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The island of Minorcamarker in the Mediterranean Seamarker has been invaded on numerous occasions; this page provides a basic list.

  • Carthaginianmarker invasion, some time before 252 BC- the name Mahónmarker (now Maó) appears to be of Carthaginian Punic origin
  • Roman invasion, led by Quintus Caecilius Metellus, 123 BC- the name Minorca is of Latin origin
  • Vandal invasion, circa AD 427
    • (Vandal domination was ended by Byzantine conquest of their mainland power centres)
  • Norman invasion, or raiding, around 859, causing great damage to Byzantine churches etc.
  • Moorish invasion, 903, introducing Islamic culture to the island
    • The Moors accepted Spanishmarker domination by Jaume I of Aragón in AD 1231-2; however:
  • Spanish invasion, 1287-1288, by Alfonso III of Aragón, led to the Moorish population being held to ransom or enslaved, and Christian culture becoming dominant again.
    • (In the 16th century, the island was the target of vicious raids by Barbarossa, 1535, and Mustafá Pialí, 1558, who between them destroyed Maó and Ciutadellamarker)
  • Frenchmarker "intervention", 1707, after the islanders could not agree which side to take during the War of the Spanish Succession (little military action needed)
  • British and Dutchmarker "intervention", 1708, to reverse the above choice of side (no military action needed)- British sovereignty was confirmed by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713
  • French invasion, 1756, during the Seven Years' War; British garrison forced to surrender following Royal Navy withdrawal in the Battle of Minorca
    • France was obliged to hand the island back to Britain at the end of the war, in 1763
  • Spanish and French invasion, 1781; on this occasion, during the British Colonial War of 1775-83, the British garrison resisted a siege for over five months, before succumbing to disease
  • British invasion, 1798, during the Napoleonic Wars
    • Britain handed Minorca back to Spain under the Treaty of Amiens, 1802, having chosen to keep Maltamarker as a Mediterranean base instead


  1. Parpal i Marquès, Cosme "La conquesta de Menorca, el 1287, per Alfons el Liberal", Barcelona, Rafael Dalmau (1964)
  2. Sloss, Janet Exit Britannia: Britain’s Last Conquest of Menorca 1798-1802, Tetbury UK, Bonaventura Press (2002)- accessed 2007-12-17

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