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'Emigrants Leave Ireland', engraving by Henry Doyle (1827-1892), from Mary Frances Cusack's Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868


The Irish diaspora ( ) consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United Kingdommarker, the United Statesmarker, Canadamarker, Australia, Argentinamarker, New Zealandmarker, Mexicomarker, South Africa, Brazilmarker and states of the Caribbean and continental Europe. The diaspora, maximally interpreted, contains over 80 million people, which is over thirteen times the population of the island of Irelandmarker itself, which has just under 7 million in 2009.The term Irish diaspora is open to many interpretations. One, preferred by the Government of Ireland, is defined in legal terms: the Irish diaspora are those of Irish nationality who habitually reside outside of the island of Ireland. This includes Irish citizens who have emigrated abroad and their children, who are Irish citizens by descent under Irish law. It also includes their grandchildren in cases where they were registered as Irish citizens in the Foreign Births Register held in every Irish diplomatic mission. (Great-grandchildren and even more distant descendants of Irish emigrants may also register as Irish citizens, but only if the parent through whom they claim descent was registered before the younger descendant was born.) Under this legal definition, the Irish diaspora is considerably smaller - some 3 million persons, of whom 1.2 million are Irish-born emigrants. This is still an extraordinarily large ratio for any nation.

However, the Irish diaspora is generally not limited by citizenship status, leading to an estimated (and fluctuating) membership of 80 million persons - the second and more emotive definition. The Irish Government acknowledged this interpretation - although it did not acknowledge any legal obligations to it - when Article 2 of the Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) was amended in 1998 to read "[f]urthermore, the Irish nation cherishes its special affinity with people of Irish ancestry living abroad who share its cultural identity and heritage." The Irish government recognises all people with a heritage on the island of Ireland.

The right to register as an Irish citizen terminates at the third generation (except as noted above). This contrasts with citizenship law in Italy, Israel, Japan and other countries which make no legal reference to cherishing special affinities with their diasporas but which nonetheless permit legal avenues through which members of the diaspora can register as citizens.

Europe

Britain

10% of the British population has one Irish grandparent and approximately a quarter have some Irish ancestry they're aware of. The Irish have traditionally been involved in the building trade and transport particularly as dockers, following an influx of Irish workers, or navvies, who built the canal, road and rail networks in the 19th century. This is largely due to the flow of immigrants from Ireland during The Great Famine of 1845 - 1850. Many Irish servicemen, particularly sailors, would settle in Britain; during the 18th and 19th century a third of the Army and Royal Navy were Irish. Since the 1950s and 1960s in particular, the Irish have become assimilated into the indigenous population. Immigration continued into the next century; over half a million Irish came to Britain in World War II to work in industry and serve in the British armed forces. In the post-war reconstruction era, the numbers of immigrants began to increase, many settling in the larger cities and towns of Britain. According to the 2001 census, around 850,000 people in Britain were born in Ireland and much of the working class has some Irish heritage.

London once more holds an official St. Patrick's Day. St Patrick's Day, public celebration of which had been cancelled in the 1970s because of Irish Republican violence, is now a national celebration, with over 60% of the population regularly celebrating the day regardless of their ethnic origins.

The largest Irish communities are located predominantly in the cities and towns across Britain, with the largest by far being in London, in particular from Kilburnmarker (which has one of the largest Irish-born communities outside of Ireland) out to the west and north west of the city, closely followed by the large port cities such as Liverpoolmarker, Bristolmarker and Portsmouthmarker. Big industrial cities such as Coventrymarker, Birminghammarker and Manchestermarker also have large diaspora populations due to the Industrial Revolution and in the case of the first two the strength of the motor industry in the 1960s and 1970s. As with their experience in the U.S, the Irish have maintained a strong political presence in the UK, most especially in local government but also at national level. Prime Ministers Callaghan and Blair have been amongst the many in Britain of part Irish ancestry, with Blair's mother coming from County Donegalmarker.

Central to the Irish community in Britain was the community's relationship with the Roman Catholic Church, with which it maintained a strong sense of identity . The Church remains a crucial focus of communal life among some of the immigrant population and their descendants . The largest ethnic group among the Catholic priesthood of mainland Britain remains Irish and in the United States, the upper ranks of the Church's hierarchy are of predominantly Irish descent. The current head of the Catholic Church in Scotland is Cardinal Keith O'Brien.

