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Islamic terrorism is the common term for violence, rooted in Islamism, and aimed at defending, or even promoting, Islamic culture, society, and values in opposition to the political, allegedly imperialistic, and cultural influences of non-Muslim, and the Western world in particular (cf. "Dar al-Harb").

In Islam, the killing of innocent people, women and children is Haraam (not permitted). The "Islamic Terrorists" which are considered as "jihadis" in Arabic has some point of controversy. Islam only allows war if Muslims are in danger. The "Islamic terrorists" aren't considered as Muslims by most of the Muslims. This is because "jihad" does not allow what people under cover of Islam do, such as killing of innocent people, women and children, destruction of buildings or trees. Therefore, Islam has been given a bad shape by some groups and most of the world has started to believe it.

There are also political dimensions to the ideology, and the history of Western influence and control after the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, is the common stated reason used within the ideology to justify and explain its use of violence as resistive and retributive against western, non-Muslim imperialism and political influence.

for International Peace June 5, 2006

Context

Islam condones the targeting of noncombatants is an issue, and the Arab–Israeli conflict also features prominently.

Debate over terminology

"Islamic terrorism" is itself a controversial phrase, although its usage is widespread throughout the English-speaking world. Ordinary Muslims who have nothing to do with terrorism find it reprehensible because it forces upon them a label simply because they, too, are believers of Islam. In fact, the common Muslim believes that you are making him a racial hate target by using the word 'Islam' with 'terrorism.' Bernard Lewis believes that the phrase "Islamic terrorism" is apt, because although "Islam, as a religion" is not "particularly conducive to terrorism or even tolerant of terrorism". In his own words:

This argument is countered by Jamal Nassar and Karim H. Karim, who contend that because there are over a billion adherents of the religion, the phenomenon is more precisely regarded as "Islamist terrorism" or, because describes political ideologies rooted in interpretations of Islam. In this vein, describing terrorism as "Islamic" may confirm "a prejudicial perspective of all things Islamic".

Karen Armstrong contends that "fundamentalism is often a form of nationalism in religious disguise", and that using the phrase "terrorism" is dangerously counterproductive, as it suggests those in the west believe that such atrocities are caused by Islam, and hence reinforces the viewpoint of some in the Muslim world that the west is an implacable enemy. Armstrong believes that the terrorists in no way represent mainstream Islam, and suggests the use of other terms such as "Wahhabi terrorism" and "Qutbian terrorism".

Motivations and Islamic Terrorism

Islamic terrorism is inspired by numerous Quranic verses which preach Jihad against Non-muslims. Robert Pape, has argued that at least terrorists utilizing suicide attacks—a particularly effective form of terrorist attack—are driven not by Islamism but by "a clear strategic objective: to compel modern democracies to withdraw military forces from the territory that the terrorists view as their homeland."

However, Martin Kramer who debated Pape on origins of suicide bombing, countered Pape's position that reason for suicide terrorism is not just a strategic logic but also terrorist's reinterpretation of Islam to provide a moral logic. For example, Hizballah initiated suicide bombings after a complex reworking of the concept of martyrdom. Kramer explains that the Israeli occupation of Lebanon raised the temperature necessary for this reinterpretation of Islam, but occupation alone would not have been sufficient for suicide terrorism.. "The only way to apply a brake to suicide terrorism," Kramer argues, "is to undermine its moral logic, by encouraging Muslims to see its incompatibility with their own values."

In particular, scholar Scott Atran, research director and involved in NATO group studying suicide terrorism, points out that there is no single root cause of terrorism. Greatest predictors of suicide bombings, Atran concludes, is not religion but group dynamics: "small-group dynamics involving friends and family that form the diaspora cell of brotherhood and camaraderie on which the rising tide of martyrdom actions is based".

Former CIA analyst Michael Scheuer's states that the Al Qaeda Islamic terror attacks against America are motivated not by a hatred of American culture and religion but by the belief that U.S. foreign policy is a threat to Islam, condensed in the phrase "They hate us for what we do, not who we are." U.S. foreign policy actions Scheuer believes are fueling Islamic terror include


Some other academics argue that terrorism should be seen as a strategic reaction to American power,' - that America is an empire, and empires provoked resistance in the form of terrorism. The Russian, Ottoman, and Habsburg Empires, for example, all suffered from terrorist attacks and had terrorist organisations - the Black Hand, Young Bosnia, Narodnaya Volya - spawned from their multiple ethnic, religious, and national peoples (Serb, Macedonian, and Bosnian).

Profiles

Forensic psychiatrist and former foreign service officer Marc Sageman made an "intensive study of biographical data on 172 participants in the jihad," in his book Understanding Terror Networks. He concluded "social networks," the "tight bonds of family and friendship" rather than behavioral disorders "poverty, trauma, madness, [or] ignorance," inspired alienated young Muslims to join the jihad" and kill.

Author Lawrence Wright describes the characteristic of "displacement" of members of the most famous Islamic terrorist group, Al-Qaeda.
What the recruits tended to have in common - besides their urbanity, their cosmopolitan backgrounds, their education, their facility with languages, and their computer skills - was displacement.
Most who joined the jihad did so in a country other than the one in which they were reared.
They were Algerians living in expatriate enclaves in France, Moroccans in Spain, or Yemenis in Saudi Arabia.
Despite their accomplishments, they had little standing in the host societies where they lived.
...."


Scholar Olivier Roy describes the background of the hundreds of global (as opposed to local) terrorists who were incarcerated or killed and for whom authorities have records, as being surprising for their Westernized background; for the lack of Palestinians, Iraqis, Afghans "coming to avenge what is going on in their country"; their lack of religiousity before being "born again" in a foreign country; the high percentage of converts to Islam among them; their "de-territorialized backgrounds" - "For instance, they may be born in a country, then educated in another country, then go to fight in a third country and take refuge in a fourth country"; their untraditional belief that jihad is permanent, global, and "not linked with a specific territory."

