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Islam and antisemitism looks at the teaching of Islam relating to Jews and Judaism and the attitudes of the Muslim world in history to Jews as a people, and the treatment of Jews in Muslim countries.

With the origin of Islam in the 7th century AD and its rapid spread in the Arabian peninsula and beyond, Jews (and many other peoples) came to be subject to the rule of Muslim rulers. The quality of the rule varied considerably in different periods, as did the attitudes of the rulers, government officials, clergy and general population to various subject peoples from time to time, which was reflected in their treatment of these subjects. Reuven Firestone notes that, 'negative assessments and even condemnation of prior religions and their adherents occur in all three scriptures of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.’ This article looks at the Muslim attitude to, and treatment of, Jews in Islamic thought and societies throughout history, and explores the ramifications of these attitudes in the contemporary world.

Range of opinion

The nature and extent of antisemitism in Islam and the Muslim world are hotly-debated issues among students of the Middle East and Islam.

  • Claude Cahen and Shelomo Dov Goitein argue against historic antisemitism in Muslim lands, writing that discrimination practiced against non-Muslims was of general nature, and not targeted specifically at Jews. For these scholars, antisemitism in Medieval Islam was local and sporadic rather than general and endemic. For Goitein antisemitism was not present at all, and for Cahen it was rarely present.


  • Bernard Lewis writes that while Muslims have held negative stereotypes regarding Jews, throughout most of Islamic history these stereotypes were not indicative of antisemitism because, unlike Christians, Muslims viewed Jews as objects of ridicule, not fear. He argues that Muslims did not attribute "cosmic evil" to Jews. In Lewis' view, it was only in the late nineteenth century that movements first appeared among Muslims that can legitimately be described as antisemitic.


  • Frederick M. Schweitzer and Marvin Perry state that there are mostly negative references to Jews in the Qur'an and Hadith, and that Islamic regimes treated Jews in degrading ways. Jews (and Christians) had the status of dhimmis. They state that throughout much of history Christians treated Jews worse, saying that Jews in Christian lands were subjected to worse polemics, persecutions and massacres than under Muslim rule.


  • According to Walter Laqueur, the varying interpretations of the Qur'an are important for understanding Muslim attitudes. Many Quranic verses preach tolerance towards the Jews; others make hostile remarks about them (which are similar to hostile remarks made against those who didn't accept Islam); still another promises Jerusalemmarker to the Jews. Muhammad interacted with Jews living in Arabia: he preached to them in hopes of conversion, he fought against and killed many Jews, while he made friends with other Jews.


  • For Martin Kramer, the idea that contemporary antisemitism by Muslims is authentically Islamic "touches on some truths, yet it misses many others". Kramer believes that contemporary antisemitism is due only partially to Israeli policies, about which Muslims may have a deep sense of injustice and loss. But Kramer attributes the primary causes of Muslim antisemitism to modern European ideologies, which have infected the Muslim world.


The Qur'an on Jews in its historical setting

The Qur'an makes forty-three specific references to "Banū Isrā īl" (meaning the Children of Israel). The Arabic term yahud, denoting Jews, and its variants ("hud", "yahudi") occur eleven times and the verbal form hāda (meaning "to be a Jew/Jewish") occurs ten times. According to Khalid Durán, the negative passages use Yahūd, while the positive references speak mainly of the Banī Isrā’īl. Jews are not mentioned at all in verses dating from the Meccan period. According to Bernard Lewis, the coverage given to Jews is relatively insignificant.

The references in the Qur'an to Jews are interpreted in different ways. According to Frederick M. Schweitzer and Marvin Perry, these references are "mostly negative" According to Tahir Abbas the general references to Jews are favorable, with only those addressed to particular groups of Jews containing harsh criticisms.

According to Bernard Lewis and other scholars, the earliest verses of the Qur'an were largely sympathetic to Jews. Mohammed admired them as monotheists and saw them as natural adherents to the new faith and Jewish practices helped model early Islamic behavior, such as midday prayer, prayers on Friday, Ramadan fasting (modelled after the Jewish Yom Kippur fast on the tenth of the month of Tishrei), and most famously the fact that until 623 Muslims prayed toward Jerusalem, not Mecca. After his flight (al-hijra) from Mecca, where religious intolerance reigned, in 622 Mohammad with his followers settled in Yathribmarker, subsequently renamed Medina al-Nabi (‘City of the Prophet’) where he managed to draw up a ‘social contract’, widely referred to as the 'Constitution of Medina'. This contract, known as the Leaf (ṣaḥīfa) upheld the peaceful coexistence between Muslims, Jews and Christians, defining them all, under given conditions, as constituting the ummamarker, or community of that city, and granting the latter freedom of religious thought and practice.. Yathrib/Medina was not homogeneous. Alongside the 200 odd emigrants from Mecca (the Muhājirūn), who had followed Mohammad, its population consisted of the Faithful of Medina (Anṣār, ‘the helpers’), Arab pagans, three Jewish tribes and some Christians. . The foundational 'constitution' sought to establish, for the first time in history according to Ali Khan, a formal agreement guaranteeing interfaith conviviality, albeit ringed with articles emphasizing strategic cooperation in the defense of the city.

In paragraph 16 of this document, it states that:'Those Jews who follow us are entitled to our aid and support so long as they shall not have wronged us or lent assistance (to any enemies) against us'.

Paragraph 37 has it that 'To the Jews their own expenses and to the Muslims theirs. They shall help one another in the event of any attack on the people covered by this document. There shall be sincere friendship, exchange of good counsel, fair conduct and no treachery between them.'. The three local Jewish tribes were the Banu Nadir, the Banu Qurayza, and the Banu Qaynuqa. While Mohammad clearly had no prejudice against them, and appears to have regarded his own message as substantially the same as that received by Jews on Sinai,, tribal politics, and Mohammad's deep frustration at Jewish refusals to accept his prophethood,, quickly led to a break with all three. unfortunate linguistic misunderstandings may also have given the impression, evidenced in the Qur'an, that the Jewish community was publicly humiliating Mohammad. One clan was evicted from Medina in 624. In 625 he attacked and slaughtered all males of the second for failing to assist his group (it was the Sabbath) in battle, and in the Mecca siege of Medina in 627, the last major Jewish tribe, while assisting in fortifications, vacillated over assisting the actual military defence, and Mohammed, after defeating the Meccans, laid siege to this last group of Jews, slaughtering, as was the custom, all the men and taking the women and children into slavery. The direction of prayer was shifted towards Mecca and the most negative verses about Jews were set down after this time.

According to Laqueur, conflicting statements about Jews in the Qur'an have affected Muslim attitudes towards Jews to this day, especially during periods of rising Islamic fundamentalism.

Judaism in theology

According to Bernard Lewis, there is nothing in Muslim theology (with a single exception) that can be considered refutations of Judaism or ferocious anti-Jewish diatribes. Lewis and Chanes suggest that, for a variety of reasons, Muslims were not antisemitic for the most part. The Qur'an, like Judaism, orders Muslims to profess strict monotheism. It also rejects the stories of Jewish deicide as a blasphemous absurdity, and other similar stories in the Gospels play no part in the Muslim educational system The Qur'an does not present itself as a fulfillment of the Hebrew Bible but rather a restoration of its original message - thus, no clash of interpretations between Judaism and Islam can arise.

In addition Lewis argues that the Qur'an lacks popular western traditions of 'guilt and betrayal'. Rosenblatt and Pinson suggest that the Qur'an teaches toleration of Judaism as a fellow monotheistic faith.