Scotland experienced a significant amount of Irish immigration, particularly in Glasgowmarker, Edinburghmarker and Coatbridgemarker. This led to the formation of the Celtic Football Club (as today close to 50% of the Glaswegian population has some Irish ancestry ) in 1888 by Marist Brother Walfrid, to raise money to help the community. In Edinburgh Hibernian were founded in 1875 and in 1909 another club with Irish links, Dundee United, was formed. Likewise the Irish community in London formed the London Irish rugby club.

The 2001 UK Census states 869,093 people born in Ireland as living in Great Britain, with over 10% of the population (over 6 million) being of Irish descent.

Continental Europe

Irish links with the continent go back many centuries. During the early Middle Ages, many Irish religious figures went abroad to preach and found monasteries in what is known as the Hiberno-Scottish mission. Saint Brieuc founded the city that bears his name in Brittany, Saint Colmán founded the great monastery of Bobbiomarker in northern Italy and one of his monks was Saint Gall for whom the Swissmarker town of St Gallenmarker and canton of St Gallenmarker.

During the Counter-Reformation, Irish religious and political links with Europe became stronger. Leuvenmarker (or Louvain) in Flanders (now northern Belgium) grew into an important centre of learning for Irish priests. The Flight of the Earls, in 1607, led much of the Gaelic nobility to flee the country, and after the wars of the 17th century many others fled to Spain, France, Austria, and other Catholic lands. The lords and their retainers and supporters joined the armies of these countries, and were known as the Wild Geese. Some of the lords and their descendants rose to high ranks in their adoptive countries, such as the French royalist Patrice de Mac-Mahon, who became president of France. The French Cognacmarker brandy maker, James Hennessy and Co., is named for an Irishman. In Spain and its territories, many Irish descendants can be found with the name Obregón (O'Brien, Irish, Ó Briain), including Madrid-born actress Ana Victoria García Obregón.

During the 20th century, certain Irish intellectuals made their homes in continental Europe, particularly James Joyce, and later Samuel Beckett (who became a courier for the French Resistance). Eoin O'Duffy led a brigade of 700 Irish volunteers to fight for Franco during the Spanish Civil War, and Frank Ryan led the Connolly column who fought on the opposite side, with the Republican International Brigades. William Joyce became an English-language propagandist for the Third Reich, known colloquially as Lord Haw-Haw.

Americas

Argentina

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, over 38,000 Irish emigrated to Argentinamarker. Distinct Irish communities and schools existed until the Perón era in the 1950s.

Today there are an estimated 700,000 people of Irish ancestry in Argentina, approximately 15.5% of the Republic of Irelandmarker's current population; however, these numbers may be far higher, given that many Irish newcomers declared themselves to be British, as Ireland at the time was still part of the United Kingdom and today their descendants integrated into Argentine society with mixed bloodlines.

Despite the fact that Argentina was never the main destination for Irish emigrants it does form part of the Irish diaspora. The Irish-Argentine William Bulfin remarked as he travelled around Westmeath in the early 1900s that he came across many locals had been to Buenos Aires. Several families from Bere islandmarker, County Corkmarker were encouraged to send emigrants to Argentina by an islander who had been successful there in the 1880s.

Che Guevara, whose grandmother's surname was Lynch, was another famous member of this diaspora. Guevara's father, Ernesto Guevara Lynch, said of him: "The first thing to note is that in my son's veins flowed the blood of the Irish rebels". However, Che Guevara considered himself Latin American, Argentine and Cuban, and his connection with Ireland was remote. On March 13, 1965, the Irish Times journalist Arthur Quinlan interviewed Che at Shannon Airportmarker during a stopover flight from Praguemarker to Cubamarker. Guevara talked of his Irish connections through the name Lynch and of his grandmother's Irish roots in Galwaymarker. Later, Che, and some of his Cubanmarker comrades, went to Limerick Citymarker and adjourned to the Hanratty's Hotel on Glentworth Street. According to Quinlan, they returned that evening all wearing sprigs of shamrock, for Shannon and Limerick were preparing for the St. Patrick's Day celebrations.

Widely considered a national hero, William Brown is the most famous Irish citizen in Argentina. Creator of the Argentine Navy (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) and leader of the Argentine Armed Forces in the wars against Brazil and Spain, he was born in Foxfordmarker, County Mayomarker on June 22, 1777 and died in Buenos Airesmarker in 1857. The is named after him, as well as the Almirante Brown partido, part of the Gran Buenos Aires urban area, with a population of over 500.000 inhabitants.