This profile differs from that found among recent local Islamist suicide bombers in Afghanistan, according to a 2007 study of 110 suicide bombers by Afghan pathologist Dr. Yusef Yadgari. Yadgari found that "80%" of the attackers studied had some kind of physical or mental disability. The bombers were also "not celebrated like their counterparts in other Arab nations. Afghan bombers are not featured on posters or in videos as martyrs."

Ideology

According to counter-terrorism author Dale C. Eikmeier, “ideology”, rather than any individual or group, is the "center of gravity" of al Qaeda and related groups, and the ideology is a "collection of violent Islamic thought called Qutbism."

He summarizes the tenets of Qutbism as being:
  • A belief that Muslims have deviated from true Islam and must return to “pure Islam” as originally practiced during the time of the Prophet.
  • The path to “pure Islam” is only through a literal and strict interpretation of the Qur'an and Hadith, along with implementation of the Prophet’s commands.
  • Muslims should interpret the original sources individually without being bound to follow the interpretations of Islamic scholars.
  • That any interpretation of the Quran from a historical, contextual perspective is a corruption, and that the majority of Islamic history and the classical jurisprudential tradition is mere sophistry.


Transnational Islamist ideology, specifically of the militant Islamists, assert that Western polities and society are actively anti-Islamic, or as it is sometimes described, waging a "war against Islam". Islamists often identify what they see as a historical struggle between Christianity and Islam, dating back as far as the Crusades, among other historical conflicts between practitioners of the two respective religions. Osama bin Laden, for example, almost invariably describes his enemy as aggressive and his call for action against them as defensive. Defensive jihad differs from offensive jihad in being "fard al-ayn," or a personal obligation of all Muslim, rather than "fard al-kifaya", a communal obligation, which if some Muslims perform it is not required from others. Hence, framing a fight as defensive has the advantage both of appearing to be a victim rather than aggressor, and of giving your struggle the very highest religious priority for all good Muslims.

Many of the violent terrorist groups use the name of jihad to fight against Christians and Jews. An example is Bin Laden's Al-Qaeda, which is also known as 'International Islamic Front for Jihad Against the Jews and Crusaders'. Most militant Islamists oppose Israel's policies, and often its existence.

The historic rivalry between Hindus and Muslims in the Indian subcontinent has also often been the primary motive behind some of the most deadly terrorist attacks in Indiamarker. According to a U.S.marker State Departmentmarker report, India topped the list of countries worst affected by Islamic terrorism.

In addition, Islamist Jihadis, scholars, and leaders opposed Western society for what they see as immoral secularism. Islamists have claimed that such unrestricted free speech has led to the proliferation of pornography, immorality, secularism, homosexuality, feminism, and many other ideas that Islamists often oppose. Although bin Laden almost always emphasized the alleged oppression of Muslims by America and Jews when talking about them in his messages, in his "Letter to America" he answered the question, "What are we calling you to, and what do we want from you?," with
We call you to be a people of manners, principles, honour, and purity; to reject the immoral acts of fornication, homosexuality, intoxicants, gambling's, and trading with interest ...
You separate religion from your policies, ...
You are the nation that permits Usury, which has been forbidden by all the religions ...
You are a nation that permits the production, trading and usage of intoxicants ...
You are a nation that permits acts of immorality ...
You are a nation that permits gambling in its all forms.
...
You use women to serve passengers, visitors, and strangers to increase your profit margins.
You then rant that you support the liberation of women.
...


Given their perceived piety, The Times noted the irony when a major investigation by their reporters uncovered a link between Islamic Jihadis and child pornography; a discovery that, according to the Londonmarker paper, "is expected to improve understanding of the mindsets of both types of criminals and has been hailed as a potentially vital intelligence tool to undermine future terrorist plots."

Accusations of apostasy

Justification for terrorism against other Muslims by militant Islamists, in particular against Muslim regimes they consider non-Islamic, is often based on the contention that the targets are apostates. Osama bin Laden, for example, maintains that any Muslim who helps "infidels over Muslims" is no longer a Muslim,
... the believer ... should boycott the goods of America and her allies, and he should be very wary that he does not support falsehood, for helping the infidels over Muslims -- even with a single word is clear unbelief, as the religious scholars have decreed.
and that Taliban-ruled Afghanistan (deposed in 2001) "is the only Islamic country" in the world.

Opinions within the Muslim community vary as to the grounds on which an individual may be declared to have apostatized. The most common view among Muslim scholars is that a declaration of takfir (designation of a Muslim as an apostate) can only be made by an established religious authority. Mainstream Muslim scholars usually oppose recourse to takfir, except in rare instances. Takfir was used as justification for the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat.

Interpretations of the Qur'an

The role played by the Qur'an, Islam's sacred text, in opposing or in encouraging attacks on civilians is disputed.

Certain Scholars such as Zakir Naik have said all Muslims should be terrorist in the context of war and fighting evils of society. When he was asked about the verse .

"Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of Allah and your enemies".


He replied.

"Every Muslim should be a terrorist.
A terrorist is a person who causes terror.
The moment a robber sees a policeman he is terrified.
A policeman is a terrorist for the robber .
A Muslim should be a terrorist for the Robber and all other anti-social elements."


The Princeton Universitymarker Middle Eastern scholar Bernard Lewis, states that Islamic jurispudence does not allow terrorism.. Professor Lewis notes:

"At no time did the (Muslim) jurist approve of terrorism.
Nor indeed is there any evidence of the use of terrorism (in Islamic tradition).
Muslims are commanded not to kill women, children, or the aged, not to torture or otherwise ill-treat prisoners, to give fair warning of the opening of hostilities, and to honor agreements."