Lewis adds, negative attributes ascribed to subject religions (in this case Judaism and Christianity) are usually expressed in religious and social terms, but only very rarely in ethnic or racial terms. However, this does sometimes occur. The language of abuse is often quite strong. It has been argued that the conventional Muslim epithets for Jews, apes, and Christians, pigs derive from Qu'ranic usage. Lewis adduces three passages in the Qu’ran ( , , ) used to ground this view.. The interpretation of these 'enigmatic' passages in Islamic exegetics is highly complex, dealing as they do with infractions like breaking the Sabbath, . According to Goitein, the idea of Jewish Sabbath breakers turning into apes may reflect the influence of Yemenimarker midrashim.. Firestone notes that the Qurayza tribe itself is described in Muslim sources as using the trope of being turned into apes if one breaks the Sabbath to justify not exploiting the Sabbath in order to attack Mohammad, when they were under siege.

According to Stillman, the Qur'an praises Moses, and depicts the Israelites as the recipients of divine favour. The Qur'an dedicates many verses to the glorification of Hebrew prophets, says Leon Poliakov. He quotes verse as an example,
We gave him Isaac and Jacob: all (three) guided: and before him, We guided Noah, and among his progeny, David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron: thus do We reward those who do good: And Zakariya and John, and Jesus and Elias: all in the ranks of the righteous: And Isma'il and Elisha, and Jonas, and Lot: and to all We gave favour above the nations.


(Note the 'We' refers to a royal plural meaning I. Similar to How the British royalty spoke to crowdes.)

Remarks on Jews

Leon Poliakov, Walter Laqueur, and Jane Gerber, argue that passages in the Qur'an reproach Jews for their refusal to recognize Muhammad as a prophet of God. "The Quran is engaged mainly in dealing with the sinners among the Jews and the attack on them is shaped according to models that one encounters in the New Testament." The Muslim holy text defined the Arab and Muslim attitude towards Jews to this day, especially in the periods when Islamic fundamentalism was on the rise.

Walter Laqueur states that the Qur'an and its interpreters has a great many conflicting things to say about the Jews. Jews are said to be treacherous and hypocritical and could never be friends with a Muslim.

Frederick M. Schweitzer and Marvin Perry state that References to Jews in the Koran are mostly negative. The Qur'an states that Wretchedness and baseness were stamped upon the Jews, and they were visited with wrath from Allah, That was because they disbelieved in Allah's revelations and slew the prophets wrongfully. And for their taking usury, which was prohibited for them, and because of their consuming people's wealth under false pretense, a painful punishment was prepared for them. The Qur'an requires their "abasement and poverty" in the form of the poll tax jizya. In his "wrath" God has "cursed" the Jews and will turn them into apes/monkeys and swine and idol worshipers because they are "infidels." Yet ordinarily, "the Jews" could not be said to have "killed" Muhammad. There is no accusation of deicide, no appropriation of the Jewish bible as an Islamic sacred text, and "virtuous Hebrews" is not translated into "virtuous Muslims" in contrast to the "stiff-necked, criminal Jews."

According to Martin Kramer, the Qur'an speaks of Jews in a negative way and reports instances of Jewish treachery against the Islamic prophet Muhammad. However, Islam didn't hold up those Jews who practiced treachery against Muhammad as archetypes nor did it portray treachery as the embodiment of Jews in all times and places. The Qur'an also attests to Muhammad's amicable relations with Jews.

While traditional religious supremacism played a role in the Islamic view of Jews, the same attitude applied to Christians and other non-Muslims. Islamic tradition regards Jews as a legitimate community of believers in God (called "people of the Book") legally entitled to sufferance.

The Qur'an ( ) clears Jews from the accusation of deicide, and states "they [Jews] killed him [Jesus] not". They also argue that the Jewish Bible has not been incorporated in the Islamic text, and "virtuous Muslims" are not contrasted with "stiff-necked, criminal Jews".

The standard Qur'anic reference to Jews is the verse . It says:

And abasement and poverty were pitched upon them, and they were laden with the burden of God's anger; that, because they had disbelieved the signs of God and slain the Prophets unrightfully; that, because they disobeyed, and were transgressors.


However, due to the Koran's timely process of story-telling, a majority of scholars agree that all references to Jews or other groups within the Qu'ran refers to only certain populations at a certain point in history and bare any racial profiling or religious profiling, it also gives some legitimacy to their religion in"Those who believe, and the Jews, and the Sabi'un, and the Christians, who believe in God and the Last Day and do good, there is no fear for them, nor shall they grieve."

The Qur'an gives credence to the Christian claim of Jews scheming against Jesus, " ... but God also schemed, and God is the best of schemers."(Qur'an ) In the Muslim view, the crucifixion of Jesus was an illusion, and thus the Jewish plots against him ended in failure. According to Gerber, in numerous verses ( ; ; ; ; , , ; ) the Qur'an accuses Jews of altering the Scripture.

But the Qur'an differentiates between "good and bad" Jews, adding to the idea that the Jewish people or their religion itself are not the target of the story-telling process. The criticisms deal mainly "with the sinners among the Jews and the attack on them is shaped according to models that one encounters in the New Testament."

The Qur'an also speaks favorably of Jews. Though it also criticizes them for not being grateful of God's blessing on them, the harsh criticisms, are only addressed towards a particular group of Jews, as it is clear from the context of the Qur'anic verses, but the translations usually confuse this by using the general term "Jews". To judge Jews based on the deeds of some of their ancestors is an anti-Qur'anic idea.

Ali S. Asani suggests that the Qur'an endorses the establishment of religiously and culturally plural societies and this endorsement has affected the treatment of religious minorities in Muslim lands throughout history. He cites the endorsement of pluralism to explain why violent forms of anti-Semitism generated in medieval and modern Europe, culminating in the Holocaust, never occurred in regions under Muslim rule.

Some verses of the Qur'an, notably , preach tolerance towards members of the Jewish faith. According to Kramer, Jews are regarded as members of a legitimate community of believers in God, "people of the Book," and therefore legally entitled to sufferance.

Distortion

Martin Kramer argues that for Muslims to arrive at the concept of the "eternal Jew", there must be more at work than the Islamic tradition. Islamic tradition does, however, provide the sources for islamic antisemitism. The fact that many Islamic thinkers have spent time in the West has resulted in the absorption of antisemitism, he says. Modern texts further distort the Qur'an by quoting it besides texts such as the Protocols of Zion. Thus, Kramer concludes that there is no doubt modern Muslims (such as Hizbullah, Ayatollah Fadlallah) effectively make use of the Qur'an, using Islamic tradition as a source on which antisemitism today feeds, but it is also a selective and distorting use.

Muhammad

During Muhammad's life, Jews lived in the Arabian Peninsula, especially in and around Medinamarker. According to Koppel Pinson and Samuel Rosenblatt, although they initially swore friendship and peace with Muhammad, they later taunted and mocked him, charging him with ignorance. According to Pinson, Rosenblatt and F.E. Peters, they also began to connive with Muhammad's enemies in Mecca to overthrow him (despite having signed a peace treaty). After each major battle, Muhammad accused one of the Jewish tribes of treachery and attacked it. Two Jewish tribes were expelled and the last one was wiped out. These incidents were not part of policies directed exclusively against Jews, and Muhammad was more severe with his pagan Arab kinsmen than foreigner monotheists. In addition Muhammad's conflict with Jews was considered of rather minor importance. According to Lewis, since the clash of Judaism and Islam was resolved and ended during Muhammad's lifetime with Muslim victory, no Muslim equivalent of the still unresolved theological dispute between Church and Israel fueled antisemitism. There is also a difference between Jewish denial of Christian and Muslim messages, since Muhammad never claimed to be a Messiah or Son of God. It is significant that the death of Muhammad was not caused by Jews.

Muhammad is also known to have Jewish friends, and had a Jewish wife (Safiyya). According to Poliakov, "the degree to which Muhammad shows his respect for each religion [Jews and Christians] is remarkable".

