UNSC non-permanent member at time of declaration (not currently a member)
On 13 March 2008, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said that Iran, after considering the region's issues and conditions, had not recognised the independence of Kosovo.

In early March 2008, Gholamreza Ansari, Ambassador of Iran to Russia, said that "this question has very important aspects. Frankly speaking, the United Nations divided one of its members into two parts, though Article 1244 confirms the territorial integrity of Serbia. This is a very strange event. We think that some countries try to weaken international organizations. Presently, Iran is studying the question of Kosovo's future. Iran... expresses its concern over the weakening of international organizations".
At a meeting on 28 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Hamid Al Bayati, the representative of Iraq to the UN, Mr. Al Bayati reportedly said that Kosovo deserves to be recognised by other states and that Iraq's decision to recognise will come at a suitable time.

At a meeting in September 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Hoshyar Zabari, Iraqi Foreign Minister, Mr. Zabari said that Kosovo's request for recognition was being studied closely. He said that he would forward the request to his Government, and that "we understand the right of peoples to self-determination".
"We haven't decided when we're going to decide, and instead will monitor events and consider the issue," an Israeli Foreign Ministry official said in February 2008. Israel will not recognise Kosovo's independence at this time, in part because of the possibility of Palestinians using recognition of Kosovo to justify their own unilateral declaration of independence. According to The Jewish Chronicle, Foreign Ministry officials and politicians are privately voicing a general sympathy towards the Kosovar cause, however Israel still won't recognise Kosovo. Knessetmarker representative Ruhama Avraham Balila said that "at present the government of Israel has made decision not to join the group of countries which recognised the independence of Kosovo". She also said that Israel considers the situation "very disturbing".
On 28 April 2009, Arthur Koll, the Israeli ambassador to Serbia, said it had been more than a year since Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, and that Israel had no intention of recognising that independence and that "Israel is asked from time to time how solid this decision is, but the fact is that Israel's position has not changed throughout this time.

The Serbian people and government should appreciate Israel's position, which also demonstrates the friendship between the two states".

On 16 September 2009, Israeli foreign minister Avigdor Liberman said that Israel is "monitoring the situation between Serbia and Kosovo" and that Israel hopes for "a really comprehensive and peaceful solution" which would be established through negotiations between Belgrade and Pristina.

Liberman said that his country would be able to withstand the pressure made on it to recognise Kosovo because Israel has "been under pressure since 1948 on many issues and we know how to deal with any pressure".

"Israeli officials have confirmed that Israel will remain firm in its stand [on Kosovo]," Serbian Interior Minister Ivica Dačić said during a visit to Israel in late October 2009.
In February 2008, a Kazakh foreign ministry spokesperson said that Kazakhstan opposes Kosovo's unilateral proclamation of independence. Kazakhstan insists the Kosovo issue should be solved peacefully in accordance with UN principles on national sovereignty and territorial integrity, the spokesperson said. In October 2008, Foreign Minister Marat Tazhin said that "the principle of territorial integrity is key in international law" and that for this reason Kazakhstan did not recognise Kosovo or Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

In December 2008, Prime Minister Karim Masimov stated that "We have an official position. Kazakhstan did not recognise Kosovo and does not recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia. We consider that borders are defined and Kazakhstan will not recognise any new states".
On 30 July 2008, in a meeting between Kenya's Minister for Foreign Affairs Moses Wetangula, and Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić, Wetangula spoke of Kenya's principled position regarding Kosovo and the territorial integrity of Serbia. At a meeting on 27 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Zachary D. Muburi Muita, the representative of Kenya to the UN, Mr. Muita reportedly said that "Kosovo deserves a place in the family of nations" and that he will pass the request for recognition to his government. He also said that a right for self-determination is an undeniable right.
In February 2008, Kuwait's ambassador to Russia said that his country "hopes that all participants of this discussion will listen to a voice of reason and will find the conciliatory proposal". At a meeting in May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Abdullah Ahmed Mohamed Al-Murad, the representative of Kuwait to the UN, Mr. Al-Murad reportedly said that he understood the will of the people of Kosovo for an independent state.

Following a 25 November 2009 meeting between Serbian Prime Minister Mirko Cvetkovic and Kuwaiti Prime Minister Sheikh Nasser al-Mohammed al-Ahmed al-Sabah, Cvetkovic said that Kuwait had expressed a principled stance on the issue of Kosovo, respecting Serbia's sovereignty and territorial integrity, based on the upholding of international law.
An official statement issued in early 2008 states that Kyrgyzstan will not recognise Kosovo's independence and considers it a dangerous precedent for separatist organisations in the world.
On 27 February 2008, the Foreign Ministry issued a statement saying that "The Lao PDR urged all sides to respect the resolution of the UN Security Council No 1244, dated 10 June 1999, recognizing Kosovo as a Serbian province".
At a meeting on 28 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Nawaf Salam, the representative of Lebanon to the UN, Mr. Salam reportedly said that Lebanon will continue to support Kosovo and that the government of Lebanon is seeking the moment for recognition.

In a November 2009 meeting between an Albanian delegation led by Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Edith Harxhi, and Lebanese officials including Prime Minister Saad Hariri, the Lebanese side reportedly said that Lebanon would soon recognise Kosovo. However, the Lebanese ambassador in Belgrade, Cehad Mualem, was later reported as saying that there was no possibility of Lebanon recognising Kosovo in the near future. He said that Lebanon would wait for the decision of the ICJ.
According to Serbia, Abdulhati Al Obeidi, Secretary for European Affairs of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, after meeting with the Serbian Minister of Foreign Affairs Vuk Jeremić on 17 March 2008, stated that Libya will not recognise a unilateral declaration of independence by Kosovo. Al Obeidi said that Libya strongly supports the position of Serbia regarding Kosovo, despite the pressure from the European Union and some Islamic nations to recognise, and that Libya considers the unilateral declaration of independence illegal. Al Obeidi stated that Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi considers the UN Security Council to be the only place where the Kosovo problem can be solved the right way.

On 2 October 2008, according to Kosovan Foreign Minister Skënder Hyseni, the Libyan ambassador at the United Nations, Giadalla Ettalhi, pledged to back Kosovo's independence while opposing Serbia's initiative to contest this. However, Libya did not partake in the vote.

According to Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić, President Muammar al-Gaddafi reassured him, during an 9 April 2009 meeting, that Libya will not recognise Kosovo.

Libya demanded that Kosovo be returned to Serbia's jurisdiction "immediately" in their statement to the ICJ.