"Similarly, the laws of Jihad categorically preclude wanton and indiscriminate slaughter.
The warriors in the holy war are urged not to harm non-combatants, women and children, "unless they attack you first."
A point on which they insist is the need for a clear declaration of war before beginning hostilities, and for proper warning before resuming hostilities after a truce.
What the classical jurists of Islam never remotely considered is the kind of unprovoked, unannounced mass slaughter of uninvolved civil populations that we saw in New York two weeks ago.
For this there is no precedent and no authority in Islam.
Indeed it is difficult to find precedents even in the rich annals of human wickedness."


In 2007, Osama bin Laden, best known for the September 11 attacks, used quotes from the Qur'an—and a militant Taleban cleric's interpretation of those verses—to justify his declaration of war on Pervez Musharraf and the Pakistani army, such as:

O prophet!
Strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be harsh against them.
Their abode is hell, and an evil destination it is.


O you who believe!
Take not the Jews and Christians for your friends and protectors: they are but friends and protectors to each other.
And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them.
Verily Allah guides not a people unjust.


And fight them until there’s no fitnah (polytheism) and religion is wholly for Allah.


However, the interpretation of Al-Qaeda and the Taleban has been condemned by influential group of Pakistani scholars and religious leaders, who declared that suicide attacks and beheadings as un-Islamic in a unanimous resolution. See #View of Muslim Clerics.

Marmaduke Pickthall, a Western convert to Islam and an Islamic scholar notes that “Nowhere does the Qur’an approve a spirit of revenge” and situates verse in the context of a defensive war.

Ibn Kathir stated that the Quran clearly commands believers to prefer forgiveness over retaliation wherever possible.

Michael Sells and Jane I. Smith (a Professor of Islamic Studies) write that barring some extremists like Al-Qaeda, most Muslims do not interpret Qura’nic verses as promoting warfare; and that the phenomenon of radical interpretation of scripture by extremist groups is not unique to Islam.". According to Sells, "[Most Muslims] no more expect to apply [the verses at issue] to their contemporary non-Muslim friends and neighbors than most Christians and Jews consider themselves commanded by God, like the Biblical Joshua, to exterminate the infidels."

Criticism of Islamic terrorist ideology

Although "Islamic" Terrorism is commonly associated with the Salafis or "Wahhabis", the scholars of the group have constantly attributed this association to ignorance, misunderstanding and sometimes insincere research and deliberate misleading by rival groups.. Following the September 11 attacks in New York, Pennsylvania and Arlington, Shaikh Abdul-Azeez Aal ash-Shaikh (the Grand Mufti of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia President of the Committee of Major Scholars and centre for Knowledge based research and verdicts) made an official statement that "the Islamic Sharee'ah (legislation) does not sanction" such actions.A Salafi or "Wahhabi" "Committee of Major Scholars" in Saudi Arabia has declared that "Islamic" terrorism, such as the May 2003 bombing in Riyadh, are in violation of Sharia law and aiding the enemies of Islam..

Criticism of Islamic terrorism on Islamic grounds has also been made by anti-terrorist Muslims such as Abdal-Hakim Murad:

Certainly, neither bin Laden nor his principal associate, Ayman al-Zawahiri, are graduates of Islamic universities.
And so their proclamations ignore 14 centuries of Muslim scholarship, and instead take the form of lists of anti-American grievances and of Koranic quotations referring to early Muslim wars against Arab idolaters.
These are followed by the conclusion that all Americans, civilian and military, are to be wiped off the face of the Earth.
All this amounts to an odd and extreme violation of the normal methods of Islamic scholarship.
Had the authors of such fatwās followed the norms of their religion, they would have had to acknowledge that no school of mainstream Islam allows the targeting of civilians.
An insurrectionist who kills non-combatants is guilty of baghy, “armed aggression,” a capital offense in Islamic law.


One counter-terrorism scholar, Dale C. Eikmeier, points out the "questionable religious credentials" of many Islamist theorists, or "Qutbists," which can be a "means to discredit them and their message":

With the exception of Abul Ala Maududi and Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, none of Qutbism’s main theoreticians trained at Islam’s recognized centers of learning.
Although a devout Muslim, Hassan al-Banna was a teacher and community activist.
Sayyid Qutb was a literary critic.
Muhammad Abd al-Salam Faraj was an electrician.
Ayman al-Zawahiri is a physician.
Osama bin Laden trained to be a businessman.


Yemeni Judge Hamoud Al-Hitar has also attacked the Islamic intellectual basis of terrorism using hujjat or proof "in theological dialogues that challenge and then correct the wayward beliefs" of terrorists or would-be terrorists.

Iranian Ayatollah Ozma Seyyed Yousef Sanei issued a fatwa (ruling) that suicide attacks against civilians are legitimate only in the context of war. The ruling did not say whether other types of attacks against civilians are justified outside of the context of war, nor whether jihad is included in Sanei's definition of war.

On the other hand, Fethullah Gülen, a prominent Turkish Islamic scholar, has claimed that "a real Muslim," who understood Islam in every aspect, could not be a terrorist. There are many other people with similar points of view such as Karen Armstrong, Prof. Ahmet Akgunduz, and Harun Yahya

Huston Smith prominent author on comparative religion noted that the extremists have hijacked Islam, just as has occurred periodically in Christianity, Hinduism and other religions throughout history. He added that the real problem is that the extremists do not know their own faith.