Muhammad's disputes with his neighboring Jewish tribes left no marked traces on his immediate successors (known as Caliphs). The first Caliphs based their treatment upon the Qur'anic verses encouraging tolerance.Classical commentators viewed Muhammad's struggle with Jews as a minor episode in his career, but this has changed in modern times due to external influences. Poliakov opines that Muhammad's actions and teachings gave rise to an open and more conciliatory society, where the Muslims were compelled to protect the lives and religion of the Jews.

Hadith

The hadith (recordings of deeds and sayings attributed to Muhammad) use both the terms Banu Israil and Yahud in relation to Jews, the latter term becoming ever more frequent and appearing mostly in negative context. According to Norman Stillman:

Jews in Medina are singled out as "men whose malice and enmity was aimed at the Apostle of God".
The Yahūd in this literature appear not only as malicious, but also deceitful, cowardly and totally lacking resolve.
However, they have none of the demonic qualities attributed to them in mediaeval Christian literature, neither is there anything comparable to the overwhelming preoccupation with Jews and Judaism (except perhaps in the narratives on Muhammad's encounters with Medinan Jewry) in Muslim traditional literature.
Except for a few notable exceptions... the Jews in the Sira and the Maghazi are even heroic villains.
Their ignominy stands in marked contrast to Muslim heroism, and in general, conforms to the Qura'nic image of "wretchedness and baseness stamped upon them"


Muhammad said, "He who wrongs a Jew or Christian will have myself as his indicter on the Day of Judgment."

Another hadith says: "A Jew will not be found alone with a Muslim without plotting to kill him." According to another hadith, Muhammad said: "The Hour will not be established until you fight with the Jews, and the stone behind which a Jew will be hiding will say. 'O Muslim! There is a Jew hiding behind me, so kill him'".( ) This hadith has been quoted countless times, and it has become a part of the charter of Hamas.

According to Schweitzer and Perry, the hadith are "even more scathing (than the Qur'an) in attacking the Jews":
They are debased, cursed, anathematized forever by God and so can never repent and be forgiven; they are cheats and traitors; defiant and stubborn; they killed the prophets; they are liars who falsify scripture and take bribes; as infidels they are ritually unclean, a foul odor emanating from them - such is the image of the Jew in classical Islam, degraded and malevolent.


It is important to note though, that many hadith have unverifiable sources - Reza Aslan, a noted Islamic scholar and commentator, claims that more than 700,000 hadith of dubious origin had emerged by the end of the 10th Century. Many hadith may also reflect the culture and perception of societies at the time.

Pre-modern Islam

Jerome Chanes, Pinson, Rosenblatt, Mark Cohen, Norman Stillman, Uri Avnery, M. Klien and Bernard Lewis argue that antisemitism in pre-modern Islam is rare, and did not emerge until modern times. Lewis argues that there is little sign any deep-rooted emotional hostility directed against Jews, or any other group, that can be characterized as antisemitism. There were, however, clearly negative attitudes, which were in part the "normal" feelings of a dominant group towards subject groups (which exists in virtually any society). More specifically, the contempt consisted of Muslim contempt for disbelievers.

Literature

According to Lewis, the outstanding characteristic of the classical Islamic view of Jews is their unimportance. The religious, philosophical, and literary Islamic writings tended to ignore Jews and focused more on Christianity. Although, the Jews received little praise or even respect, and were sometimes blamed for various misdeed but there were no fears of Jewish conspiracy and domination, nor any charges of diabolic evil nor accusations of poisoning the wells nor spreading the plague nor were even accused of engaging in blood libels until Ottomans learned the concept from their Greek subjects in 15th century.

The famous Islamic theologian al-Ghazali praised the piety of Jews, and described them as "steadfast in faith".

Poliakov writes that various examples of medieval Muslim literature portray Judaism as an exemplary pinnacle of faith, and Israel being destined by this virtue. He quotes stories from the The Book of One Thousand and One Nights that portray Jews as pious, virtuous and devoted to God, and seem to borrow plots from midrashim. However, Poliakov writes that treatment of Jews in Muslim literature varies, and the tales are meant for pure entertainment, with no didactic aim.

After Ibn Nagraela, a Jew, attacked the Quran by alleging various contradictions in it, Ibn Hazm, a Moor, criticized him furiously. Ibn Hazm wrote that Ibn Nagraela was "filled with hatred" and "conceited in his vile soul."

According to Schweitzer and Perry, some literature during the tenth and eleventh century "made Jews out to be untrustworthy, treacherous oppressors, and exploiters of Muslims". This propaganda sometimes even resulted in outbreaks of violence against the Jews. An eleventh century Moorish poem describes Jews as "a criminal people" and blames them for causing social decay, betraying Muslims and poisoning food and water.

Martin Kramer writes that in Islamic tradition, in striking contrast with the Christian concept of the eternal Jew, the contemporary Jews were not presented as archetypes—as the embodiment of Jews in all times and places.

Life under Muslim rule

Jews and Christians living under early Muslim rule were known as dhimmis, a status that was later also extended to other non-Muslims like Sikhs. As dhimmis they were to be tolerated, and entitled to the protection and resources of the Ummah, the Muslim commonwealth. In return they had to pay a tax known as the jizyain accordance with Qur'an. Lewis and Poliakov argue that Jewish communities enjoyed toleration and limited rights as long as they accepted Muslim superiority. These rights were legally established and enforced. The restrictions on dhimmis included: payment of higher taxes; at some locations, being forced to wear clothing or some othe insignia distinguishing them from Muslims; sometimes barred from holding public office, bearing arms or riding a horse; disqualified as witnesses in litigation involving Muslims; at some locations and times, dhimmis were prevented from repairing existing or erecting new places of worship. Proselytizing on behalf of any faith but Islam was barred.

Later additions to the code included prohibitions on adopting Arab names, studying the Koran, selling alcoholic beverages. Abdul Aziz Said writes that the Islamic concept of dhimmi, when applied, allowed other cultures to flourish and prevented the general rise of antisemitism.

Schweitzer and Perry give as examples of early Muslim antisemitism: 9th century "persecution and outbreaks of violence"; 10th and 11th century antisemitic propaganda that "made Jews out to be untrustworthy, treacherous oppressors, and exploiters of Muslims". This propaganda "inspired outbreaks of violence and caused many casualties in Egypt". An eleventh century Moorish poem describes Jews as "a criminal people" and alleges that "society is nearing collapse on account of Jewish wealth and domination, their exploitation and betrayal of Muslims; that Jews worship the devil, physicians poison their patients, and Jews poison food and water as required by Judaism, and so on."

Jews under the Muslim rule rarely faced martyrdom or exile, or forced conversion and they were fairly free to choose their residence and profession. Their freedom and economic condition varied from time to time and place to place. Forced conversions occurred mostly in the Maghreb, especially under the Almohads, a militant dynasty with messianic claims, as well as in Persia, where Shi'a Muslims were generally less tolerant than their Sunni counterparts. Notable examples of the cases where the choice of residence was taken away from them includes confining Jews to walled quarters (mellahs) in Morocco beginning from the 15th century and especially since the early 19th century.

Egypt

The caliphs of Fatimid dynasty in Egypt were known to be Judeophiles, according to Leon Poliakov. They paid regularly to support the Jewish institutions (such as the rabbinical academy of Jerusalem). A significant number of their ministers and counselors were Jews. Benjamin of Tuleda, a famous 12th century Jewish explorer, described the Caliph al Abbasi as a "great king...kind unto Israel". He further mentions Muslims and Jews being involved in common devotions, such as visiting the grave of Ezekiel, whom both religions regard as a prophet.

Spain

With the Muslim conquest of Spainmarker, Spanish Judaism flourished for several centuries. Thus, what some refer to as the "golden age" for Jews began. During this period the Muslims (at least in Spain) tolerated other religions, including Judaism, and created a heterodox society.