Following a September 2009 meeting between Gaddafi and Kosovar politician Behgjet Pacolli, Pacolli's New Kosovo Alliance party stated that Gaddafi had promised to carefully examine the possibility of Libya recognising Kosovo. Gaddafi also reportedly told Pacolli that there would be no barrier to free movement of Kosovars in Libya, or the development of economic, and other, relations. In a subsequent interview, Pacolli said "Today I say that Muammar Gadafi is not against Kosovo... I have to say also that the problem is the relation of Libya with Russia... Even though he knows Kosovo, President Gadafi said to me that it's not the right time to recognize Kosovo".
Current UNSC non-permanent member (member at time of declaration)
At a meeting in September 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Bingu wa Mutharika, Malawi's President, Dr. Mutharika promised that his country would soon deal with the issue of recognising Kosovo. It is reported that he said that Kosovo deserves to be independent like all the other parts of the former Yugoslavia that have won their independence, and that he looked forward to establishing diplomatic relations and economic cooperation between Malawi and Kosovo.
Mali's President Amadou Toumani Touré was reported in the press in March 2008 as having expressed the Malian stance on Kosovo as follows: "International norms must be respected, because their abuse and the violation of territorial integrity could threaten a series of countries with a similar problem".
At an April 2009 military industry fair in Turkey, Mauritanian Defence Minister, Mohamed Mohamoud Mohamed Olud reportedly said that recognition from Mauritania will come fast due to other Arab countries having recognised Kosovo. At a meeting on 28 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Ould Hadrami, the representative of Mauritania to the UN, Mr. Hadrami reportedly said that his government would very soon make a decision on the recognition request. He added, "you won't be surprised with the answer".

At a meeting in September 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Mint Mouknass, Mauritanian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ms. Mouknass said that Kosovo's request for recognition would be forwarded to senior Mauritanian state authorities, and that they would consider Kosovo's request for recognition with great attention. She said that a decision would be taken at an appropriate time.
On 19 February 2008, the Foreign Ministry issued a statement: "Our country is closely paying attention to the situation as it develops in order to adopt, at an opportune moment, a position on what took place last Sunday". The same statement calls on all parties to agree peacefully, through dialogue, on the final status of Kosovo and to reach an agreement on the rights of minorities and maintaining peace and security in the Balkans. Current UNSC non-permanent member (not member at time of declaration)
Kosovo's declaration creates "deep concerns in the Republic of Moldova," the Moldovan government said in a February 2008 statement. Moldova will not recognise Kosovo's independence.
On 8 May 2009 Kosovan President Fatmir Sejdiu met Nyamaa Enkhbold, the Mongolian Deputy Parliament Speaker, to request recognition of Kosovo by Mongolia. Mr. Enkhbold reportedly promised to deal with the request once he had returned home.
At a meeting in January 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni and Omar Zniber, Morocco's Ambassador to Austria, Mr. Zniber said that the Kingdom of Morocco is carefully watching developments in Kosovo. He said, "People and institutions of my country understand and support the will of Kosovo people. We have been and remain close to Kosovo; I can tell you that my country is having wide consult[ation]s with other countries on the issue of Kosovo recognition. We will make a decision for Kosovo at [the] right time".

During a September 2009 visit to Rabat, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić said that Moroccan leaders had confirmed that Rabat had consolidated its position on not recognising Kosovo. Morocco's Foreign Minister Taieb Fassi Fihri stated that entities could not become states by unilateral declarations of independence, but only through UN processes or mutual consent.
In February 2008, Mozambican Deputy Foreign Minister Henrique Banze said in reference to Kosovo's declaration of independence, "We shall wait for the appropriate moment. It's a very sensitive matter and like all matters of this kind, it demands a lot of thought. Our government will work so that it may make the most appropriate decision in this case". In November 2008 Mozambique's ambassador to the UN, Filipe Chidumo, stated that his government is monitoring developments, and that it "understands Kosovo's people's will for freedom and independence".

At a meeting on 18 June 2009 between Ambassador Chidumo and the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, Mr. Chidumo reportedly said that the issue of Kosovo continues to remain on Mozambique's agenda and that he would resubmit the request for recognition to his government.
In February 2008, the chancellor of Nicaragua, Samuel Santos, said that the government of his country maintains a position of "observation" to the unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo. "Nicaragua is watching the issue of Kosovo's independence, we have friends who are in agreement with this independence and other friends who disagree, there are some who are saying that [independence] is a threat to peace in that tender area. We just look at [this case and] we have no opinion on this issue."
In August 2008, Niger's ambassador to the U.S. Toure Magiu discussed the situation in Kosovo with the Speaker of Kosovo's Parliament, Jakup Krasniqi, and was given a copy of Kosovo's constitution. Krasniqi asked Toure to call on his government to recognise Kosovo. Toure thanked Krasniqi for the information and said she would inform Niger's government and the president of Niger on the political developments in Kosovo.
In July 2009, Umaru Yar'Adua, President of Nigeria, said that Nigeria will not recognise Kosovo as an independent nation. He said the decision not to recognise Kosovo was informed by Nigeria’s historical experience of the civil war of 1967 to 1970, fought to maintain its territorial integrity and sovereignty saying that "Since the end of the civil war, Nigeria has continued to embark on nation-building policies and strategies to forge a heterogeneous, yet inclusive nation".
In November 2009, Ojo Maduekwe, Foreign Minister of Nigeria (and former advocate of Biafran independence), emphasised that Nigeria will never recognise the independence of Kosovo.
On 14 November 2008, it was reported that Kosovo's Foreign Minister Skënder Hyseni had received a promise of imminent recognition from Oman. At a meeting on 28 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Fuad Al Hinai, the representative of Oman to the UN, Mr. Al Hinai reportedly praised the impressive steps taken to build modern democratic institutions in Kosovo and said that it is just a matter of time before Kosovo is recognised by a majority of countries.

At a meeting in September 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Yusuf Bin Alawai Bin Abdullah, Oman's Foreign Minister, Mr. Hyseni was told that Oman would establish diplomatic relations with Kosovo when appropriate, but that Oman does not make formal declarations of recognition.
In February 2008, the Pakistani Foreign Ministry released the following statement: "We understand and support the legitimate aspirations of the Kosovars and the need for peace in Kosovo and the region. Pakistan is watching the developments in Kosovo carefully. We have noted the recognition extended by a number of important countries to the declaration of independence by the Kosovo Parliament and the statement made by the OIC Secretary General expressing happiness over this development, and solidarity and support with the Kosovars. Our policy will be guided by these developments and the aspirations of the people of Kosovo. It remains our earnest desire that situation remains calm and peaceful in Kosovo and the region."