Organizations and acts

Some prominent Islamic terror groups and incidents include the following:

Transnational

South Asia

The major countries affected by terrorism in South Asia are Indiamarker, Pakistanmarker and Afghanistanmarker. Though Afghanistan had been a victim of civil war for decades, ultimately turning into global Islamic terrorism; Pakistan has of late become a target of the militants from either Afghanistan or from Pakistan itself. This is possibly because of the military action against these groups displayed by Pakistan in the past few years, owing to excess international pressure.However, the country that continues to be the biggest victim of terrorism is Afghanistan and Pakistan. Pakistan has recorded the highest number of terror strikes till date, if nations like Afghanistan and Iraq are kept aside for altogether different scenarios existing in these countries.

The year 2008 especially was extremely harrowing for India, due to the numerous blasts that occurred throughout the year in different cities all over the nation.

Lashkar-e-Toiba

Pakistan based Lashkar-e-Taiba is a militant group that seeks the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmirmarker's accession to Pakistanmarker. It has committed mass militant actions against Indian troops and civilian Indians.The Lashkar leadership describes Indianmarker and Israelimarker regimes as the main enemies of Islam, claiming India and Israelmarker to be the main enemies of Pakistanmarker. Lashkar-e-Toiba, along with Jaish-e-Mohammed, another militant group active in Kashmirmarker are on the United States’ foreign terrorist organizations list. They are also designated as terrorist groups by the United Kingdom, India, Australia and Pakistanmarker.

Jaish-e-Mohammed

Jaish-e-Mohammed (often abbreviated as JEM) is a major Islamic militant organization in South Asia. Jaish-e-Mohammed was formed in 1994 and is based in the Islamic Republic of Pakistanmarker. The group's primary objective is to separate Kashmirmarker from Indiamarker, and it has carried out a series of attacks all over India.

The group was formed after the supporters of Maulana Masood Azhar split from another Islamic militant organization, Harkat-ul-Mujahideen. It is believed that the group gets considerable funding from Pakistani expatriates in the United Kingdom. The group is regarded as a terrorist organization by several countries including Indiamarker, United States and United Kingdom. Jaish-e-Mohammed is viewed by some as the "deadliest" and "the principal terrorist organization in Jammu and Kashmirmarker". The group was also implicated in the kidnapping and murder of American journalist Daniel Pearl.

Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen

In Bangladesh the group Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh was formed sometime in 1998 and gained prominence on 20 May 2001 when 25 petrol bombs and documents detailing the activities of the organization were discovered and eight of its members were arrested in Parbatipur in Dinajpur districtmarker. The organization was officially banned in February 2005 after attacks on NGO, but struck back in August when 300 bombs were detonated almost simultaneously throughout Bangladesh. Dhaka international airport, government buildings and major hotels were targeted.

Afghanistan

In Afghanistan, Taliban and Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin forces, are reported to have "sharply escalated bombing and other attacks in 2006 and early 2007" against civilians. During 2006 "at least 669 Afghan civilians were killed in at least 350 armed attacks, most of which appear to have been intentionally launched at civilians or civilian objects. An additional 52 civilians were killed in insurgent attacks in the first two months of 2007."

United States

Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda is a worldwide pan-Islamic terrorist network headed by Osama bin Laden and is most famous for orchestrating the September 11 attacks against the United Statesmarker. Itnow operates in more than 60 countries. Its stated aim is the use of jihad to defend Islam against Zionism, Christianity, the secular West, and Muslim governments such as Saudi Arabia, which it sees as insufficiently Islamic and too closely tied to America.

Formed by bin Laden and Muhammad Atef in the aftermath of the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the late 1980s, Al Qaeda called for the use of violence against civilians and military of the United States and any countries that are allied with it. Since its formation Al Qaeda has committed a number of terrorist acts in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. Although once supported by the Taliban organization in Afghanistan, the U.S. and British governments never considered the Taliban to have been a terrorist organization.

Specially some events such as Twin Towers bombing in 1993, the 9/11 event and further much more events. Muslim popular opinion on the subject of attacks on civilians by Islamist groups varies. While most Muslims living in the West denounce the September 11th attacks on the US, Hezbollah's rocket attacks against Israeli civilian targets are widely supported in the Muslim world and regarded as defensive Jihad by a legitimate resistance movement rather than terrorism.Though Al-Qaeda operates worldwide, they only comprise of 1000 members, as compared with the relatively peaceful Iraqi resistance's 100,000.

Europe

Major lethal attacks on civilians in Europe credited to Islamic terrorism include the 11 March 2004 bombings of commuter trains in Madrid, where 191 people were killed and 2,050 wounded, and the 7 July 2005 London bombings, also of public transport, which killed 52 commuters and injured 700.According to EU Terrorism Report there were almost 500 acts of terrorism across the European Union in 2006, but only one, the foiled suitcase bomb plot in Germanymarker, was related to Islamist terror.

Russia

Politically-motivated attacks on civilians in Russia have been traced to separatist sentiment among Muslims in its Caucasus region, particularly Chechnya. Russia's two biggest terrorist attacks both came from Muslim groups. In the Nord-Ost incidentmarker at a theater in Moscowmarker in October 2002, the Chechnyan separatist "Special Purpose Islamic Regiment" took an estimated 850 people hostage. 39 hostage-takers were killed by Spetsnaz and OSNAZ troops and at least 129 hostages died during the rescue, all but one killed by the chemicals used to subdue the attackers. Whether this attack would more properly be called a nationalist rather than an Islamist attack is in question.

In the September 2004 Beslan school hostage crisis 1,200 schoolchildren and adults were taken hostage after "School Number One" secondary school in Beslan, North Ossetia-Alania was overrun by the "Caucasus Caliphate Jihad" led by Shamil Basayev. As many as 500 died, including 186 children. According to the only surviving attacker, Nur-Pashi Kulayev, the choice of a school and the targeting of mothers and young children by the attackers was done in hopes of generating a maximum of outrage and igniting a wider war in the Caucasus with the ultimate goal of establishing an Islamic Emirate across the whole of the North Caucasus.