Muslim relations with Jews in Spain were not always peaceful, however. The eleventh century saw Muslim pogroms against Jews in Spain; those occurred in Cordobamarker in 1011 and in Granadamarker in 1066. In the 1066 Granada massacre, a Muslim mob crucified the Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred about 4,000 Jews. The Muslim grievance involved was that some Jews had become wealthy, and others had advanced to positions of power.

The Almohad dynasty, which overthrew the dynasty that ran Spain during the early Muslim era, offered Christians and Jews the choice of conversion or expulsion; in 1165, one of their rulers ordered that all Jews in the country convert on pain of death (forcing the Jewish rabbi, theologian, philosopher, and physician Maimonides to feign conversion to Islam before fleeing the country). In Egypt, Maimonides resumed practicing Judaism openly only to be accused of apostasy. He was saved from death by Saladin's chief administrator, who held that conversion under coercion is invalid.

During his wanderings, Maimonides also wrote the The Yemen Epistle, a famous letter to the Jews of Yemenmarker, who were then experiencing severe persecution at the hands of their Muslim rulers. In it, Maimonides describes his assessment of the treatment of the Jews at the hands of Muslims:
... on account of our sins God has cast us into the midst of this people, the nation of Ishmael [that is, Muslims], who persecute us severely, and who devise ways to harm us and to debase us....
No nation has ever done more harm to Israel.
None has matched it in debasing and humiliating us.
None has been able to reduce us as they have....
We have borne their imposed degradation, their lies, their absurdities, which are beyond human power to bear....
We have done as our sages of blessed memory have instructed us, bearing the lies and absurdities of Ishmael....
In spite of all this, we are not spared from the ferocity of their wickedness and their outbursts at any time.
On the contrary, the more we suffer and choose to conciliate them, the more they choose to act belligerently toward us.


Mark Cohen quotes Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson, a specialist in medieval European Jewish history, who cautioned that Maimonides' condemnation of Islam should be understood "in the context of the harsh persecutions of the twelfth century and that furthermore one may say that he was insufficiently aware of the status of the Jews in Christian lands, or did not pay attention to this, when he wrote the letter." Cohen continues by quoting Ben-Sasson, who argues that Jews generally had a better legal and security situation in the Muslim countries than in Christendom.

Ottoman Empire

While some Muslim states declined, the Ottoman Empire rose as the "greatest Muslim state in history". As long as the empire flourished, the Jews did as well, according to Schweitzer and Perry. The Ottomans were more tolerant of Jews and promoted their economic development. The Jews flourished as great merchants, financiers, government officials, traders and artisans.

Contrast with Christian Europe

Lewis states that in contrast to Christian antisemitism, the attitude of Muslims toward non-Muslims is not one of hate, fear, or envy, but rather simply contempt. This contempt is expressed in various ways, such as abundance of polemic literature attacking the Christians and occasionally also the Jews. "The negative attributes ascribed to the subject religions and their followers are usually expressed in religious and social terms, very rarely in ethnic or racial terms, though this does sometimes occur." The language of abuse is often quite strong. The conventional epithets are apes for Jews, and pigs for Christians. Lewis continues with several examples of regulations which were symbolizing the inferiority that non-Muslims living under Muslim rule had to live with, such as different formulae of greeting when addressing Jews and Christians than when addressing Muslims (both in conversations or correspondences), and forbidding Jews and Christians to choose names used by Muslims for their children by the Ottoman times.

Schweitzer and Perry argue that there are two general views of the status of Jews under Islam, the traditional "golden age" and the revisionist "persecution and pogrom" interpretations. The former was first promulgated by Jewish historians in the 19th century as a rebuke of the Christian treatment of Jews, and taken up by Arab Muslims after 1948 as "an Arab-Islamist weapon in what is primarily an ideological and political struggle against Israel". They argue that this idealized view ignores "a catalog of lesser-known hatred and massacres". Mark Cohen concurs with this view, arguing that the "myth of an interfaith utopia" went unchallenged until it was adopted by Arabs as a "propaganda weapon against Zionism", and that this "Arab polemical exploitation" was met with the "counter-myth" of the "neo-lachrymose conception of Jewish-Arab history", which also "cannot be maintained in the light of historical reality".

Antisemitism in the Islamic Middle East

Antisemitism has increased in the Muslim world during modern times. While Bernard Lewis and Uri Avnery date the rise of antisemitism to the establishment of Israelmarker, M. Klein suggests the antisemitism could have been present in the mid-19th century.

Scholars point out European influence, including that of Nazis, and the establishment of Israel as the root causes for antisemitism. Norman Stillman explains that increased European commercial, missionary and imperialist activities during the 19th and 20th centuries brought anti-Semitic ideas to the Muslim world. Initially these prejudices only found a reception among Arab Christians and were too foreign for any widespread acceptance among Muslims. However, with the rise of the Arab-Israeli conflict, European anti-Semitism began to gain acceptance in modern literature.

Nineteenth century

According to Mark Cohen, Arab anti-Semitism in the modern world arose relatively recently, in the nineteenth century, against the backdrop of conflicting Jewish and Arab nationalism, and was imported into the Arab world primarily by nationalistically minded Christian Arabs (and only subsequently was it "Islamized").

The Damascus affair occurred in 1840, when an Italianmarker monk and his servant disappeared in Damascusmarker. Immediately following, a charge of ritual murder was brought against a large number of Jews in the city. All were found guilty. The consuls of England, France and Austriamarker as well as Ottoman authorities, Christians, Muslims and Jews all played a great role in this affair.Following the Damascus affair, Pogroms spread through the Middle East and North Africa. Pogroms occurred in: Aleppo (1850, 1875), Damascus (1840, 1848, 1890), Beirut (1862, 1874), Dayr al-Qamar (1847), Jerusalem (1847), Cairo (1844, 1890, 1901-02), Mansura (1877), Alexandria (1870, 1882, 1901-07), Port Said (1903, 1908), Damanhur (1871, 1873, 1877, 1891), Istanbul (1870, 1874), Buyukdere (1864), Kuzguncuk (1866), Eyub (1868), Edirne (1872), Izmir (1872, 1874).There was a massacre of Jews in Baghdadmarker in 1828. There was another massacre in Barfurush in 1867.

In 1839, in the eastern Persianmarker city of Meshedmarker, a mob burst into the Jewish Quarter, burned the synagogue, and destroyed the Torah scrolls. Known as the Allahdad incident. It was only by forcible conversion that a massacre was averted.

Benny Morris writes that one symbol of Jewish degradation was the phenomenon of stone-throwing at Jews by Muslim children. Morris quotes a 19th century traveler: "I have seen a little fellow of six years old, with a troop of fat toddlers of only three and four, teaching [them] to throw stones at a Jew, and one little urchin would, with the greatest coolness, waddle up to the man and literally spit upon his Jewish gaberdine. To all this the Jew is obliged to submit; it would be more than his life was worth to offer to strike a Mahommedan."

Twentieth century

M. Klein suggests that, unlike European antisemitism, Arab antisemitism "is not distinguished by personal animosity towards Jews, nor do publications stress Judaism as an internal threat, to the majority population. This is basically political, ideological, intellectual, and literary antisemitism that focuses on the external threat which the State of Israel represents for the Arab countries..."

The massacres of Jews in Muslim countries continued into the 20th century. The Jewish quarter in Fez was almost destroyed by a Muslim mob in 1912. There were Nazi-inspired pogroms in Algeriamarker in the 1930s, and massive attacks on the Jews in Iraqmarker and Libyamarker in the 1940s (see Farhud). Pro-Nazi Muslims slaughtered dozens of Jews in Baghdad in 1941.

