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Interstate 35 (I-35) is a north–south Interstate Highway in the central United Statesmarker. I-35 stretches from Laredomarker, Texasmarker, on the U.S.-Mexico border to Duluthmarker, Minnesotamarker, at Minnesota Highway 61 (London Road) and 26th Avenue East. Many interstates used to have splits or spurs indicated with suffixed letters (N/S/E/W), but I-35 is the only one that still has such divisions. In two stretches, both through twin cities, the highway splits into Interstate 35E (Dallasmarker and St. Paulmarker) and Interstate 35W (Fort Worthmarker and Minneapolismarker).

Interstate 35 does not directly connect to either international border. I-35's southern terminus is a traffic signal in Laredomarker, Texasmarker, just short of the United States-Mexico border. Travelers going south can take one of two toll bridges across the Rio Grandemarker and the Mexican border—straight ahead into Juarez-Lincoln International Bridgemarker, or via Interstate 35 Business through downtown Laredo into Gateway to the Americas International Bridgemarker. To the north, I-35 terminates in Duluthmarker, Minnesotamarker, with connections to Canada from the interstate's terminus via Minnesota Highway 61 to Grand Portagemarker, or north to the border at International Fallsmarker by U.S. Route 53 in Duluth, but that route is more typically accessed from the south by Minnesota Highway 33 at Cloquetmarker.

Route description



Texas



Interstate 35 northbound begins at an intersection (controlled by a stoplight) with Business Spur I-35 in Laredo, Texas, just north of the Rio Grandemarker.Through Webbmarker, La Sallemarker, and Frio Countiesmarker, it has a mostly north-northeastern course, turning more northeast around Mooremarker.It then cuts across the corners of Medinamarker and Atascosa Countiesmarker before entering Bexar Countymarker and San Antonio.

Interstate 35 is named the Pan Am Expresswayin San Antonio. There, it has brief concurrencieswith both Interstate 10and Interstate 410, and serves as the northern terminus of Interstate 37. I-35 heads northward out of the city towards the state capital, Austinmarker.

In Austin, Interstate 35 is the Interregional Highway. Throughout Austin, elevated express lanes were constructed on either side of the original freeway. Prior to this expansion, this section included an at-grade railroad crossing, which is extremely unusual for a freeway. From Austin, I-35 goes through Round Rockmarker, Templemarker, and Wacomarker.In Waco, I-35 is the Jack Kultgen Freeway.

I-35 then heads to Hillsboromarker, where it splits up into I-35W and I-35E and runs through the Dallasmarker/Fort Worthmarker area.The official mile markers follow I-35E through Dallas—I-35W, which is in length, carries its own mileage from Hillsboro to Denton, as though it were an x35 loop. In Dallas, I-35 is the R.L. Thornton Freeway south of I-30, which picks up the name heading east. North of I-30, it is the Stemmons Freeway.

After passing through D/FW, I-35's two forks merge in Dentonmarker.The unified interstate then continues north to Gainesvillemarker before crossing the Red Rivermarker into Oklahoma.

Oklahoma



In Oklahoma, I-35 runs from the Red River at the Texas border to the Kansas line near Braman, passing through many of the state's major cities, including Ardmoremarker and the cities of the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area such as Normanmarker, Guthriemarker, Edmondmarker, and the state capital and largest city, Oklahoma City.In Downtown Oklahoma City, I-35 has a major junction with I-40 and spurs into I-235through the north central inner city.

Kansas

Between the Oklahoma state line and Emporiamarker, I-35 is part of the Kansas Turnpike.This section of interstate serves Wichitamarker and passes through the Flint Hillsmarker area.At Emporia, I-35 branches off on its own alignment. This free section of I-35 provides access to Ottawamarker before entering the Kansas City Metropolitan Areamarker, where it serves Johnson County, and Kansas City, Kansasmarker.

Missouri

In Missouri, I-35

Iowa

I-35 is part of the Avenue of the Saints between Clear Lakemarker and St. Paul, Minnesota.A four-lane link has been completed between Clear Lake and Interstate 380 in Waterloomarker, Iowamarker.

In the southern sections of the state, I-35 is parallel to U.S.Route 69, for much of its course. The highway runs mostly on a north alignment.

In Des Moinesmarker, I-35 has a overlap with I-80.The concurrency takes place northwest of the downtown district of the city. At exit 127 of I-80, the overlap turns east and terminates at exit 137 via an interchange with Interstate 235.

North of Des Moines, I-35 is mainly parallel with US 69, traversing a vast and rural area of Iowa.

Minnesota



All of I-35 in the state of Minnesota from the Iowa state line to the city of Duluth is officially designated the Red Bull Highway, after the 34th Infantry Division.

At Medfordmarker, Minnesotamarker, the on/off ramps lead to roundabouts rather than standard cross intersections.This is the first site in the state linked to a major highway to use roundabouts.

I-35 splits again into I-35W and I-35E in the Minneapolismarker/Saint Paulmarker, Minnesotamarker area.The mile- and exit-numbering sequence continues along I-35E. At one sharp turn in I-35W near the junction with I-94, it is advised to slow to 35 mph (55 km/h) (although many drivers are able to maintain the speed limit of 55 mph (90 km/h)). Additionally, it is not possible to go from westbound I-94 to northbound I-35W, from southbound I-35W to eastbound I-94, from eastbound I-94 to southbound I-35E, and from northbound I-35E to westbound I-94 without resorting to surface streets.