Turkey

Hezbollah (Turkish)

Unrelated to the Shia Hezbollah of Lebanon, this Sunni terrorist group has been credited with the assassination of Diyarbakir police chief Gaffar Okkan, and the November 2003 bombings of two synagogues, the British consulate in Istanbulmarker and HSBC bank headquarters, killing 58 and wounding several hundred.

Iraq

The area that has seen some of the worst terror attacks in modern history has been Iraq as part of the Iraq War. In 2005, there were 400 incidents of one type of attack (suicide bombing), killing more than 2000 people - many if not most of them civilians. In 2006, almost half of all reported terrorist attacks in the world (6600), and more than half of all terrorist fatalities (13,000), occurred in Iraq, according to the National Counterterrorism Centermarker of the United States. The insurgency in Iraq against the US and Iraqi government combines attacks on "Coalition troops" and the Iraqi security forces, with attacks on civilian contractors, aid workers, and infrastructure. Along with nationalist Ba'athist groups and criminal, non-political attacks, the insurgency includes Islamist insurgent groups, who favor suicide attacks far more than non-Islamist groups.

They include the Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's al-Qaeda affiliate; Al-Faruq Brigades, a militant wing of the Islamic Movement in Iraq (Al-Harakah al-Islamiyyah fi al-arak); Jamaat Ansar al-Sunna; the Mujahideen of the Victorious Sect (Mujahideen al ta’ifa al-Mansoura); the Mujahideen Battalions of the Salafi Group of Iraq (Kata’ib al mujahideen fi al-jama’ah al-salafiyah fi al-‘arak); the Jihad Brigades/Cell; "White Flags, Muslim Youth and Army of Mohammed" ; Ansar al-Islam, a Taliban-like, jihadist group with ties to Al Qaeda. At least some of the terrorism has a transnational character in that some foreign Islamic jihadists have joined the insurgency.

Lebanon

Fatah al-Islam

Fatah al-Islam is an Islamist group operating out of the Nahr al-Baredmarker refugee camp in northern Lebanonmarker. It was formed in November 2006 by fighters who broke off from the pro-Syrianmarker Fatah al-Intifada, itself a splinter group of Fatah, and is led by a Palestinian fugitive militant named Shaker al-Abssi. The group's members have been described as militant jihadists, and the group itself has been described as a terrorist movement that draws inspiration from al-Qaeda. Its stated goal is to reform the Palestinian refugee camps under Islamic sharia law, and its primary targets are Israelmarker and the United States. Lebanese authorities have accused the organization of being involved in the 13 February 2007 bombing of two minibuses that killed three people, and injured more than 20 others, in Ain Alaq, Lebanon, and identified four of its members as having confessed to the bombing./

The Lebanese army has been involved in heavy combat with Fatah al-Islam, which is officially seen by the Lebanese government as a terrorist group.

Hezbollah



Hezbollah is a Shi'a militia, political party, and social services provider based in Lebanonmarker. Six governments consider it, or a part of it, to be a terrorist group responsible for blowing up the American embassymarker and later its annex, as well as the barracks of American and French peacekeeping troopsmarker and a dozens of kidnappings of foreigners in Beirut. It is also accused of being the recipient of massive aid from Iran, and of serving "Iranian foreign policy calculations and interests," or serving as a "subcontractor of Iranian initiatives" Hezbollah denies any involvement or dependence on Iran.

In the Arab and Muslim worlds, on the other hand, Hezbollah is regarded as a legitimate and successful resistance movement that drove both Western powers and Israel out of Lebanon. In 2005, the Lebanese Prime Minister said of Hezbollah, it "is not a militia. It's a resistance."

These views have changed drastically in the past few years, especially after Hezbollah was blamed by most Sunni Muslims (and nearly all Christian sects) to be the cause of the 2006 war with Israel. The majority of the Lebanese population, supporting the pro-Western government and its political parties known as the 14 March Alliance, now have very negative views of Hezbollah. The current government has tried to disarm Hezbollah on more than one occasion, but the Shiite organization refuses to enter into discussions about its weapons.Today, more and more Lebanese are beginning to consider Hezbollah a terrorist organization themselves.

Israel and the Palestinian territories

Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades

Hamas

Hamas, ("zeal" in Arabic and an acronym for Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya), began support for attacks on military and civilian targets in Israelmarker at the beginning of the First Intifada in 1987. As the Muslim Brotherhood organization for Palestine its leadership was made up of "intellectuals from the devout middle class,... respectable religious clerics, doctors, chemists, engineers, and teachers.

The 1988 charter of Hamas calls for the destruction of Israelmarker, and it still states its goal to be the elimination of Israel. Its "military wing" has claimed responsibility for numerous attacks in Israel. Hamas has also been accused of sabotaging the Israeli-Palestine peace process by launching attacks on civilians during Israeli elections to anger Israeli voters and facilitate the election of harder-line Israeli candidates. For example, "a series of spectacular suicide attacks by Palestinians that killed 63 Israelis and led directly to the election victory of Benjamin Netanyahu and his Likud party on 29 May 1996."

Hamas justifies these attacks as necessary in fighting the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territory, and as responses to Israeli attacks on Palestinian targets. The wider movement also serves as a charity organization and provides services to Palestinians.

Hamas has been designated as a terrorist group by the European Union, Canadamarker, the United States, Israelmarker, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and Human Rights Watch.

Islamic Jihad

Islamic Jihad is a militant Palestinian group Islamist group based in the Syrian capital, Damascusmarker, and dedicated to waging jihad to eliminate the state of Israelmarker. It was formed by Egyptian Fathi Shaqaqi in the Gaza Strip following the Iranian Revolution which inspired its members. From 1983 onward, it engaged in "a succession of violent, high-profile attacks" on Israeli targets. The intifada which "it eventually sparked" was quickly taken over by the much larger Palestine Liberation Organization and Hamas. Beginning in September 2000, it started a campaign of suicide bombing attacks against Israeli civilians. It is currently led by Sheikh Abdullah Sheikh Abdullah Ramadan.