At a meeting on 28 January 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Mr. Shahbaz, Pakistan's Ambassador to Austria, the ambassador said that the people and government of Pakistan support Kosovo on its path. He said that Pakistan is conducting intensive talks with its neighbours and other members of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference on the issue, and that it is just a matter of time before Pakistan takes the decision to recognise Kosovo.

At a meeting on 26 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Abdullah Hussain Haroon, the representative of Pakistan to the UN, Mr. Haroon reportedly said "finally we support your cause".
In February 2008, Paraguay took note of the independence declaration and was analysing the situation.
In February 2008, Foreign Secretary Alberto Romulo said in a statement: "Considering the existing sensibilities in the region, continued dialogue should be encouraged among all the parties concerned to ensure regional stability". They also said they are not willing to recognise Kosovo as an independent nation. On 19 February 2008, Alberto Romulo, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs stated that recognition could complicate peace talks with Muslim separatists in Mindanaomarker. He said that "while the Philippines does not oppose the idea of independence for Kosovo, it would prefer a settlement...taking into account the internationally accepted principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity".
On 19 June 2008, the Prime Minister who is also Foreign Minister, Sheikh Hamad bin Jassem bin Jabr Al Thani, at an Islamic summit in Uganda declared that "his country is in the process of recognizing the Republic of Kosovo". This information was earlier stated by Qatar's UN representative during a May 2008 meeting with the Foreign Minister of the Republic of Kosovo. On 10 March 2009, Sheikh Al Thani replied to a question about recognition of Kosovo's independence saying that Qatar was studying it, and that it had been discussed in a meeting with the Albanian premier and the Emir of Qatar. Al Thani said "we will consider this issue and we hope to reply to it soon".

At an April 2009 military industry fair in Turkey, Kosovo Security Force General Sylejman Selimi and Kosovan chargé d'affaires to Turkey, Bekim Sejdiu, were reportedly told separately by Qatari minister Hamad Bin Ali Al-Attiyah that there could be a swift recognition by Qatar in the near future.

At a meeting on 28 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser, the representative of Qatar to the UN, Mr. Al-Nasser reportedly said that he would recommend the recognition of Kosovo to his government as soon as possible.
On 18 February 2008, a joint session of Parliament voted not to recognise Kosovo's independence by 357 to 27, with support from all parties except the UDMR. Also the President and the Prime Minister oppose recognition.
In February 2009, Romanian Minister of Foreign Affairs Cristian Diaconescu said that "Romania does not change its position and will not recognize Kosovo’s independence, which contradicts to the norms and principles of the international law" and that the EP resolution on Kosovo is not binding.

In September 2009, Traian Băsescu announced that Romania will partner Serbia in its action at the International Court of Justice and said that "Territorial partitions are unacceptable, regardless of what explanations [are] put forward to support them".
EU member

NATO member
In February 2008, Russian President Vladimir Putin described the recognition of Kosovo's unilaterally declared independence by several major world powers as "a terrible precedent, which will de facto blow apart the whole system of international relations, developed not over decades, but over centuries", and that "They have not thought through the results of what they are doing. At the end of the day it is a two-ended stick and the second end will come back and hit them in the face". During an official state visit to Serbia following the declaration, Russian President-elect Dmitry Medvedev reiterated support for Serbia and its stance on Kosovo.

In March 2008, Russia said that the recent violence in Tibet is linked with the recognition by some states of the independence of Serbia's breakaway province, Kosovo. Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, in an interview with a Russian newspaper, also linked the demands for greater autonomy by ethnic Albanians in Macedonia with the Kosovo issue. Lavrov said, "There are ground[s] to presume that this is not occurring by chance. You can see what is happening in Tibet, how the separatists there are acting. The Albanians in Macedonia are already demanding a level of autonomy that is a clear step toward independence. Furthermore, events in other areas of the world give us grounds to assume that we are only at the beginning of a very precarious process".

On 23 March 2008, Vladimir Putin ordered urgent humanitarian aid for Kosovo Serb enclaves. The Prime Minister of Kosovo, Hashim Thaçi, opposed this plan, stating that Russia could only send aid if it were agreed and coordinated with Government in Pristina.

On 15 July 2008, President Dmitry Medvedev stated in a major foreign policy speech "For the EU, Kosovo is almost what Iraqmarker is to the United States... This is the latest example of the undermining of international law".

On 19 February 2009, Hashim Thaçi announced that Russia is planning the recognition of Kosovo. The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Sergey Lavrov, responded on the following day by saying "I think Mr. Thaci is indulging in wishful thinking... Mr. Thaci is the last person to make statements on behalf of the Russian Federation" and that "When discussing the problem of Kosovo, the Russian side confirms that our position remains the same and supports the settlement of this problem in accordance with Security Council Resolution 1244. Our support for Serbia's course of action in defending its sovereignty and territorial integrity also stays firm".

On 29 May 2009, President Dmitry Medvedev described Serbia as a "key partner" for Russia in Southeast Europe and announced "We intend to continue to coordinate our foreign police moves in future, including the ones related to the solving of the issue with Kosovo".

Russian ambassador to Serbia Aleksandr Konuzin told a Belgrade daily in June 2009 that "Russia's stand is rather simple — we are ready to back whatever position Serbia takes (with regards to Kosovo)."

In September 2009, Vitaly Churkin when asked by journalists why Abkhazia and South Ossetia should be internationally recognised and Kosovo not, said that "the strongest argument is the fact that at the time when Kosovo's authorities made the UDI, nobody was threatening them or putting them in a position where they had to secede. On the contrary, Belgrade even went so far as to refrain from exerting any military or economic pressure on Pristina."