The first entirely Catholic English language publication published in Buenos Aires, The Southern Cross is an Argentine newspaper founded on January 16, 1875 by Dean Patricio Dillon, an Irish immigrant, a deputy for Buenos Aires Provincemarker and president of the Presidential Affairs Commission amongst other positions. The newspaper continues in print to this day and publishes a beginners guide to the Irish language, helping Irish Argentines keep in touch with their cultural heritage. Previously to The Southern Cross Dublin-born brothers Edward and Michael Mulhall successfully published The Standard, allegedly the first English-language daily paper in South America.

Between 1943 and 1946, the de facto President of Argentina was Edelmiro Farrell, whose paternal ancestry was Irish.

Bermuda

Early in its history, Bermuda had unusual connections with Ireland. It has been suggested that St. Brendan discovered it during his legendary voyage, and a local psychiatric hospital (since renamed) was named after him. In 1616, an incident occurred in which five white settlers arrived in Ireland, having crossed the Atlantic (a distance of around ) in a two-ton boat. By the following year, one of Bermuda's main islands was named after Irelandmarker. By the mid-17th century, Irish indentured servants or slaves, probably expelled during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, were present in the colony. Relations with the local English population were strained. In 1658, three Irishmen — John Shehan, David Laragen and Edmund Malony — were lashed for breaking curfew and being suspected of stealing a boat. A Scottish indentured servant and three black slaves were also punished. Several years later, in 1661, the local government alleged that a plot was being hatched by an alliance of Blacks and Irish, one which involved cutting the throats of all the English. Governor William Sayle prepared for the uprising with three edicts: the first was that a nightly watch be raised throughout the colony, second, that slaves and the Irish be disarmed of militia weapons and third, that any gathering of two or more Irish or slaves be dispersed by whipping. There were no arrests, trials or executions connected to the plot, though an Irish woman named Margaret was found to be romantically involved with a Native American; she was voted to be stigmatised and he was whipped. In 1803, Irish poet Thomas Moore arrived in Bermuda, having been appointed registrar to the Admiralty there. Irish prisoners were again sent in Bermuda in 1823, where, alongside English convicts, they were used to build the Royal Naval Dockyard on Ireland Island.

Although there is little surviving evidence of Irish culture, some elderly islanders can remember when the term "cilig" was used to describe a common method of fishing for sea turtles. The word cilig appears to be meaningless in English, but in some dialects of Gaelic is used as an adjective meaning "easily deceived". Characteristics of older Bermudian accents, such as the pronunciation of the letter 'd' as 'dj', as in Bermudjin (Bermudian), may also indicate an Irish origin. Later Irish immigrants have continued to contribute to Bermuda's makeup, with names like Crockwell (Ó Creachmhaoil), and O'Connor now being thought of, locally, as Bermudian names. The strongest remaining Irish influence can be seen in the presence of bagpipes in the music of Bermuda, which stemmed from the presence of Scottish and Irish soldiers from the 18th through 20th centuries. Several prominent businesses in Bermuda have a clear Irish influence, such as the Irish Linen Shop, Tom Moore's Tavern and Flanagan's Irish Pub and Restaurant.

Canada




The 2006 census by Statcan, Canada's Official Statistical office revealed that the Irish were the 4th largest ethnic group with 4,354,155 Canadians with full or partial Irish descent or 14% of the nation's total population.

Many Newfoundlandersmarker are of Irishmarker descent. It is estimated that about 80% of Newfoundlanders have Irish ancestry on at least one side of their family tree. The family names, the features and colouring, the predominant Catholic religion, the prevalence of Irish music – even the accents of the people – are so reminiscent of rural Ireland that Irish author Tim Pat Coogan has described Newfoundlandmarker as "the most Irish place in the world outside of Ireland".

Newfoundland Irish, the dialect of the Irish language specific to the island of Newfoundlandmarker was widely spoken until the mid-20th century. It is very similar to the language heard in the southeast of Ireland centuries ago, due to mass immigration from the counties Tipperarymarker, Waterfordmarker, Wexfordmarker and Corkmarker.