Standard antisemitic themes have become commonplace in the propaganda of Arab Islamic movements such as Hizbullah and Hamas, in the pronouncements of various agencies of the Islamic Republic of Iranmarker, and even in the newspapers and other publications of Refah Partisi, the Turkish Islamic party whose head served as prime minister in 1996-97."

The language of abuse is often quite strong. For example, the conventional epithets for Jews and Christians are apes and pigs, respectively.

Support for the Third Reich

The first attempts at an Arab Nazi movement occurred in 1933, when a Jaffamarker correspondent of the Cairomarker newspaper Al-Ahram applied to the German council for help. Many of the Arabs were in full support of Nazi Germany, and believed that if Hitler won the war, the Arab cause would prosper. The influence of the Nazis in the Arab world continued to grow though the 1930s. Nazi influenced political parties arose in the 1930s and 1940s, many of which played an important role in the leadership of the Arab world post-World War II. Egyptmarker, Syriamarker, and Iranmarker are believed to have harbored Nazi war criminals, though they deny it. Mein Kampf has been published and was 6th on the Palestinian best-seller list in 1999.

Mohammad Amin al-Husayni
The Mufti of Jerusalem, Mohammad Amin al-Husayni attempted to create an alliance with Nazi Germany against the Jews.

Historians debate to what extent al-Husayni's fierce opposition to Zionism was grounded in nationalism or antisemitism or a combination of both.

On March 31, 1933, within weeks of Hitler's rise to power in Germanymarker, al-Husayni sent a telegram to Berlinmarker addressed to the German Consul-General in the British Mandate of Palestine saying Muslims in Palestine and elsewhere looked forward to spreading their ideology in the Middle East. Al-Husayni secretly met the German Consul-General near the Dead Seamarker in 1933 and expressed his approval of the anti-Jewish boycott in Germany and asked him not to send any Jews to Palestine. Later that year, the Mufti's assistants approached Wolff , seeking his help in establishing an Arab National Socialist party in Palestine. Reports reaching the foreign offices in Berlin showed high levels of Arab admiration of Hitler.

Al-Husayni met the German Foreign Minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop on November 20 1941 and was officially received by Adolf Hitler on November 30 1941 in Berlinmarker. He asked Hitler for a public declaration that "recognized and sympathized with the Arab struggles for independence and liberation, and that it would support the elimination of a national Jewish homeland", and he submitted to the German government a draft of such a declaration, containing the clause.

Husayni aided the Axis cause in the Middle East by issuing a fatwa for a holy war against Britain in May 1941. The Mufti's widely heralded proclamation against Britain was declared in Iraq, where he was instrumental in the anti-British Iraqi revolt of 1941. During the war, the Mufti repeatedly made requests to "the German government to bomb Tel Aviv."

Al-Husayni was involved in the organization and recruitment of Bosnianmarker Muslims into several divisions of the Waffen SS and other units. and also blessed sabotage teams trained by Germans before they were dispatched to Palestine, Iraqmarker, and Transjordanmarker.

On March 1, 1944, while speaking on Radio Berlin, al-Husayni said:Arabs, rise as one man and fight for your sacred rights. Kill the Jews wherever you find them. This pleases God, history, and religion. This saves your honor. God is with you.

Iraq
In March 1940, General Rashid Ali, a nationalist Iraqi officer forced the pro-British Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri Said Pasha, to resign. In May, he declared jihad against Great Britainmarker. Forty days later, British troops occupied the country. The 1941 Iraqi coup d'état occurred on April 3, 1941 when the regime of the Regent 'Abd al-Ilah was overthrown, and Rashid Ali was installed as Prime Minister.

In 1941, following Rashid Ali's pro-Axis coup, riots known as the Farhud broke out in Baghdadmarker in which approximately 180 Jews were killed and about 240 were wounded, 586 Jewish-owned businesses were looted and 99 Jewish houses were destroyed.

Iraq initially forbade the emigration of its Jews after the 1948 war on the grounds that allowing them to go to Israel would strengthen that state, but they were allowed to emigrate again after 1950, if they agreed to forgo their assets.

Iran
In Iranmarker, Reza Shah sympathized with Nazi Germany, making the Jewish community fearful of possible persecutions. Although these fears did not materialise, anti-Jewish articles were published in the Iranian media. A rumor that Hitler converted to Islam led to a marriage between the Shia clergy and the nascent, ultra-nationalist secularized prejudices in Iran.

Egypt
In Egyptmarker, Ahmad Husayn founded the Young Egypt Party in 1934. He immediately expressed his sympathy for Nazi Germany to the German ambassador to Egypt. Husayn sent a delegation to the Nuremberg rally and returned with enthusiasm. After the Sudeten Crisis, the party leaders denounced Germany for aggression against small nations, but nonetheless retained elements similar to Nazism or Fascism, e.g. salutes, torchlight parades, leader worship, and antisemitism and racism. The party's impact before 1939 was minimal, and their espionage efforts were of little value to the Germans.

During World War II, Cairomarker was a haven for agents and spies throughout the war. Egyptian nationalists were active, with many Egyptians, including Farouk of Egypt and prime minister Ali Mahir Pasha, all of whom hoped for an Axis victory, and full independence of Egypt from Britain.

Islamist groups

Many Islamic terrorist groups have openly expressed anti-Semitic views.

Lashkar-e-Toiba's propaganda arm has declared the Jews to be "Enemies of Islam," and Israel to be the "Enemy of Pakistan".

Hamas has been widely described as antisemitic. It has issued antisemitic leaflets, and its writings and manifestos rely upon antisemitic documents (the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and other European Christian literature), exhibiting antisemitic themes. In 1998, Esther Webman of the Project for the Study of Anti-Semitism at the Tel Aviv Universitymarker wrote that although the above is true, anti-Semitism was not the main tenet of Hamas ideology. In an editorial in The Guardian in January 2006, Khaled Meshaal, the chief of Hamas's political bureau denied antisemitism, on Hamas' part, and said that the nature of Israeli-Palestinian conflict was not religious but political. He also said that Hamas has "no problem with Jews who have not attacked us."

Amal Saad-Ghorayeb, a Shiite scholar and assistant professor at the Lebanese American Universitymarker has written that Hezbollah is not Anti-Zionist, but rather Anti-Jewish. She quoted Hassan Nasrallah as saying: "If we searched the entire world for a person more cowardly, despicable, weak and feeble in psyche, mind, ideology and religion, we would not find anyone like the Jew. Notice, I do not say the Israeli." Regarding the official public stance of Hezbollah as a whole, she said that while Hezbollah, "tries to mask its anti-Judaism for public-relations reasons ... a study of its language, spoken and written, reveals an underlying truth." In her book, Hezbollah: Politics & Religion, she explored the anti-Jewish roots of Hezbollah ideology, arguing that Hezbollah "believes that Jews, by the nature of Judaism, possess fatal character flaws." Saad-Ghorayeb also said that "Hezbollah's Quranic reading of Jewish history has led its leaders to believe that Jewish theology is evil."

21st century

Francemarker is home to Europe's largest population of Muslims — about 6 million — as well as the continent's largest community of Jews, about 600,000. In 2000, Muslims attacked synagogues in retaliation for damage done to their Muslim brethren in the Palestinian territories. (See also: Second Intifada) Many Jews protested, the acts were declared "Muslim antisemitism". By 2007, however, attacks were much less severe, and an "all-clear" was perceived.

On July 28, 2006, at around 4:00 p.m. Pacific time, the Seattle Jewish Federation shooting occurred when Naveed Afzal Haq shot six women, one fatally, at the Jewish Federation of Greater Seattle building in the Belltownmarker neighborhood of Seattle, Washingtonmarker, United Statesmarker. He shouted, "I'm a Muslim American; I'm angry at Israel" before he began his shooting spree. Police have classified the shooting as a hate crime based on what Haq said during a 9-1-1 call.