On I-35E in Minnesota between Minnesota Highway 5and Interstate 94, in both directions, trucks weighing more than 9,000 lbs (4,082 kg) are banned from the freeway, and the speed limit drops to 45 mph (70 km/h) but it is rarely obeyed. This section was not completed until the late 1980s (although the route was cleared and graded earlier) due to opposition from the historic Crocus Hill neighborhood, which sits only a few hundred feet from the alignment. The four-lane alignment, "parkway" design was a compromise. The truck bypass for this section is signed on I-494marker and I-694 to the east of Saint Paul.

I-35 has an interchangewith I-535/ U.S.53 in Duluth, Minnesotamarker, known locally as the Can of Wormsmarker.This junctionfeatures a pair of left exits from I-35, a stoplight, and lane drops over the I-35 bridge.

The national northern terminus of I-35 is at an intersectionin eastern Duluth. Driver's options include merging with London Road / Minnesota Highway 61northbound; proceeding through the stop lights onto 26th Avenue East; or turning left onto London Road southbound.

History

Some sections of I-35 in Oklahoma City were already built in 1953, before the Interstate system was created. Through Normanmarker, Oklahomamarker, the interstate opened in June 1959.In Mooremarker, it opened in two parts: the northern half, connecting Moore to Oklahoma City, opened in January 1960.The southern half, linking it to Norman, was opened to traffic in June 1967.

I-35 through Oklahoma largely parallels U.S.Route 77. This is in large part due to efforts of the towns of Wynnewoodmarker, Paolimarker, and Waynemarker, which fought to keep I-35 as close as possible to U.S.77. This was successful due to a threat from Governor Henry Bellmonto build a toll road rather than I-35, and legislation preventing state funds for the interstate from being spent if it were more than from the U.S. route.

I-35 was completed in Oklahoma in 1971, when parts of the interstate running through Carter Co.marker and Murray Co.marker were opened to traffic.

The final segment of I-35 (as originally planned) to open was in north central Iowamarker, between Mason Citymarker and US 20 near Iowa Fallsmarker.This segment was delayed due to some controversy. Originally, I-35 was to follow the alignment of US 69 from Des Moinesmarker all the way to the Minnesotamarker border.However, Mason City's business community lobbied for the route to be moved closer to their city. On September 1, 1965, the alignment was changed to instead parallel US 65through northern Iowa, which brought the highway much closer to Mason City. This, however, created a long diagonal section through Wrightmarker and Franklinmarker counties.Local farmers objected to their farms being bisected into triangular pieces, and resulting litigation delayed I-35 for several years. A November 1972 ruling rejected a lawsuit filed by the farmers, and the final segment of I-35 was allowed to proceed, eventually opening in 1975. One of the final pieces of the highway puzzle happened in Faribaultmarker, Minnesotamarker.For approximately 25 years, Highway 35 actually went through the town and travellers had to deal with several traffic lights. In 1975, the highway went around Faribault where today a traveler actually has three exit choices for this southern Minnesota town.

Future

On September 1, 2005, MoDOT reopened the Paseo Bridgemarker over the Missouri Rivermarker in Kansas City, Missouri after completing a six-month rehabilitation project ahead of schedule.However, the rehab project is only a short-term fix; MoDOT is in the planning process of devising a six- to eight-lane crossing for the interstate, either by building a duplicate bridge to house one direction of traffic or a new bridge or bridges. The $245 million project includes $50 million in funding procured by Senator Kit Bondin the 2005 Transportation Bill. Project plans include significant updates to sections of the freeway and nearby interchanges beyond the bridge itself.

NAFTA Superhighway

The proposed Trans-Texas Corridortoll-road project includes one proposal (TTC-35) to primarily parallel I-35 from the Mexico border up to the Oklahoma border. There are major disagreements as to what impact this parallel route would have on I-35 in terms of traffic, maintenance, and commerce.

The Trans-Texas Corridor was first proposed by Texasmarker Governor Rick Perry in 2002.It consists of a 1,200 foot (366 m) wide highway that also carries utilities such as electricity, petroleum and water as well as railway track and fiber-optic cables. In July 2007, U.S. Representative Duncan Huntersuccessfully offered an amendment to House Resolution 3074, the FY2008 Transportation Appropriations Act, prohibiting the use of federal funds for Department of Transportationparticipation in the activities of the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America(SPP). Hunter stated that: "Unfortunately, very little is known about the NAFTA Super Highway. This amendment will provide Congress the opportunity to exercise oversight of the highway, which remains a subject of question and uncertainty, and ensure that our safety and security will not be compromised in order to promote the business interests of our neighbors." Fellow Republican Congressman and presidential candidate Ron Paulbrought the issue to mainstream prominence during the December 2007 CNN-YouTubeGOP debate, where he rejected the concept and also called it the NAFTA Superhighway after the North American Free Trade Agreementand, like Hunter, framed it within the ultimate goal of creating a North American Union.

Major intersections

TX
505
813
OK
235
378
KS
234
377
MO
114
183
IA
218
351
MN
259
416
1565
2518


Auxiliary routes

References

External links




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