Saint John, New Brunswickmarker, claims the distinction of being Canada's most Irish city, according to census records. There have been Irish settlers in New Brunswickmarker since the early 1800s, but during the peak of the Great Irish Famine (1845-1847), thousands of Irish emigrated through Partridge Island in the port of Saint John. Most of these Irish were Catholic, who changed the complexion of the Loyalist city. A large, vibrant Irish community can also be found in the Miramichi region of New Brunswickmarker.

Guysborough Countymarker, Nova Scotiamarker has many rural Irish villages. Erinville (which means Irishville), Salmon River, Ogden, Bantry (named after Bantry, County Cork, Ireland but now abandoned and grown up in trees) among others, where Irish last names are prevalent and the accent is reminiscent of the Irish as well as the music, traditions, religion (Roman Catholic), and the love for the old country of Ireland itself. Some of the Irish counties from which these people arrived were County Kerrymarker (Dingle Peninsulamarker), County Corkmarker, and County Roscommonmarker, along with others.

In Antigonish Countymarker, next to Guysborough County in Nova Scotia there are a few rural Irish villages despite the predominance of Scottish in most of that County. Some of these villages names are Ireland, Lochaber and Cloverville. Antigonish Town is a fairly even mix of Irish and Scottish

Quebecmarker is also home to a large Irish community, especially in Montrealmarker, where the Irish shamrock is featured on the municipal flag. Notably, thousands of Irish emigrants passed through Grosse Islemarker, where many succumbed to typhoid.

Ontariomarker has over 2 million people of Irish descent, who in greater numbers arrived in the 1820s and the decades that followed to work on colonial infrastructure and to settle land tracts in Upper Canada, the result today is a countryside speckled with the place names of Ireland. Ontario received a large number of those who landed in Quebec during the Famine years, many thousands died in Ontario's ports. Irish-born became the majority in Torontomarker by 1851.

Caribbean

In the wake of the mid 17th century Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Oliver Cromwell deported many Irish prisoners of war into slavery or indentured labour in Caribbean tobacco plantations. Most of these forced migrants ended up in Barbadosmarker, Montserratmarker or Jamaicamarker (Tom McDermot was an Irish campaigner there against colonialism and slavery). This became so prevalent that a term "Barbado'ed" was coined to mean someone deported to Barbados. Most descendants of these Irishmen moved off the islands as African slavery was implemented and blacks began to replace whites. Many Barbadian-born Irishmen helped establish the Carolina colony in the United Statesmarker.

In addition, many of the Irish Catholic landowning class in this period migrated voluntarily to the West Indies to avail of the business opportunities there occasioned by the trade in sugar, tobacco and cotton. They were followed by landless Irish indentured labourers, who were recruited to serve a landowner for a specified time before receiving freedom and land. The descendants of some Irish immigrants are known today in the West Indies as redlegs.

After the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (notably at the siege of Drogheda in 1649), Irish political prisoners were transferred to Montserrat. To this day, Montserrat is the only country or territory in the world, apart from the Republic of Irelandmarker, Northern Irelandmarker, and the Canadianmarker province of Newfoundlandmarker to observe a public holiday on St Patrick's Day. The population is predominantly of mixed Irish and African descent.

Puerto Rico

Irish immigrants played in instrumental role in the Puerto Rico's economy. One of the most important industries of the island was the sugar industry. Among the successful businessmen in this industry were Miguel Conway, who owned a plantation in the town of Hatillomarker and Juan Nagle whose plantation was located in Río Piedras. General Alexander O'Reilly, "Father of the Puerto Rican Militia", named Tomas O'Daly chief engineer of modernizing the defenses of San Juan, this included the fortress of San Cristóbalmarker. Tomas O'Daly and Miguel Kirwan were partners in the "Hacienda San Patricio", which they named after the patron saint of Ireland, Saint Patrick. A relative of O'Daly, Demetrio O'Daly, succeeded Captain Ramon Power y Giralt as the island's delegate to the Spanish Courts. The plantation no longer exists, however the land in which the plantation was located is now a San Patricio suburb with a shopping mall by the same name. The Quinlan family established two plantations, one in the town of Toa Bajamarker and the other in Loízamarker. Puerto Ricans of Irish descent were also instrumental in the development of the island's tobacco industry. Among them Miguel Conboy who was a founder of the tobacco trade in Puerto Rico.