In Egyptmarker, Dar al-Fadhilah published a translation of Henry Ford's antisemitic treatise, The International Jew, complete with distinctly antisemitic imagery on the cover.

Antisemitic comments by Muslims



Yusuf al-Qaradawi
In a sermon, which aired on Al-Jazeera TV on January 9, 2009 (as translated by MEMRI), Egyptian Muslim scholar and preacher Yusuf al-Qaradawi stated:

"Oh Allah, take your enemies, the enemies of Islam. Oh Allah, take the Jews, the treacherous aggressors. Oh Allah, take this profligate, cunning, arrogant band of people. Oh Allah, they have spread much tyranny and corruption in the land. Pour Your wrath upon them, oh our God. Lie in wait for them. Oh Allah, You annihilated the people of Thamoud at the hand of a tyrant, and You annihilated the people of 'Aad with a fierce, icy gale. Oh Allah, You annihilated the people Thamoud at the hand of a tyrant, You annihilated the people of 'Aad with a fierce, icy gale, and You destroyed the Pharaoh and his soldiers — oh Allah, take this oppressive, tyrannical band of people. Oh Allah, take this oppressive, Jewish, Zionist band of people. Oh Allah, do not spare a single one of them. Oh Allah, count their numbers, and kill them, down to the very last one."

Ibrahim Mahdi
Palestinian preacher Ibrahim Mahdi said in a sermon:
"Palestine will be, as it was in the past, a graveyard for the invaders - just as it was a graveyard for the Tatars and to the Crusader invaders, [and for the invaders] of the old and new colonialism... A reliable Hadith [tradition] says: 'The Jews will fight you, but you will be set to rule over them.' What could be more beautiful than this tradition? 'The Jews will fight you' - that is, the Jews have begun to fight us. 'You will be set to rule over them' - Who will set the Muslim to rule over the Jew? Allah... Until the Jew hides behind the rock and the tree. But the rock and tree will say: 'Oh Muslim, oh servant of Allah, a Jew hides behind me, come and kill him.' Except for the Gharqad tree, which is the tree of the Jews. We believe in this Hadith. We are convinced also that this Hadith heralds the spread of Islam and its rule over all the land... Oh Allah, accept our martyrs in the highest heavens... Oh Allah, show the Jews a black day... Oh Allah, annihilate the Jews and their supporters... Oh Allah, raise the flag of Jihad across the land... Oh Allah, forgive our sins..."


In his sermons, Jews are commonly referred to as the descendants of pigs and apes, and as calf-worshippers. As Ibrahim Madhi stated:

"All spears should be directed at the Jews, at the enemies of Allah, the nation that was cursed in Allah's book. Allah has described them as apes and pigs, the calf-worshipers, idol-worshipers... Whoever can fight them with his weapons, should go out [to the battle]; whoever can fight them with a machinegun, should go out; whoever can fight them with a sword or a knife, should go out; whoever can fight them with his hands, should go out; This is our destiny... The Jews have exposed their fangs. Nothing will deter them, except the color of their filthy people's blood; nothing will deter them except for us voluntarily detonating ourselves in their midst. They have nuclear power, but we have the power of the belief in Allah... We blow them up in Haderamarker, we blow them up in Tel Avivmarker and in Netanyamarker."


On another occasion, Sheikh Madhi added:
"Oh beloved of Allah... One of the Jews' evil deeds is what has come to be called 'the Holocaust,' that is, the slaughter of the Jews by Nazism. However, revisionist [historians] have proven that this crime, carried out against some of the Jews, was planned by the Jews' leaders, and was part of their policy... These are the Jews against whom we fight, oh beloved of Allah. On the other hand, [what is our belief] about the Jews? Allah has described them as donkeys."


Ibrahim Al-'Ali
Ibrahim Al-'Ali, writing in the Hamas-affiliated publication Falastin Al-Muslima, writes according to MEMRI's translation,

Allah did not mete out the punishment of transformation on any nation except the Jews.
The significance of it is actual change in the appearance of the Jew and perfect transformation from human to bestial condition... from human appearance to the form of genuine apes, pigs, mice, and lizards....


Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais
Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais is the leading imam of the Grand mosquemarker located in the Islamic holy city of Meccamarker, Saudi Arabiamarker. The BBC aired a Panorama episode, entitled A Question of Leadership, which reported that al-Sudais referred to Jews as "the scum of the human race" and "offspring of apes and pigs", and stated, "the worst ... of the enemies of Islam are those ... whom he ... made monkeys and pigs, the aggressive Jews and oppressive Zionists and those that follow them ... Monkeys and pigs and worshippers of false Gods who are the Jews and the Zionists."

In another sermon, on April 19, 2002, he declared:

Sheikh Ba'd bin Abdallah Al-Ajameh Al-Ghamidi
According to Dr. Leah Kinberg, "Saudi Sheikh Ba'd bin Abdallah Al-Ajameh Al-Ghamidi, in a sermon in Taifmarker, explained":

He also said Jews are "the scum of the human race, the rats of the world, the violators of pacts and agreements, the murderers of the prophets, and the offspring of apes and pigs." Egyptian Sheikh Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy, Grand Imam of Al-Azharmarker Mosque and Grand Sheikh of Al-Azhar Universitymarker, and "perhaps the foremost Sunni Arab authority", has been criticized for remarks made in April 2002, described Jews in his weekly sermon as "the enemies of Allah, descendants of apes and pigs."

Saudi School Books
A May 2006 study of Saudi Arabiamarker's revised schoolbook curriculum discovered that the eighth grade books included the following statements,

Other Statements
On May 5, 2001, after Shimon Peres visited Egyptmarker, the Egyptian al-Akhbar internet paper stated that: "lies and deceit are not foreign to Jews.... For this reason, Allah changed their shape and made them into monkeys and pigs."

Author Erel Shalit has written that Jews must listen to statements made about them from the Arab world, regardless of whether they are positive or negative. He cited the following example:
The Jews of yesterday are the evil fathers of the Jews of today, who are evil offspring ... the scum of the human race 'whom Allah cursed and turned into apes and pigs...' These are the Jews, an ongoing continuum of deceit, obstinacy, licentiousness, evil, and corruption... (The Imam of the Al-Haraam mosque in Mecca; the same words of incitement repeated time and again in the mosques of Gaza and Ramallah.)


Reconciliation efforts

In Western countries, some Islamic groups and individual Muslims have made scattered efforts to reconcile with the Jewish community through dialogue and to oppose Antisemitism. For instance, in Britain there is the group Muslims Against Anti-Semitism. Islamic studies scholar Tariq Ramadan has been outspoken against Anti-Semitism, stating: "In the name of their faith and conscience, Muslims must take a clear position so that a pernicious atmosphere does not take hold in the Western countries. Nothing in Islam can legitimize xenophobia or the rejection of a human being due to his/her religious creed or ethnicity. One must say unequivocally, with force, that anti-Semitism is unacceptable and indefensible." Mohammad Khatami, former president of Iran, declared antisemitism to be a "Western phenomena", having no precedents in Islam and stating the Muslims and Jews had lived harmoniously in the past. An Iranian newspaper stated that has been hatred and hostility in history, but conceded that one must distinguish Jews from Zionists.

In North America, the Council on American-Islamic Relations has spoken against some antisemitic violence, such as the 2006 Seattle Jewish Federation shooting. According to the Anti-Defamation League, CAIR has also been affiliated with antisemitic oganizations such as Hamas and Hizbollah.