On 29 November 2009, the Russian ambassador to Serbia Aleksandr Konuzin said that Russia will continue to help Serbia defend its sovereignty and territorial integrity. He also said that “Kosovo echoes in the hearts of all Russians with the same pain as it does in your hearts,”
UNSC permanent member
On 27 March 2008, Kosovo's declaration of independence was discussed at a meeting of St. Kitts & Nevis' Foreign Affairs Consultative Committee. It is "to be researched for fuller examination in future meetings". The St. Kitts & Nevis Foreign Ministry had the following to say in a commentary article: "The feud between Serbs and Albanians in Kosovo date[s] back to the 7th century and it would be naïve to expect the conflict will be resolved overnight. The issues relating to territory, sovereignty, religion, ethnicity and minority rights are intricate to the fracas in the Balkans".
At a meeting on 25 March 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Donatus Keith St. Aimee, the Permanent Representative of Saint Lucia to the UN, Mr. St. Aimee said "We support the humans' and peoples' will to decide on their own the way they would like to live. We support people's will of Kosovo to have the fate on their own hands. The Government of Saint Lucia will soon make [a] decision to recognize Kosovo."
On 18 February 2008, the Singapore Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement through its spokesman regarding Kosovo's declaration of independence: "Singapore is still studying the matter. This is a controversial move that has many complex ramifications around the world. The situation under international law is not clear and the kind of precedent that could be set needs to be carefully assessed. We hope international mediation efforts would continue so that a solution acceptable to all parties can be found". According to the Serbian Foreign Minister, Vuk Jeremić, who met with Singaporean officials in August 2008, Singapore does not intend to recognise Kosovo and it considers the unilateral declaration a dangerous precedent which could cause instability throughout the world. On 8 October the representative of Singapore at the UN said that he was sympathetic to the quest of the people of Kosovo, as they, indeed, had suffered terrible treatment in the past and that many countries had expressed sympathy for some form of autonomy for Kosovo. However he said that to date, Singapore had not supported Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence, and was concerned about the precedent it could set. He also said that Singapore preferred that the matter be resolved peacefully by the concerned parties.
On the day of the declaration, the Slovak Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued this statement on its website: "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic takes note of the Kosovo unilateral declaration of independence. For the time being Slovakia does not consider recognizing Kosovo on the basis of this declaration. Slovakia has always been in favour of the final settlement of the Kosovo status based upon an agreement with the decisive role of the UN Security Council in accordance with the UN-approved principles of the Contact Group. Slovakia will support all activities of the UN, European Union, NATO OSCE and Council of Europe regarding Kosovo, primarily by the means of Slovak participation at NATO (KFOR) and the EU (EULEX) missions based on the UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999)".

Shortly afterwards, in February 2008, several high officials of Slovakia made statements regarding Kosovo independence. Prime Minister Robert Fico said "I do not exclude the possibility that Slovakia will never recognize Kosovo. Kosovo is not some independent territory, it is an integral part of Serbia where Serbs, and members of the Albanian ethnic minority live. The declaration of independence violate[s] the basic principles of international law". Fico also said that he wanted Kosovo to be debated at the UN, since it is the only organisation that can decide on the change of borders. Fico added "Historians compare what is happening today in Serbia with what happened at Munich in 1938 or with the Vienna arbitration". President Ivan Gašparovič said that Slovakia still had enough time to take a prudent stance. "I am sure that it will take not a year or two, but maybe even ten years, until countries can take a final position on Kosovo." Deputy Prime Minister Dušan Čaplovič said that by declaring independence without Serbian consent, Kosovo broke international law and created a precedent.

During 2009 there were several statements regarding Kosovo from Slovakia, most notable were made by President of Slovakia Ivan Gašparovič who said that "Slovakia prefers respect for international law, and therefore doesn't acknowledge independence for Kosovo." and by Foreign Minister Miroslav Lajčák who said that there is broad consensus across the Slovak Parliament, crossing party lines (with the exception of the Party of the Hungarian Coalition), that supports the government's stance on Kosovo recognition. Ján Škoda, the Spokesman of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Slovakia stated that Slovakia will wait until the International Court of Justice produces its verdict before it takes the final decision towards Kosovo. In September 2009, Prime Minister of Slovakia Robert Fico explained that there was not a single reason for Slovakia to change its stance on Kosovo.

At a meeting in September 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Miroslav Lajčák, Slovakian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Lajčák said that Slovakia sees Kosovo as a sui generis case, and said "we are aware that the process is irreversible".In a subsequent visit to Belgrade, Lajčák told the Serbian government that he would not support any initiative that put recognising Kosovo as a condition for Serbia to join the EU. Afterwards, Serbian president Boris Tadić thanked Slovakia for maintaining its support for Serbia's territorial integrity and sovereignty.
EU member

NATO member
An official Solomon Islands government website states that Kosovo nationals require approval before entering the country, thus implying recognition of the Kosovan passport. However, no official statement on recognition of Kosovo has been published.
Following Kosovo's declaration of independence, South Africa, in its capacity as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, called for further negotiation between Serbia and Kosovo.

At a press conference on 19 February 2008, a spokesman from South Africa's Department for Foreign Affairs stated that the South African "government will be studying... the political and legal implications of this new development", that "there is no way South Africa can consciously not want to take a position on this. But you can only take a position in a matter that is not ongoing... It's a question of time before South Africa takes a definite position", and that "it's not a question of us being in the majority or minority, as it has never been. It's not a question of us being with Russia or China and it has never been and it will never be. We've got our own principles that guide us".

On 9 May 2009, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić met the new South African President Jacob Zuma and other officials. Afterwards, Jeremić said, "Serbia is grateful for the support and consistency of the Republic of South Africa not to recognize Kosovo's self-proclaimed independence".

At a meeting on 28 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Baso Sangqu, the representative of South Africa to the UN, Mr. Sangqu reportedly said that he would forward the request for recognition to his government, and that South Africa is closely following developments in Kosovo.
UNSC non-permanent member at time of declaration (not currently a member)
On 18 February 2008, Spanish Foreign Minister Miguel Ángel Moratinos said that Spain would not recognise Kosovo because the declaration of independence did not respect international law. He also said that the independence of Kosovo would only be legal if it was the result of agreement by all sides involved or if there had been a UN Security Council resolution. Spain will not take part in the EULEX mission until legal questions over how it will replace the UN administration are answered. Moratinos told a meeting of European Union Foreign Ministers in Slovenia that Spain will not send its contingent to the EULEX mission until there has been a formal transfer of powers from the United Nations.
In February 2009, Ambassador of Spain to Serbia Íñigo de Palacio España said that Spain's position not to recognise Kosovo independence "would not change even after the adoption of the resolution by the European Parliament" and that "Most UN members do not recognize Kosovo's independence.

Just 54 of 194 have recognized.

The EP resolution is not mandatory and was adopted by a narrow majority, which indicated that there was a division within the institution on the issue of Kosovo's independence".

In May 2009 José García-Margallo, Spanish member of the EU parliament, said that Spain does not recognise Kosovo because of principles related to Spain's Basquemarker and Cataloniamarker autonomous communities.

However he also stressed that these Spanish autonomous communities are not comparable with Kosovo which is fundamentally different.

García-Margallo said that despite Spain's non-recognition of Kosovo it will continue to support Kosovo and its development.