Chile

Many of the Wild Geese, expatriate Irish soldiers who had gone to Spain, or their descendants, continued on to its colonies in South America. Many of them rose to prominent positions in the Spanish governments there. In the 1820s, some of them helped liberate the continent. Bernardo O'Higgins was the first Supreme director of Chilemarker. When Chilean troops occupied Limamarker during the War of the Pacific in 1881, they put in charge certain Patricio Lynch, whose grandfather came from Ireland to Argentina and then moved to Chile. Other Latin American countries that have Irish settlement include Puerto Rico and Colombiamarker.

Mexico

Probably the most famous Irishman ever to reside in Mexico is the Wexfordman William Lamport, better known to most Mexicans as Guillen de Lampart, precursor of the Independence movement and author of the first proclamation of independence in the New World. His statue stands today in the Crypt of Heroes beneath the Column of Independence in Mexico City. Some authorities claim he was the inspiration for Johnston McCulley's Zorro, though the extent to which this may be true is disputed.

After Lampart, the most famous Irishmen in Mexican history are probably "Los Patricios". Many communities also existed in Mexican Texas until the revolution there, when they sided with Catholic Mexico against Protestant pro-U.S. elements. The Batallón de San Patricio, a battalion of U.S. troops who deserted and fought alongside the Mexican Army against the United States in the Mexican-American War of 1846 to 1848, is also famous in Mexican history. Álvaro Obregón (possibly O'Brian) was president of Mexico during 1920-24 and Obregón citymarker and airportmarker are named in his honour. More recently, Vicente Fox served as President from 2000 to 2006. Mexico also has a large number of people of Irish ancestry, among them the actor Anthony Quinn. There are also monuments in Mexico City paying tribute to those Irish who fought for Mexico in the 1800s. There is a monument to Los Patricios in the fort of Churubusco. During the Potato Famine, thousands of Irish immigrants entered the country, today, over 90,000 Irish descendants live in Mexico. Other Mexicans of Irish descent are: Romulo O'Farril, Juan O'Gorman, Edmundo O'Gorman, Anthony Quinn, Alejo Bay (Governor of the state of Sonoramarker), Guillermo Purcell a businessman, former Miss Mexico Judith Grace Gonzalez, among many others. Today, the Irish community in Mexico is a thriving one and is mainly concentrated in Mexico Citymarker and the northern states.

United States

The diaspora to America was immortalized in the words of many songs including the famous Irish ballad, "The Green Fields of America":

So pack up your sea-stores, consider no longer,
Ten dollars a week is not very bad pay,
With no taxes or tithes to devour up your wages,
When you're on the green fields of Americay.


The experience of Irish immigrants in America has not always been harmonious, however. Irish newcomers were sometimes uneducated and often found themselves competing with Americans for manual labor jobs or, in the 1860s, being recruited from the docks by the U.S. Army to serve in the American Civil War. This view of the Irish-American experience is depicted by another traditional song, "Paddy's Lamentation".

Hear me boys, now take my advice,
To America I'll have ye's not be going,
There is nothing here but war, where the murderin' cannons roar,
And I wish I was at home in dear old Dublin.


The classic image of an Irish immigrant is led to a certain extent by racist and anti-Catholic stereotypes. In modern times, in the United States, the Irish are largely perceived as hard workers. Most notably they are associated with the positions of police officer, firefighter, Roman Catholic Church leaders and politicians in the larger Eastern-Seaboard metropolitan areas. Irish Americans number over 44 million, making them the second largest ethnic group in the country, after German Americans. Historically, large Irish American communities have been found in Chicagomarker, Bostonmarker, New York Citymarker, New Englandmarker, Baltimoremarker, Philadelphiamarker, St. Paul, Minnesotamarker, Clevelandmarker and the Bay Areamarker. Many cities across the country have annual St Patrick's Day parades, the nation's largest in New York City - one of the world's largest parades. The parade in Boston is closely associated with Evacuation Day, when George Washington and his troops forced the British out of Boston during the Revolutionary War. At state level, Texasmarker has the largest number of Irish Americans . In percentage terms, Boston is the most Irish city in the United States and Massachusettsmarker the most Irish state .

Before the Great Hunger ("Irish Potato Famine") in which over a million died and more emigrated , there had been the Penal Laws which had already resulted in significant emigration from Ireland .

According to the Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, in 1790 there were 400,000 Americans of Irish birth or ancestry out of a total white population of 3,100,000. Half of these were descended from Ulster people, and half were descended from the people of Connaught, Leister and Munster.