The PIJ's armed wing, the Al-Quds brigades, has claimed responsibility for numerous militant attacks in Israel, including suicide bombings and the group has been designated as a terrorist group by the several countries in the West.

North Africa

Armed Islamic Group

The Armed Islamic Group, active in Algeria between 1992 and 1998, was one of the most violent Islamic terrorist groups, and is thought to have takfired the Muslim population of Algeria. Its campaign to overthrow the Algerian government included civilian massacres, which sometimes wiping out entire villages in its area of operation (see List of Algerian massacres of the 1990s; notably the Bentalha massacre and Rais massacre, among others.) It also targeted foreigners living in Algeria killing more than 100 expatriate men and women in the country. The group's favored technique was the kidnapping of victims and slitting their throats although it also used assassination by gun and bombings, including car bombs. Outside of Algeria, the GIA established a presence in France, Belgium, Britain, Italy and the United States. In recent years it has been eclipsed by a splinter group, The Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), now called Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb.

Southeast Asia

Abu Sayyaf Group

The Abu Sayyaf Group also known as al-Harakat al-Islamiyya is one of several militant Islamist separatist groups based in and around the southern islands of the Philippinesmarker, in Bangsamoro (Jolomarker, Basilanmarker, and Mindanaomarker) where for almost 30 years various Muslim groups have been engaged in an insurgency for a state, independent of the predominantly Christian Philippinesmarker. The name of the group is derived from the Arabic ابو, abu ("father of") and sayyaf ("Swordsmith").

Since its inception in the early 1990s, the group has carried out bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, rapes, and extortion in their fight for an independent Islamic state in western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelagomarker with the stated goal of creating a pan-Islamic superstate across southeast Asia, spanning from east to west; the island of Mindanao, the Sulu Archipelago, the island of Borneomarker (Malaysiamarker, Indonesiamarker), the South China Seamarker, and the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysiamarker, Thailandmarker and Myanmarmarker).

The U.S.marker Department of Statemarker has branded the group a terrorist entity by adding it to the list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations.

Tactics

Some terrorist groups such as Hamas and Hezbollah have limited their acts to localized regions of the Middle East, while others, notably Al-Qaeda, have an international scope for their terrorist activities.

Bombings

An increasingly popular tactic used by terrorists is suicide bombing. This tactic is used against civilians, soldiers, and government officials of the regimes the terrorists oppose. The use of suicide bombers is seen by many Muslims as contradictory to Islam's teachings; however, groups who support its use often refer to such attacks as "martyrdom operation" and the suicide-bombers who commit them as "martyrs" (Arabic: shuhada, plural of "shahid"). The bombers, and their sympathizers often believe that suicide bombers, as martyrs to the cause of jihad against the enemy, will receive the rewards of paradise for their actions.

One source has found interest in new and so far unutilized bombing technique on internet forums used by al-Qaeda - the use of "remote-piloted aircraft" and "robot designs," and "training dogs to recognize American troops’ uniforms," as a replacement for techniques such as suicide bombing or a detonating planted bombs with a radio-control.

Hijackings

Islamic terrorism sometimes employs the hijacking of passenger vehicles such as cars, buses, and planes.

Kidnappings and executions

Along with bombings and hijackings, Islamic terrorists have made extensive use of highly-publicised kidnappings and executions, often circulating videos of the acts for use as propaganda. Notable foreign victims include Nick Berg, Daniel Pearl, Paul Marshall Johnson, Jr., Eugene Armstrong, Jack Hensley, Kim Sun-il, Kenneth Bigley, Shosei Koda, Fabrizio Quattrocchi, Margaret Hassan. One Iraqi victim was Seif Adnan Kanaan. The most frequent form of execution by these groups has been decapitation. While some targets are military, or seen as supporting the anti-Islamist forces, victims are also as varied as the Red Cross, the Iraqi education ministry, and diplomats.

Muslim attitudes toward terrorism

Muslim popular opinion on the subject of attacks on civilians by Islamist groups varies. Muslims living in the West denounce the September 11th attacks on the US. Hezbollah's rocket attacks against Israelimarker civilian targets are widely supported in the Muslim world and regarded as defensive Jihad by a legitimate resistance movement rather than terrorism.

The Free Muslims Coalition rallied against terror, stating that they wanted to send "a message to radical Muslims and supporters of terrorism that we reject them and that we will defeat them."

Statistics compiled by the United States government's Counterterrorism Center present a complicated picture: of known and specified terrorist incidents from the beginning of 2004 through the first quarter of 2005, slightly more than half of the fatalities were attributed to Islamic extremists but a majority of over-all incidents were considered of either "unknown/unspecified" or a secular political nature. The vast majority of the "unknown/unspecified" terrorism fatalities did however happen in Islamic regions such as Iraq and Afghanistan, or in regions where Islam is otherwise involved in conflicts such as the West Bankmarker, the Gaza Stripmarker, southern Thailand and Kashmir.

Fred Halliday, a British academic specialist on the Middle East, argues that most Muslims consider these acts to be egregious violations of Islam's laws.

Daniel Chirot said "Not many people in the world, either in Islamic countries, or Christian ones, or Hindu, or Buddhist, or anything else, really want to live a life of extreme puritanism, endless hate, and suicidal wars. Extremist leaders can take power, and for a time, be backed by much of their population hoping to redress past grievances and trying to find a new utopia. But as with the most extreme Christian warriors during the European wars of religion, or with the Nazis, or the most committed communist revolutionaries, it eventually turned out that few of their people were willing to go all the way in their struggles if that meant permanent violence, suffering, and death. So it will be with Islamic extremism."