The Saudi mufti, Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz, gave a fatwa ruling that negotiating peace with Israel is permissible, as is the cist to Jerusalem by Muslims. He specifically said:
The Prophet made absolute peace with the Jews of Medina when he went there as an immigrant.
That did not entail any love for them or amiability with them.
But the Prophet dealt with them, buying from them, talking to them, calling them to God and Islam.
When he died, his shield was mortgaged to a Jew, for he had mortgaged it to buy food for his family.
Martin Kramer considers that as "an explicit endorsement of normal relations with Jews".

Trends

According to Norman Stillman, Antisemitism in Muslim world increased greatly for more than two decades following 1948 but "peaked by the 1970s, and declined somewhat as the slow process of rapprochement between the Arab world and the state of Israel evolved in the 1980s and 1990s." Johannes J. G. Jansen believes that antisemitism will have no future in the Arab world in the long run. In his view, like other imports from the Western World, antisemitism is unable to establish itself in the private lives of Muslims. In 2004 Khaleel Mohammed said that "Anti-Semitism has become an entrenched tenet of Muslim theology, taught to 95 per cent of the religion's adherents in the Islamic world," a claim immediately dismissed as false and racist by Muslim leaders, who accused Mohammed of destroying efforts at relationship building between Jews and Muslims.

According to the Pew Global Attitudes Project released on August 14, 2005, high percentages of the populations of six Muslim-majority countries have negative views of Jews. To a questionnaire asking respondents to give their views of members of various religions along a spectrum from "very favorable" to "very unfavorable," 60% of Turksmarker, 74% of Pakistanismarker, 76% of Indonesiansmarker, 88% of Moroccansmarker, 99% of Lebanesemarker Muslims and 100% of Jordaniansmarker checked either "somewhat unfavorable" or "very unfavorable" for Jews.