According to U.S. Census figures from 2000, 41,000,000 Americans claim to be wholly or partly of Irish ancestry, a group that represents more than one in five white Americans.

Elsewhere

Australia

Irish Australians form the second largest ancestry group in Australia, numbering 1,919,727 or 9.0 per cent of respondents in the 2001 Census.

It is not clear whether the Irish-born are considered "Irish Australians" or if the term only refers to their Australian-born descendants. The 2001 Census recorded 50,320 Irish-born in Australia, although this is a minimal figure as it only includes those who wrote in "Ireland" or "Republic of Ireland" as their country of birth. Responses which mentioned "Northern Ireland" as birthplace were coded as "United Kingdom". This interpretation may omit as few as 21,500 Irish-born present in the country, as many as 29,500, or possibly even more. Nevertheless the number of persons born in Ireland, north and south, resident in Australia in 2001 may be confidently extrapolated at around 75,000.

According to the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs White Paper on Foreign Policy, there were 213,000 Irish citizens living in Australia in 1997; nearly three times the number of Irish-born immigrants to the country. Most Irish Australians, however, do not have Irish citizenship and define their status in terms of self-perception, affection for Ireland and an attachment to Irish culture.

Irish settlers - both voluntary and forced - were crucial to the Australian colonies from the earliest days of settlement. The Irish first came over in large numbers as convicts (50,000 were transported between 1791 and 1867), to be used as free labour; even larger numbers of free settlers came during the nineteenth century, partly due to the Donegal Relief Fund. Irish immigrants accounted for one-quarter of Australia's overseas-born population in 1871. Their children, the first Irish Australians in the sense we understand the term, played a definitive role in shaping Australian history, society and culture. The Irish heritage has also had a significant influence of the Australian accent and slang words.

Historian Patrick O'Farrell noted in The Irish in Australia (1987) that the term "Australia first" became "what amounted to the Australian Irish Catholic slogan". These Australians of Irish background did not tend to regard Ireland as their "mother country" - primarily because few had a wish to return to a home they had left in search of a better life. Rather, they tended to identify themselves as Australians.

According to census data released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004, Irish Australians are, by religion, 46.2% Roman Catholic, 15.3% Anglican, 13.5% other Christian denomination, 3.6% other religions, and 21.5% as "No Religion".

The high percentage of Catholics is largely the result of descendants of Irish immigrants.

South Africa

Nineteenth-century South Africa did not attract mass Irish migration, but Irish communities are to be found in Cape Townmarker, Port Elizabethmarker, Kimberleymarker, and Johannesburgmarker, with smaller communities in Pretoriamarker, Barbertonmarker, Durbanmarker and East London. A third of the Cape's governors were Irish, as were many of the judges and politicians. Both the Cape Colony and the Colony of Natal had Irish prime ministers: Sir Thomas Upington, "The Afrikaner from Corkmarker"; and Sir Albert Hime, from Kilcoolemarker in County Wicklowmarker. Irish Cape Governors included Lord Macartney, Lord Caledon and Sir John Francis Cradock. Irish settlers were brought in small numbers over the years, as from other parts of the United Kingdommarker. Henry Nourse, a shipowner at the Cape, brought out a small party of Irish settlers in 1818. In 1823, John Ingram brought out 146 Irish from Cork. Single Irish women were sent to the Cape on a few occasions. Twenty arrived in November 1849 and 46 arrived in March 1851. The majority arrived in November 1857 aboard the Lady Kennaway. A large contingent of Irish troops fought in the Anglo-Boer War on both sides and a few of them stayed in South Africa after the war. Others returned home but later came out to settle in South Africa with their families. Between 1902 and 1905, there were about 5,000 Irish immigrants. Place names in South Africa include Upingtonmarker, Porteville, Caledonmarker, Cradockmarker, Sir Henry Lowry's Pass, the Biggarsberg Mountains, Donnybrook and Belfastmarker.

External links: Irish Police in SA & Research in SA

Religion

Irish bishop Paul Cullen set out to spread Irish dominance over the English-speaking Catholic Church in the 19th century. The establishment of an 'Irish Episcopal Empire' involved three transnational entities - the British Empire, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Irish diaspora. Irish clergy, notably Cullen, made particular use of the reach of the British Empire to spread their influence. From the 1830's until his death in 1878, Cullen held several key positions near the top of the Irish hierarchy and influenced Rome's appointment of Irish bishops on four continents.