View of Muslim Clerics

An influential group of Pakistani scholars and religious leaders declared suicide attacks and beheadings as un-Islamic. 'Ulema' (clerics) and 'mushaikh' (spiritual leaders) of the Jamaat Ahl-e-Sunnah, who gathered for a convention, declared suicide attacks and beheadings as un-Islamic in a unanimous resolution.

Ruet-e-Hilal Committee chairman Mufti Muneeb-ur-Rehman, in his address, said those who were fighting in the name of implementing Shariah or Islamic law must first abide by these same laws. He said the Taliban were so cruel that they were even slaughtering minors. This is contrary to the teachings of Islam.

Some contemporary scholars who have followed a textual based approach to the study of the Qur'an with an emphasis over the coherence in the Book and the context of situaion offered a radical interpretation on the verses and prophetic narratives that are usually quoted by the militants to promote militancy. According Mr Javed Ahmad Ghamidi the Qur'an does not allow waging war except for against oppression under a sovereign state. He holds that jihad without a state is nothing but creating nuisance in the land when hijacked by the individuals and groups independent of the state authority defeats the purpose. The principle behind this study of the issue in the basic sources is the principle that there are divine injunctions in the Qur'an which are specific to the age of the Messenger. He says that nobody can be punished for apostasy or being non-Muslim after the Prophet who acted as the divine agent when he punished the disbelievers by sword who had rejected the message of God and his messenger even after the truth was made manifest to them. Ghamidi and his associates have written extensively on the topics related to these issues. In his book Meezan Ghamidi has concluded that:1. Jihad can only waged against persecution Islamic jihad has only two purposes: putting en end to persecution even that of the non-Muslims and making the religion of Islam reign supreme in the Arabian peninsula. This later type was specific for the messenger of God and is no more operative.2. under a soverign state3. There are strict ethical limits for jihad which do not again allow fighting for example non-combatants.4. Seen in this perspective acts of terrorism including suicide bombing becomes prohibited.His booklet on Jihad is considered one of his most important contribution towards understanding the religion according to the principles of interpreting the Qur'an introduced by Farahi and Islahi.

2001 Survey

A Sunday Times survey taken in UK shortly after the 9/11 attack "revealed that 40% of British Muslims believe Osama bin Laden was right to attack the United States. About the same proportion think that British Muslims have a right to fight alongside the Taliban. A radio station serving London's Pakistani community conducted a poll which 98% of London Muslims under 45 said they would not fight for Britain, while 48% said they would fight for bin Laden."

2004 Survey

A 2004 Pew survey revealed that Osama bin Laden is viewed favorably by large percentages in Pakistan (65%), Jordanmarker (55%) and Moroccomarker (45%). In Turkey as many as 31% say that suicide attacks against Americans and other Westerners in Iraq are justifiable.

2005 Survey

A 2005 Pew Research study that involved 17,000 people in 17 countries showed support for terrorism was declining in the Muslim world along with a growing belief that Islamic extremism represents a threat to those countries. A Daily Telegraph survey showed that 6% of British Muslims fully supported the July 2005 bombings in the London Underground.

2008 & 2009 Surveys and Polls

Most recent polls and surveys done in many of prominent Muslim countries show that the balance of forces in the world of Islam has shifted dramatically against al-Qaida's global jihad and its local manifestations. Here are seven examples:

  • Gallup conducted tens of thousands of hour-long, face-to-face interviews with residents of more than thirty-five predominantly Muslim countries between 2001 and 2007. It found that - contrary to the prevailing perception in the west that the actions of al-Qaida enjoy wide support in the Muslim world - more than 90% of respondents condemned the killing of non-combatants on religious and humanitarian grounds


  • The not-for-profit group Terror Free Tomorrow carried out a public-opinion survey seeking to establish why people support or oppose extremism; it found that fewer than 10% of Saudis had a favourable opinion of al-Qaida, and 88% approved of the Saudi authorities pursuing al-Qaida operatives


  • In Pakistan, despite the recent rise in the Taliban's influence, surveys of public opinion do not bode well for al-Qaida and its allies. A poll conducted by Terror Free Tomorrow in Pakistan in January 2008 tested support for al-Qaida, the Taliban, other militant Islamist groups and Osama bin Laden himself, and found a recent drop by half. In August 2007, 33% of Pakistanis expressed support for al-Qaida; 38% supported the Taliban. By January 2008, al-Qaida's support had dropped to 18%, the Taliban's to 19%. When asked if they would vote for al-Qaida, just 1% of Pakistanis polled answered in the affirmative. The Taliban had the support of 3% of those polled


  • Pew surveys in 2008 show that in a range of countries - Jordan, Pakistan, Indonesia, Lebanon, and Bangladesh - there have been substantial declines in the percentages saying suicide-bombings and other forms of violence against civilian targets can be justified to defend Islam against its enemies. Wide majorities say such attacks are, at most, rarely acceptable


  • The shift has been especially dramatic in Jordan, where 29% of Jordanians are recorded as viewing suicide-attacks as often or sometimes justified (down from 57% in May 2005). In the largest majority-Muslim nation, Indonesia, 74% of respondents agree that terrorist attacks are "never justified" (a substantial decline from the 41% level to which support had risen in March 2004); in Pakistan, that figure is 86%; in Bangladesh, 81%; and in Iran, 80%


* (These figures may be compared with a recent study that shows only 46% of Americans think that "bombing and other attacks intentionally aimed at civilians" are "never justified", while 24% believe these attacks are "often or sometimes justified" )


  • A poll conducted in Osama bin Laden's home country of Saudi Arabia in December 2008 shows that his compatriots have dramatically turned against him, his organisation, Saudi volunteers in Iraq, and terrorism in general. Indeed, confidence in bin Laden has fallen in most Muslim countries in recent years


  • In Iraq, people of all persuasions unanimously reject the terror tactics of "al-Qaida in Mesopotamia". An ABC News/BBC/NHK poll revealed that all of those surveyed - Sunni and Shi'a alike - found al-Qaida attacks on Iraqi civilians "unacceptable"; 98% rejected the militants' attempts to gain control over areas in which they operated; and 97% opposed their attempts to recruit foreign fighters and bring them to Iraq .