See also



Notes

  1. Reuven Firestone, An introduction to Islam for Jews, Jewish Publication Society, 2008 p.188
  2. "Dhimma" by Claude Cahen in Encyclopedia of Islam.
  3. Shelomo Dov Goitein, A Mediterranean Society: An Abridgment in One Volume, p. 293.
  4. The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion, Antisemitism
  5. Lewis, Bernard. "The New Anti-Semitism", The American Scholar, Volume 75 No. 1, Winter 2006, p. 25-36; based on a lecture delivered at Brandeis University on March 24, 2004.
  6. Lewis (1999), p. 192.
  7. Lewis(1984), p.184
  8. Frederick M. Schweitzer, Marvin Perry., Anti-Semitism: myth and hate from antiquity to the present, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0312165617, p.266.
  9. Kramer, Martin The Salience of Islamic Antisemitism
  10. Yahud, Encyclopedia of Islam
  11. Jews and Judaism, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
  12. Khalid Durán, with Abdelwahab Hechichep, Children of Abraham: an introduction to Islam for Jews,American Jewish Committee/Harriet and Robert Heilbrunn Institute for International Interreligious Understanding, KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 2001 p.112
  13. Stillman, Norman (2005). Antisemitism: A historical encyclopedia of prejudice and persecution. Volume 1. Pages 356-61
  14. Lewis Semites and Anti-Semites 127
  15. Abbas, pg.178-179
  16. Maxime Rodinson, Mohammed, (1961) tr.Anne Carter, Penguin Books, London 1971 p.159
  17. Ali Khan, 'Commentary on the Constitution of Medina', in Hisham M. Ramadan (ed.) Understanding Islamic law: from classical to contemporary,, Rowman Altamira, 2006 pp.205-210 p.205
  18. Michael Lecker, The "constitution of Medina": Muḥammad's first legal document‎, Studies in late antiquity and early Islam SLAEI vol.23, Darwin Press, 2004, passim
  19. Douglas Pratt,The challenge of Islam: encounters in interfaith dialogue, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2005, p.121, citing John Esposito, What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam, Oxford University Press, New York p.73
  20. Douglas Pratt,The challenge of Islam: encounters in interfaith dialogue, ibid. p.122
  21. Maxime Rodinson, Mohammed, ibid pp.152-3
  22. Rodinson, Mohammed, ibid p.158
  23. According to Reuven Firestone, Muhammad expected the Jews of Medina to accept his prophethood since Jews were respected by Arabs as ‘a wise and ancient community of monotheists with a long prophetic tradition’. This rejection was a major blow to his authority in Medina, and relations soon deteriorated. Reuven Firestone,An introduction to Islam for Jews, p.33
  24. Q.4:46 reads: 'There are some Jews who change the words from their places by saying. ‘we hear and disobey' (sami’nā wa’a-ṣaynā). What actually the Jews probably were saying was in Hebrew shama’nu ve’asinu(Deuteronomy 5:24) ‘we hear and obey’ (the Divine Will)'. In this particular case, misunderstanding would have arisen because of a natural Arabic speaker’s mishearing of a standard phrase from the Tanakh. See Reuven Firestone,An introduction to Islam for Jews, p.36
  25. Pratt, The challenge of Islam: encounters in interfaith dialogue, ibid. p.123
  26. Lewis, Bernard Political Language of Islam" pgs. 170-190
  27. Lewis, BernardSemites and Anti-Semites, p. 122
  28. Laqueur 191
  29. Lewis (1999), p.126
  30. Lewis (1999), p.117-118
  31. Chanes (2004), pg. 40-5
  32. Lewis Semites and Anti-Semites 122
  33. Pinson; Rosenblatt (1946), pg. 112-119
  34. Lewis, The Jews and Islam, ibid. p.33, p.198
  35. Reuven Firestone, An introduction to Islam for Jews, ibid p.242 n.8
  36. On 2:62, the reference is to Jewish Sabbath breakers. See the synthesis of commentaries in Mahmoud Ayoub, The Qu’ran and Its Intepreters, SUNY Press, New York,1984, Vol. 1 pp.108-116
  37. Gerald R. Hawting, The idea of idolatry and the emergence of Islam: from polemic to history, Cambridge University Press, 1999 p.105 n.45
  38. Firestone, An introduction to Islam for Jews, ibid. p.37
  39. Poliakov (1974), pg. 27, pg. 41-3
  40. Poliakov
  41. Gerber 78
  42. Uri Rubin, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, Jews and Judaism
  43. Lewis Semites and Anti-Semites 128
  44. English translation of the Qur'an by Arberry.
  45. Lewis (1999), p. 120
  46. Gerber 91
  47. On Pluralism, Intolerance, and the Quran
  48. Laqueur 191-192
  49. F.E.Peters(2003), p.194
  50. The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), pp.43-44
  51. Esposito (1998), pp.10-11
  52. Lewis Semites and Anti-Semites 118
  53. Encyclopedia of Islam, Yahud
  54. Laqueur 192
  55. Sources for the following are: *Lewis (1984) p.32-33 *Mark Cohen (2002), p.208 *Encyclopedia of Islam, Yahud *Avnery, Uri (1968). Israel without Zionists. (New York: Macmillan). pg. 220 *M. Klein. New Encyclopedia of Zionism and Israel, Anti-semitism
  56. Lewis (1999), p.122, 123, 126, 127
  57. Abu Abd el-Rahman, Description de k'Afrique septentrionale d'El-Bekri, translated by Slane, Paris, 1859, pg. 158
  58. Poliakov (1974), pg.77-8.
  59. Poliakov (1974), pg.92-3.
  60. Wehr (1976), p. 515, 516.
  61. Lewis, Semites and Anti-Semites, p. 123.
  62. Abdul Aziz Said (1979),
  63. Lewis (1999) p.131; Stillman (1979), p.27
  64. Lewis (1984), pp. 94–95
  65. Lewis (1984), p. 28
  66. Poliakov (1974), pg.60-2
  67. Poliakov (1974), pg.91-6
  68. Frederick M. Schweitzer, Marvin Perry., Anti-Semitism: myth and hate from antiquity to the present, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0312165617, pp. 267-268.
  69. Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
  70. Kraemer, Joel L., Moses Maimonides: An Intellectual Portrait in The Cambridge Companion to Maimonides pp. 16-17 (2005)
  71. Maimonides, "Epistle to the Jews of Yemen", translated in Stillman (1979), pp. 241–242
  72. Mark R. Cohen (1995) p. xvii-xviii
  73. Frederick M. Schweitzer, Marvin Perry. Anti-Semitism: myth and hate from antiquity to the present, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0312165617, p.266-267
  74. Lewis (1984) p.33
  75. Cohen, 1995, p. 6.
  76. Cohen, 1995, p. 9.
  77. * Daniel J. Lasker, Review of Under Crescent and Cross. The Jews in the Middle Ages by Mark R. Cohen, The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Ser., Vol. 88, No. 1/2 (Jul., 1997), pp. 76-78 * See also Cohen (1995) p.xvii:According to Cohen, both the views equally distort the past.
  78. Muslim Anti-Semitism by Bernard Lewis (Middle East Quarterly) June 1998
  79. Avnery, Uri (1968). Israel without Zionists. (New York: Macmillan). pg. 220
  80. Mark Cohen (2002), p.208
  81. Frankel, Jonathan: The Damascus Affair: 'Ritual Murder', Politics, and the Jews in 1840 (Cambridge University Press, 1997) ISBN 0-521-48396-4 p.1
  82. Yossef Bodansky. "Islamic Anti-Semitism as a Political Instrument" Co-Produced by The Ariel Center for Policy Research and The Freeman Center for Strategic Studies, 1999. ISBN 0967139104, ISBN 978-0967139104
  83. Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001. Vintage Books, 2001, pp. 10-11.
  84. M. Klein. New Encyclopedia of Zionism and Israel, Anti-semitism
  85. Lewis (1984) p.33-34
  86. Lewis (1999) p. 147
  87. "Special Dispatch - No. 48" (Arabic version of book), October 1999, MEMRI.org.
  88. Eric Rouleau, Qui était le mufti de Jérusalem ? (Who was the Mufti of Jerusalem ?), Le Monde diplomatique, august 1994.
  89. Nicosia (2000), p. 85-86.
  90. Segev (2001), p. 463.
  91. Lewis (1984), p. 190.
  92. Hirszowicz, op. cit. p 82 - 83
  93. Lewis (1995), p. 351.
  94. Pearlman (1947), p. 51
  95. Levin, Itamar (2001). Locked Doors: The Seizure of Jewish Property in Arab Countries. (Praeger/Greenwood) ISBN 0-275-97134-1, p. 6.
  96. Sanasarian (2000), p. 46.
  97. Lewis (1999) p. 148-149.
  98. Lashkar-e-Toiba: Spreading the jehad
  99. Antisemitic: *Aaronovitch, David. "The New Anti-Semitism", The Observer, June 22, 2003. *"Hamas refuses to recognize Israel, claims the whole of Palestine as an Islamic endowment, has issued virulently antisemitic leaflets,..." Laurence F. Bove, Laura Duhan Kaplan, From the Eye of the Storm: Regional Conflicts and the Philosophy of Peace, Rodopi Press, 1995, ISBN 9051838700, p. 217. *"But of all the anti-Jewish screeds, it is the Protocols of the Elders of Zion that emboldens and empowers antisemites. While other antisemitic works may have a sharper intellectual base, it is the conspiratorial imagery of the Protocols that has fueled the imagination and hatred of Jews and Judaism, from the captains of industry like Henry Ford, to teenage Hamas homicide bombers." Mark Weitzman, Steven Leonard Jacobs, Dismantling the Big Lie: the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, KTAV Publishing House, 2003, ISBN 0881257850, p. xi. *"There is certainly very clear evidence of antisemitism in the writings and manifestos of organizations like Hamas and Hizbullah..." Human Rights Implications of the Resurgence of Racism and Anti-Semitism, United States Congress, House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on International Security, International Organizations and Human Rights - 1993, p. 122. *"The denomination of the Jews/Zionists by the Hamas organization is also heavily shaped by European Christian anti-Semitism. This prejudice began to infiltrate the Arab world, most notably in the circulation of the 1926 Arabic translation of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion... Reliance upon the document is evidenced in the group's charter... The Protocols of the Elders of Zion also informs Hamas's belief that Israel has hegemonic aspirations that extend beyond Palestinian land. As described in the charter, the counterfeit document identifies the Zionists' wish to expand their reign from the Nile River to the Euphrates." Michael P. Arena, Bruce A. Arrigo, The Terrorist Identity: Explaining the Terrorist Threat, NYU Press, 2006, ISBN 0814707165, pp. 133-134. *"Standard anti-Semitic themes have become commonplace in the propaganda of Arab Islamic movements like Hizballah and Hamas..." Bernard Lewis, Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry Into Conflict and Prejudice, W. W. Norton & Company, 1999, ISBN 0393318397, p. 266.
  100. Jews for Le Pen by Daniel Ben-Simon. Haaretz. 25/03/07
  101. Associated Press. "1 Killed, 5 Wounded in Seattle Jewish Center Shooting", Fox News, July 29, 2006.
  102. Examples of anti-Semitism in the Arab and Muslim world on intelligence.org.il, site of the Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Center for Special Studies (C.S.S), Israel. Accessed 24 September 2006.
  103. Sheikh Yousef Al-Qaradhawi On Al-Jazeera Incites Against Jews, Arab Regimes, and the U.S.; Calls on Muslims to Boycott Starbucks and Others; Says 'Oh Allah, Take This Oppressive, Jewish, Zionist Band of People... And Kill Them, Down to the Very Last One', MEMRITV - Clip #1979 January 12, 2009.
  104. British lawmakers slam Al Jazeera, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), February 8, 2009.
  105. MPs condemn hate sermons on Arabic TV station al-Jazeera by Richard Kerbaj, The Times, February 7, 2009.
  106. Palestinian Authority Sermons 2000-2003
  107. Solnick, Aluma. "Based on Koranic Verses, Interpretations, and Traditions, Muslim Clerics State: The Jews Are the Descendants of Apes, Pigs, And Other Animals", Middle East Media Research Institute, Special Report - No. 11, November 1, 2002. Accessed March 5, 2006.
  108. *Neil J. Kressel. The Urgent Need to Study Islamic Anti-Semitism, The Chronicle of Higher Education, "The Chronical Review", March 12, 2004. *Tom Gross, Living in a Bubble: The BBC's very own Mideast foreign policy., National Review, June 18, 2004.
  109. Jonah Goldberg. Pigs, Jews & War
  110. MEMRI Special Report November 1, 2002
  111. Benny Morris 9/4/2008
  112. Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance (pdf), Freedom House, May 2006, pp.24-25.
  113. Anti-Semitism in the Egyptian Media: February 2001 - February 2002, "Classic Anti-Semitic Stereotypes", Anti Defamation League. Accessed March 4, 2007.
  114. Erel Shalit, Hero and His Shadow: Psychopolitical Aspects of Myth and Reality in Israel, University Press of America, 2004, ISBN 0761827242, p. 21.
  115. http://www.ma-as.org.uk/
  116. See also, the position of the Free Muslims Coalition.
  117. For instance, see Ramadan's article in the UN Chronicle and coverage of his efforts by Ha-artez, an Israeli newspaper.
  118. "Yahud", Encyclopedia of Islam
  119. Jansen, Johannes, J. G. Lewis' Semites and Anti-Semites. The Jewish Quarterly Review.
  120. Bruemmer, Rene. "Muslim speaker denounced: He doesn't speak for Islam: leaders. U.S. scholar tells Montreal conference theologians teach anti-Semitism." The Gazette, March 16, 2004, p. A8.
  121. * PEW Globel Attitudes Report statistics on how the world views different religious groups *


References

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