On 14 May 2009, Juan Fernando López Aguilar, head of the Spanish Socialist Party (PSOE) list for the European Parliament Elections (and former minister of justice), hinted that Spain might recognise Kosovo in the very long run, referring to the development of relations between Spain and Israel.
At the press conference during the 64th Session of the UN General Assembly Prime Minister of Spain José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero said that Spain has a consistent position on the question of recognition of the creation of independent States that required the respect of international law and that from Spain's point of view, it was not correct to recognise Kosovo.



He stated that Spain will not change its position despite more than 60 countries that recognised and that "the question could be reverse: why are there more than 100 countries that have not recognized Kosovo and why do those 60 not see what the other 100 see?".

EU member state

NATO member state
In February 2008, the Foreign Ministry of Sri Lanka called Kosovo's declaration of independence a violation of the U.N. Charter and emphasised its concern that the act "could set an unmanageable precedent in the conduct of international relations, the established global order of sovereign States and could thus pose a grave threat to international peace and security".

In a June 2009 meeting with Serbian President Boris Tadić, Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa re-affirmed his country's solidarity with Serbia and stated that Sri Lanka remained firmly opposed to Kosovo's independence as it threatened the international order. Rajapaksa said that there could be no right for countries to be formed by secession, which was in violation of the UN Charter and the principles of national sovereignty.
At the summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference on 10 March 2008, Sudan opposed adoption of the document, proposed by Turkey, that would lend support to Kosovo's declaration of independence. On 28 August 2008, Sudan's envoy to the UN Abdel-Haleem Abdel-Mahmood stated that his government remains opposed to the independence of Kosovo and that they will support Serbia's request that the UN General Assembly ask for an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice.
At a meeting on 28 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Henry Leonard MacDonald, the representative of Suriname to the UN, Mr. MacDonald reportedly ensured that he would submit the application for recognition to his government.
On 13 May 2009, Syria's ambassador to Serbia, Majed Shadoud, reported that Syrian President Bashar al-Assad told Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić that that his country continues to oppose the recognition of the independence of Kosovo. Shadoud quoted as-Assad as saying "Syria urges a political solution for the situation in the Balkans and the Middle East and is opposed to any kind of divisions in both regions, regardless of whether religious, ethnic or nationalist reasons are in question".
According to Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić, during an 8 April 2009 meeting in Libya, the Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete reassured him that Tanzania would keep its policy of not recognising Kosovo's independence.
In February 2008, Asomudin Saidov, Foreign Minister, stated that Tajikistan will not recognise Kosovo's independence as it considers it to be the violation of legal norms and a danger for Europe.
In February 2008, Thailand was awaiting the decision of the United Nations Security Council.
On 14 November 2008, it was reported that Kosovo's Foreign Minister Skënder Hyseni had received a promise of imminent recognition from Timor-Leste.

At a meeting on 26 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Nelson Santos, the representative of Timor-Leste to the UN, Mr. Santos reportedly said that Kosovo is quite high up on Timor-Leste's agenda, that recognition of Kosovo from Timor-Leste is "just a matter of time" and that it is clear that "Kosovo's independence is irreversible".
At a meeting in May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Sonatane Taumoepeau-Tupou, the representative of Tonga to the UN, Mr. Taumoepeau-Tupou reportedly said he would convey the request for recognition to his government.
At a meeting on 25 March 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Maria Annette Valere, the Ambassador of Trinidad and Tobago to the UN, Mrs. Valere said that her country knows how important the process of international recognition is for Kosovo, and that the government of Trinidad and Tobago would address the request for recognition in the near future.
At a meeting on 28 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Jalel Snoussi, the representative of Tunisia to the UN, Mr. Snoussi reportedly said that he would inform the Tunisian authorities of Kosovo's request for recognition.
In November 2009, the Ambassador of Tunisia to Serbia, Houria Ferchichi, said that Tunisia supports Serbia's commitment to a peaceful and compromised solution of the Kosovo issue through the UN, and the efforts of Serbian diplomacy in that direction.
At a meeting in September 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Apisai Ielemia, Tuvalu's Prime Minister, Mr. Ielemia promised that his country would soon deal with the issue of recognising Kosovo.
In February 2008, a senior Ugandan official said that the Ugandan government is carefully studying Kosovo's declaration of independence before it makes a decision to recognise it as a state or not. At a meeting on 26 March 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Ruhakana Rugunda, the Ambassador of Uganda to the UN, Mr. Rugunda expressed the need for intensification of contacts between the two countries for the purposes of information and co-operation. He also said that Uganda would in time take the optimal decision for Kosovo. Current UNSC non-permanent member (not member at time of declaration)
On 18 February 2008, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that "The multilateral mechanisms, such as EU, OSCE, UN, should play an important role".

The President stated on 19 February 2008 that Ukraine's position on the situation is to first of all follow national interests and international law. He emphasised that Ukraine's position proceeds from the opinion that the decision on recognising Kosovo or not requires timing for most of the world's countries. "We proceed from hope that resources of regulation through talks have not been yet exhausted."

The Chairman of the Verkhovna Radamarker Committee for Foreign Affairs, Oleh Bilorus, said on 20 February 2008 that Ukraine will back Serbia's stand on Kosovo at a session of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly to be held 21–22 February in Vienna.

On 16 April 2008, the Office of Mass Media Relations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Ukraine Secretariat issued the following statement on the Government Portal official website: "Ukraine will decide on its position concerning [the] independence of Kosovo after [a] corresponding assessment by international institutions".
Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko said that Ukraine lies in the neighbourhood of several countries facing territorial problems and "That's why before taking any decision, Ukraine wishes to know whether Kosovo is already a norm, a common practice or a unique event the world should react on". Yulia Tymoshenko noted that Ukraine is holding multilateral diplomatic consultations, with the aim of establishing how Kosovo independence is perceived, which will allow it to determine its stand in this issue.

On 22 October 2008, Deputy Foreign Minister Kostyantyn Yeliseyev stated that Ukraine intends to maintain its neutral stance. "If Ukraine chooses any position, the security of our peacemakers will be put in question," he said.