Walker (2007) compares Irish immigrant communities in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Great Britain respecting issues of identity and 'Irishness.' Religion remained the major cause of differentiation in all Irish diaspora communities and had the greatest impact on identity, followed by the nature and difficulty of socioeconomic conditions faced in each new country and the strength of continued social and political links of Irish immigrants and their descendants with the old country. From the late 20th century onward, Irish identity abroad became increasingly cultural, nondenominational, and nonpolitical, although many emigrants from Northern Ireland stood apart from this trend.

Famous members of the diaspora

Politicians

See also Notable Americans of Scotch-Irish descent
Isadora Duncan, legendary dancer


Artists and musicians



Scientists



Misc

Lola Montez, Irish-born mistress to King Ludwig I of Bavaria.
Her real name was Eliza Gilbert


See also - Irish Brigade



See also - Causes of Irish emigration



See also - General

Further reading

  • Akenson, Donald. The Irish Diaspora: a Primer. (Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, 1993)
  • Bielenberg, Andy, ed. The Irish Diaspora (London: Pearson, 2000)
  • Campbell, Malcolm. Ireland's New Worlds: Immigrants, Politics, and Society in the United States and Australia, 1815-1922 (2007)
  • Coogan, Tim Pat. Wherever Green Is Worn: The Story of the Irish Diaspora (2002)
  • Darby, Paul, and David Hassan, eds. Sport and the Irish Diaspora: Emigrants at Play (2008)
  • Delaney, Enda, Kevin Kenny, and Donald Mcraild. "The Irish Diaspora," Irish Economic and Social History (2006): 33:35-58
  • Fanning, Charles. New Perspectives on the Irish Diaspora (2000)
  • Gray, Breda. Women and the Irish Diaspora (2003)
  • Gribben, Arthur, and Ruth-Ann M. Harris. The Great Famine and the Irish Diaspora in America (1999)
  • Kenny, Kevin. "Diaspora and Comparison: the Global Irish as a Case Study," Journal of American History 2003 90(1): 134-162, In JSTOR
  • Lalor, Brian, ed. The Encyclopedia of Ireland (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 2003)
  • Mccaffrey, Lawrence. The Irish Catholic Diaspora in America (Washington: Catholic University of America, 1997)
  • O'Day, Alan. "Revising the Diaspora." in The Making of Modern Irish History, edited by D George Boyce and Alan O'Day. (London: Routledge, 1996), pp. 188-215.
  • O’Sullivan, Patrick, ed. The Irish Worldwide: Religion and Identity, vol. 5. London: Leicester University Press, 1994
  • Walker, Brian. "'The Lost Tribes of Ireland': Diversity, Identity and Loss among the Irish Diaspora," Irish Studies Review; 2007 15(3): 267-282


References

  1. The article "More Britons applying for Irish passports" states that 6 million Britons have either an Irish grandfather or grandmother and are thus able to apply for Irish citizenship. [1].
  2. One in four Britons claim Irish roots
  3. Crowley, Ultan (-?) The Men Who Built Britain: a History of the Irish Navvy
  4. British military presence in Bermuda, The Royal Gazette, February 3, 2007
  5. Tim Pat Coogan, "Wherever Green Is Worn: The Story of the Irish Diaspora", Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
  6. New York Times - The Buried History of America's Largest Slave Rebellion and the Man Who Led It
  7. Remembering the Past
  8. Emerald Reflections, Retrieved November 7, 2007
  9. Colin Barr, "'Imperium in Imperio': Irish Episcopal Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century," English Historical Review 2008 123(502): 611-650
  10. Glazier, Michael (ed.) (1999) The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America. Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press ISBN 0-268-02755-2
  11. Flynn, John & Kelleher, Jerry (2003) Dublin Journeys in America; pp. 150-153, High Table Publishing ISBN 0-9544694-1-0
  12. The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America (1999) ISBN 0-268-02755-2
  13. The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America (1999)
  14. Flynn, John (2003); pp. 148-149
  15. markhumphrys.com/ni.html
  • Ronan, Gerard The Irish Zorro: the Extraordinary Adventures of William Lamport (1615-1659)
  • Murray, Thomas (1919) The Story of the Irish in Argentina
  • Glazier, Michael (ed.) (1999) The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press ISBN 0-268-02755-2


External links




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