On 4 December 2008, speaking at the OSCE meeting about separatism that took place in 2008, Foreign Minister Volodymyr Ohryzko said that "Ukraine will never make a compromise on question of territorial integrity of any state". In October 2009, Ukrainian Ambassador to Russia Kostyantyn Hryshchenko said that there are no cases in which Ukraine should recognise Kosovo, Abkhazia or South Ossetia.
According to Ultimas Noticias, a news agency from Uruguay, in March 2008 "Uruguay has not recognised Kosovo's declaration of independence, because doing so would not be in accordance with its required three pillars of recognition: the principle of territorial integrity of states, achieving a solution through dialogue and consensus, and recognition by international organisations."
In February 2008, the Uzbek government believes that questions of independence should be decided in the UN assembly. As for Kosovo, Uzbekistan has yet to come up with a final position.
In February 2008, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez announced that Venezuela does not recognise Kosovo's independence on the grounds that it has been achieved through U.S. pressure and criticised a recent political movement calling out for a more autonomous Zulia state. On 24 March 2008, Chavez accused Washingtonmarker of trying to "weaken Russia" by supporting independence for Kosovo. He called Kosovo's new leader, Prime Minister Hashim Thaçi, a "terrorist" put in power by the U.S. and noted that the former rebel leader's nom de guerre was "The Snake".
In February 2008, UN Ambassador Le Luong Minh "reaffirmed Vietnam policy that the fact that Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence is not a correct implementation of the U.N. Security Council Resolution 1244 and that will only complicate the situation in Kosovo and the Balkan region". Current UNSC non-permanent member (member at time of declaration)
At a meeting on 26 May 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Abdullah M. Alsaidi, the representative of Yemen to the UN, Mr. Alsaidi reportedly said that he will be personally working to speed the process of recognition up on the part of Yemen Government. He is also reported to have said that "Kosovo's independence had no other alternative" and "is irreversible".

At a meeting in September 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Abu Bakr al-Qirbi, Yemeni Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. al-Qiribi said that Yemen would recognise Kosovo's independence soon.
In early March 2008, Foreign Affairs Minister, Kabinga Pande, said that Zambia has not decided its position on the declaration of Kosovo's independence. Pande said the government needs more time to analyse the matter.


Non-UN member states

Country Position Relevant international membership
President Sergei Bagapsh of the Republic of Abkhaziamarker, another country with only partial recognition, regards "the promotion of Kosovo by the U.S.A.marker and some European states towards the declaration of independence as a visible demonstration of the policy of double standards". "Why does not the world community put any attention to the violent actions against ethnic minorities living in Kosovo..., the lack of interethnic reconciliation...", Sergey Bagapsh noted. "We are solidly convinced of the fact that [now] we have got an even wider moral base for the recognition of our independence." On 5 September 2008, the Abkhazian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergei Shamba, said he was ready to recognise Kosovo's independence, "if Kosovo agrees to recognize our own (Abkhazia) independence, we will certainly recognize them as well".
In February 2008, Georgiy Petrosyan, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the non-recognised, de facto independent Republic of Nagorno-Karabakhmarker, said that he does not regard the conflict between his motherland and Azerbaijanmarker, and the conflict between Kosovo and Serbia as completely similar. He noted that "approaches and solutions, which have recommended themselves while regulating one problem, can be used when looking for a solution to another one". Petrosyan stated that "the recognition of independent Kosovo will become an additional factor strengthening the status of [the] Stepanakertmarker government" that he represents.
On 12 March 2008 following Kosovo's declaration of independence, the parliament of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic adopted a statement calling on the world's parliaments to be consistent in their recognition of states established on the basis of the right for self-determination and not to use double standards.

The statement commended the stance of the international community respecting the human and civil rights of the majority of Kosovo's population.
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) is recognised only by Turkey and is an observer of The Organisation of the Islamic Conference. President Mehmet Ali Talat has welcomed Kosovo's independence, but the TRNC has not yet decided to recognise Kosovo.
Palestinian Authority Shortly after the declaration, two senior Palestinian officials representing the Mahmoud Abbas West Bankmarker-controlling government, who also are part of the team negotiating with Israel, disagreed on what the Kosovo events implied for Palestine. Yasser Abed Rabbo said, "If things are not going in the direction of continuous and serious negotiations, then we should take the step and announce our independence unilaterally. Kosovo is not better than us. We deserve independence even before Kosovo, and we ask for the backing of the United States and the European Union for our independence". Saeb Erekat responded that the Palestine Liberation Organization had already declared independence in 1988. "Now we need real independence, not a declaration," said Erekat, "We need real independence by ending the occupation. We are not Kosovo. We are under Israeli occupation and for independence we need to acquire independence".

During a July 2009 state visit to Serbia, President Mahmoud Abbas, when discussing both the situations in the Middle East and Kosovo said, "We are looking for a way to resolve these problems in a peaceful way, by upholding international law. We cannot impose solutions nor can we accept imposed solutions. That is why we must negotiate".
UN observer
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic The Polisario Front, which governs the partially recognised (by 45 states) Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, has stated that the speedy recognition of Kosovo's independence by many countries shows the double standards of the international community, considering that the Western Saharamarker issue remains unsolved after three decades.
President Eduard Kokoity of the Republic of South Ossetiamarker, stated that it is not fair to compare this breakaway region with Kosovo because South Ossetians have far more right to a state of their own than Kosovo Albanians. He said that "Kosovo Albanians got independence after NATO's aggression on Serbia. Americans and NATO member countries took away Serbia's province. I feel sincerely for the Serb people," and that "Serbs had a well-organized state that provided for a normal life for Albanians. For this reason, what Americans have done to the Serbs is injustice".
Transnistriamarker Transnistria, a de-facto independent, but internationally unrecognised republic which seceded from Moldovamarker in 1990, has no policy towards Kosovo, but the Foreign Ministry has said that "The declaration and recognition of Kosovo are of fundamental importance, since thereby a new conflict settlement model has been established, based on the priority of people's right to self-determination. Pridnestrovie [Transnistria] holds that this model should be applicable to all conflicts which have similar political, legal, and economic bases".
(Holy See) Pope Benedict XVI said the Vatican called for "prudence and moderation" in Kosovo and Serbia. The Holy See urged politicians in the region to show "a decisive and concrete commitment to ward off extremist reactions and violence", Vatican spokesman Father Federico Lombardi announced. "The Holy Father continues to look with affection at the people of Kosovo and Serbia, is close to them and is praying at this crucial moment of their history," the statement said.

In June 2008, Walter Cardinal Kasper, President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, stated that the Vatican has not recognised the independence of Kosovo and does not intend to do so in the near future.

At a meeting in September 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Dominique Mamberti, the Holy See's Secretary for Relations with States, Archbishop Mamberti said that the Holy See was closely following developments in and around Kosovo, and he expressed his willingness to continue and intensify mutual communications.Following a meeting in November 2009 between the Serbian President Boris Tadić and Pope Benedict XVI, Tadić said that the Vatican supported Serbia's integration and membership within the European Union and the sovereignty and preservation of its territorial integrity.
UN observer


Positions taken by intergovernmental organisations

Under international law, intergovernmental organisations do not themselves possess the legal capacity to diplomatically recognise any state; their member states do so individually. However, depending on the intergovernmental organisation's rules of internal governance and the positions of their member states, they may express positive or negative opinions as to declarations of independence, or choose to offer or withhold membership to a newly-declared state.
International organisation Position
Arab League In May 2009, the Secretary General of the Arab League, Amr Moussa, welcomed a request by Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, to establish regular communications. At a meeting on 18 June 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Yahya A. Mahmassani, the representative of the Arab League to the UN, Ambassador Mahmassani said that the Kosovo issue is being discussed at the Arab League, and that there would be gradual movement towards recognition as most Arab states are supportive of Kosovo.

Council of Europe (CoE) Kosovo plans to apply for membership in the Council of Europe since it considers that it fulfills the statutory requirements to do so. If Kosovo receives 2/3 votes from the member countries, it will be admitted to the Council. Kosovo has already been recognised by 2/3 of the CoE members, thus it should be able to join the organisation.



(EU) Although the Common Foreign and Security Policy has harmonised the EU's external relations to a considerable extent, the EU, like other IGOs, does not possess the legal capacity to diplomatically recognise any state; member states do so individually. The majority of member states have recognised Kosovo. To articulate a common EU policy of either support or opposition to Kosovo's independence would require unanimity on the subject from all 27 member states, which does not presently exist. On 18 February 2008, the EU officially stated that it would "take note" of the resolution of the Kosovo assembly. The EU is sending a EULEX mission to Kosovo, which includes a special representative and 2000 police and judicial personnel..

Although the European Parliamentmarker is not formally vested with the authority to shape the EU's foreign policy, it was seen to be expressing its acceptance of Kosovan independence when it hosted the Kosovan Assembly in an interparliamentary meeting on 30 May 2008. This was also the first time Kosovo's flag was officially hoisted at an EU institution. On 5 February 2009, the European Parliament adopted a resolution that encouraged all EU member states to recognise Kosovo. The resolution also welcomed the successful deployment of EULEX across Kosovo, and rejected the possibility of Kosovo's partition. It was passed with 424 voted in favour, and 133 against. Some Romanian and Communist representatives called for a new international conference on Kosovo's status or to allow the northern part of the country to join Serbia.

International Monetary Fundmarker (IMF) On 15 July 2008, the IMF issued a statement saying "It has been determined that Kosovo has seceded from Serbia as a new independent state and that Serbia is the continuing state," thus acknowledging the separation of Kosovo from Serbia. Kosovo became a member after it signed the IMF's Articles of Agreement on 29 June 2009.
North Atlantic Treaty Organizationmarker (NATO) NATO maintains that its ongoing Kosovo Force mission and mandate remain unchanged and that "NATO reaffirms that KFOR shall remain in Kosovo on the basis of UNSCR 1244, as agreed by Foreign Ministers in December 2007, unless the UN Security Council decides otherwise".

(OIC) Secretary General of the OIC Prof. Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu said "Kosovo has finally declared its independence after a long and determined struggle by its people. As we rejoice this happy result, we declare our solidarity with and support to our brothers and sisters there. The Islamic Umma wishes them success in their new battle awaiting them which is the building of a strong and prosperous a state capable of satisfying of its people". The OIC did not call on its individual member states to extend recognition, as some member states, including Azerbaijan, Egypt, Indonesia and Sudan, were firmly against any issuance of such a statement.
On 25 May 2009, at the OIC's 36th session of the Council of Foreign Ministers in Damascus, the 57 member states adopted a resolution that noted Kosovo's declaration of independence, upheld the role of the United Nations in Kosovo, reaffirmed the strong interest of the OIC regarding Muslims in the Balkans, welcomed the co-operation of Kosovo with the OIC Economic and Financial institutions, and called on the international community to continue contributing to the fostering of Kosovo's economy.

It has been reported that an earlier draft of the resolution (tabled by Saudi Arabia) had called for recognition of Kosovo by Islamic countries, but this was rejected by some member states, including Syria, Egypt and Azerbaijan.

The OIC mechanism is similar to the one adopted by the EU which leaves it up to member states to decide.


Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) On 19 February 2008, Chairman Ilkka Kanerva and OSCE Minorities Commissioner Knut Vollebæk called for Kosovo's government to vigorously implement agreed-upon frameworks regarding minorities. Serbia has vowed to oppose OSCE membership for Kosovo and is calling for the organisation to condemn the declaration of independence.



(UN) Russia called an emergency session of the United Nations Security Council on 17 February 2008, but the council members, given differences in stated position between permanent members, failed to reach a consensus. Russia requested another meeting on 18 February. With Russia stating its intention to use its veto to prevent any acceptance of independence by the United Nations, Kosovo has no current prospects for membership. The UN has told Serbia to cease its interference in Kosovo. It is expected that Russia's refusal to recognise Kosovo will prevent Kosovo from attaining a seat at the UN, as Russia is one of the five permanent members of the Security Council from which Kosovo will need unanimous approval. Britain, France, and the United States, which take the opposite position and recognise Kosovo, and China, which has expressed concern, are the other permanent members. There are ten other non-permanent members, six of which have recognised Kosovo.

Member states (63 / 192)
World Bank On 29 June 2009, the Republic of Kosovo became a full member of the World Bank.


Positions taken by non-state actors

Autonomous regions and secessionist movements

Entity Position
(government in exile) Usman Ferzauli, the Foreign Minister of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria's government in exile, said that the rebels "welcome the declaration of state independence by Kosovo and do not question the right of the people of Kosovo to distance themselves from the state that terrorized it".
East Turkestan (government in exile) The self-declared East Turkistan Government-in-Exile is based in the United States, and does not have formalised relations with any UN-recognised state. On 18 February 2008, Ansar Yusuf Turani, the representative of the government-in-exile, released a press statement saying "On behalf of the people of East Turkistan, the East Turkistan Government in Exile hereby recognizes Kosovo as an independent and sovereign state and wishes peace and prosperity for the people of Kosovo".
Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front On 11 March 2008, the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front staged a demonstration in Brussels in front of the European Union Commission building. It was headed by one of its leaders, Barrister Abdul Majeed Tramboo, and its agenda cited Kosovo's independence, demanding equal treatment and commensurate application of the same solution by the EU in the Kashmirmarker dispute involving India, Pakistan and China. Protesters included EU Parliament members, students and various NGO constituents and representatives. The nationalist-minded JKLF is part of the 26-entity political and religious coalition All Parties Hurriyat Conference. One of its leaders, Syed Faiz Naqshbandi, addressing the 7th session of the United Nations Human Rights Council, "appealed to the world body to impress upon India to allow international delegations to visit the occupied territory to take stock of the human rights situation".
Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (Crimeamarker in Ukrainemarker) Mustafa Cemilev, the Chairman of the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People declared that he supported the right of self-determination for every nation, including Kosovo. He also added that the Crimean Tatars will not start a secession process from Ukrainemarker if their rights are respected. Cemilev stated that he believes the motive for the Kosovars to declare independence was the anti-Albanian situation in Kosovo.
(Western New Guineamarker) Richard Samuelson, Co-Director of the Free West Papua Campaign, based in Oxford, published a letter questioning Sir John Sawers, UK Ambassador to the UN, pointing out that his official speech at the UN advocating and motivating Kosovo's independence is completely congruent point for point with advocating and motivating West Papua's independence from Indonesia, on which the UK has been silent.


International non-governmental organisations

International organisation Position
International Olympic Committeemarker An Olympic Committee of Kosovo has been in existence since 1992, which is not recognised by the IOC. On 17 February 2008, the president of the IOC's commission of international relations announced that the IOC is set to recognise Kosovo. A day later, an IOC spokeswoman specified the requirements that Kosovo needs to meet before being recognised by the IOC, most notably it has to be recognised by the United Nations as independent first, a condition not imposed on Taiwan or Palestine.
Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) The Haguemarker-based Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, whose members comprise 69 entities seeking self-determination and representation, of which Kosovo (listed as Kosova) is one, issued a statement on 18 February 2008: "for regions in similar conditions, Kosova's independence represents new hope for the future of their own potential statehood".

In the days that followed, several African UNPO members expressed their own individual secession-minded reactions to Kosovo's independence.
Norwegian Nobel Committee On 10 October 2008, former President of Finland Martti Ahtisaari received the 2008 Nobel Peace Prize "for his important efforts... to resolve international conflicts", including his work in Kosovo as a UN special envoy where he helped to develop the framework used to launch the declaration of independence, thus forming the basis for Kosovo's independence and EU integration. The Norwegian Nobel Committee Secretary, who is also the Director of the Norwegian Nobel Institutemarker, Professor Geir Lundestad, said afterwards that the committee believed "there is no alternative to an independent Kosovo".
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Kosovo is not currently a member of the governing structures for the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Independently of its ISO membership status, ISO will also potentially issue a standardised country code for Kosovo. According to rules of procedure followed by the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency based in Geneva, a new ISO 3166-1 code for Kosovo will only be issued once it appears in the United Nations Terminology Bulletin Country Names or in the UN Statistics Division's list of Country and Region Codes for Statistical Use. To appear in the terminology bulletin, it must either (a) be admitted into the United Nations, (b) join a UN Specialised Agency or (c) become a state party to the Statute of the International Court of Justicemarker. Criteria (b) was met when Kosovo joined the International Monetary Fund and World Bank; a terminology bulletin has yet to be circulated.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) ICANN, through its Country Code Names Supporting Organization, is responsible for adding new country code top-level domains (ccTLDs) for use in Internet addressing. Rules of procedure dictate Kosovo must first receive an ISO 3166-1 code (discussed above) before the ccTLD can be introduced; speculation has centred on ".ks" as the likeliest candidate.
International Road and Transport Union (IRU) Kosovo officially became the 181st member of the IRU in May 2009.


International Court of Justice advisory opinion proceedings

On 26 March 2008 the Government of Serbia announced its intention to litigate at the International Court of Justicemarker (ICJ) the legality of the unilateral declaration of independence by Kosovo. On 15 August 2008 Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić filed a request at the United Nations, seeking the General Assembly's referral to the ICJ for an advisory opinion in the matter. On 8 October 2008, in a vote was taken at the United Nations, 77 member states backed the initiative. The resulting adopted UN GA resolution, designated A/63/L.2, states:
Reflecting on the goals and principles of the UN, bearing in mind the functions and power in line with the UN Charter, we recall that on February 17, 2008 the provisional institutions of self-government of Kosovo proclaimed independence from the Republic of Serbia.
Aware that this act was received differently by UN members in relation to its harmonisation with the existing legal order,
We decide to request from the ICJ, in line with Article 96 of the UN Charter and Article 65 of the ICJ Statute, to give an advisory opinion on the following question:
"Is the unilateral declaration of independence by provisional institutions of self-government in Kosovo in accordance with international law?"


On 21 April 2009, the ICJ announced that 35 member states of the United Nations had filed written statements within the time-limit fixed by the court (17 April 2009) on the question of the legality of Kosovo's UDI. Kosovo also filed a written contribution. The court later announced the inclusion of documents submitted by Venezuelamarker and the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.

See also



Notes and references

  1. 17 February 2008 local time
  2. (Verbatim French as given for Mourad Medelci of Algeria by Le Soir d'Algerie: Interrogé, hier, sur la réaction de l’Algérie suite à l’annonce de l’indépendance du Kosovo, le ministre des Affaires étrangères a affirmé qu’une reconnaissance de ce pays n’était pas encore envisageable. «Nous ne pouvons pas encore reconnaître le Kosovo en tant qu’Etat indépendant. Il existe des lois internationales et elles doivent être respectées. Nous suivons la situation de très près», a indiqué Mourad Medelci. Le ministre tiendra à préciser que cette reconnaissance ne peut avoir lieu actuellement «bien que l’Algérie éprouve de la sympathie envers tous les pays musulmans».) (Le Soir d'Algérie, 3 Mars 2008)
  3. " Kosovo to receive more recognitions", New Kosova Report, 30 June 2008. – Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  4. Papakostas: Kipar nikada neće priznati nezavisnost Kosova
  5. "Kosovo says it is able to join IMF" ft.com 06 May 2009 Link accessed 06 May 2009
  6. "Israeli position on Kosovo firm"
  7. (Exact Spanish as given by the MFA website: Nuestro país seguirá atento a la evolución de la situación para adoptar, en el momento oportuno, una posición sobre lo ocurrido el pasado domingo.)
  8. Though Palestine is an observer entity at the UN, it is not a member state. Palestine maintains official diplomatic relations with most UN member states.
  9. Though the Holy See is an observer state at the UN, it is not a member state. The Holy See maintains official diplomatic relations with most UN member states.



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