Examples of attacks

  • 26 February 1993 - World Trade Center bombingmarker, New York Citymarker. 6 killed.
  • 13 March 1993 - 1993 Bombay bombings. Mumbaimarker, Indiamarker. The single-day attacks resulted in over 250 civilian fatalities and 700 injuries.
  • 24 December 1994 - Air France Flight 8969 hijacking in Algiersmarker by 3 members of Armed Islamic Group of Algeria and another terrorist. 7 killed including 4 hijackers.
  • 25 June 1996 - Khobar Towers bombing, 20 killed, 372 wounded.
  • 14 February 1998. The 1998 Coimbatore bombings occurred in the city of Coimbatoremarker, Tamil Nadumarker, Indiamarker. 46 people were killed and over 200 were injured in 13 bomb attacks within a 12 km radius.
  • 7 August 1998 - 1998 United States embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya. 224 dead. 4000+ injured.
  • 12 October 2000 - Attack on the USS colemarker in the Yemeni port of Aden.
  • 11 September 2001 - 4 planes hijacked and crashed into World Trade Centermarker and The Pentagonmarker by 19 hijackers. Nearly 3000 dead.
  • 13 December 2001 - Suicide attack on India's parliament in New Delhi. Aimed at eliminating the top leadership of India and causing anarchy in the country. Allegedly done by Pakistan-based Islamist terrorist organizations, Jaish-E-Mohammad and Lashkar-e-Toiba.
  • 3 March 2002 - Suicide bombmarker attack on a Passover Seder in a Hotel in Netanya, Israelmarker. 29 dead, 133 injured
  • 7 May 2002 - Bombing in al-Arbaa, Algeria. 49 dead, 117 injured.
  • 24 September 2002 - Machine Gun attack on Hindu temple in Ahmedabadmarker, India. 31 dead, 86 injured.
  • 12 October 2002 - Bombing in Bali nightclubmarker. 202 killed, 300 injured.
  • 16 May 2004 - Casablanca Attacks - 4 simultaneous attacks in Casablancamarker killing 33 civilians (mostly Moroccans) carried by Salafaia Jihadia.
  • 11 March 2004 - Multiple bombings on trains near Madrid, Spain. 191 killed, 1460 injured. (alleged link to Al-Qaeda)
  • 3 September 2004 Approximately 344 civilians including 186 children, are killed during the Beslan school hostage crisis.
  • 2 November 2004 - Ritual murder of Theo van Gogh by Amsterdam-born jihadist Mohammed Bouyeri.
  • 4 February 2005 - Muslim militants attacked the Christian community in Demsa, Nigeria, killing 36 people, destroying property and displacing an additional 3000 people.
  • 7 July 2005 - Multiple bombings in London Underground. 53 killed by four suicide bombers. Nearly 700 injured.
  • 23 July 2005 - Bomb attacks at Sharm el-Sheikh, an Egyptian resort city, at least 64 people killed.
  • 29 October 2005 - 29 October 2005 Delhi bombings, Indiamarker. Over 60 killed and over 180 injured in a series of three attacks in crowded markets and a bus, just 2 days before the Diwali festival.
  • 9 November 2005 - 2005 Amman bombings. Over 60 killed and 115 injured, in a series of coordinated suicide attacks on hotels in Amman, Jordanmarker. Four attackers including a husband and wife team were involved.
  • 7 March 2006 - 2006 Varanasi bombings, Indiamarker. An attack attributed to Lashkar-e-Taiba by Uttar Pradeshmarker government officials, over 28 killed and over 100 injured, in a series of attacks in the Sankath Mochan Hanuman temple and Cantonment Railway Station in the Hindu holy city of Varanasimarker. Uttar Pradesh government officials.
  • 11 July 2006. Mumbaimarker, Indiamarker. 11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings were a series of seven bomb blasts that took place over a period of 11 minutes on the Suburban Railway in Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay). 209 people lost their lives and over 700 were injured in the attacks.
  • 13 May 2008. Jaipurmarker, Indiamarker. Pakistan-based Islamic militants detonate around 7 bombs within 12 minutes, leaving over 60 dead and numerous injured.
  • 26 July 2008. Ahmedabadmarker, Indiamarker. Islamic militants detonate at least 16 explosive devices in the heart of this industrial capital, leaving at least 49 dead and 160 injured. A Muslim group calling itself the Indian Mujahideen claims responsibility. Indian authorities believe that extremists with ties to Pakistan and/or Bangladesh are likely responsible and are intent on inciting communal violence. Investigation by Indian police led to the eventual arrest of a number of militants suspected of carrying out the blasts, most of whom belong to a well-known terrorist group, The Students Islamic Movement of India.
  • 13 September 2008. Delhimarker, Indiamarker. Pakistani extremist groups plant bombs at several places including India Gatemarker, out of which the ones at Karol Bagh, Connaught Place and Greater Kailash explode leaving around 30 people dead, followed by another attack two weeks later at the congested Mehrauli area, leaving 2 people dead.
  • 26 November 2008. Mumbaimarker, Indiamarker. Muslim extremists kill at least 174 people and wound numerous others in a series of coordinated attacks on India's largest city and financial capital. A group calling itself the Deccan Mujaheddin claims responsibility, however, the government of India suspects Islamic militants based in Pakistan are responsible. Ajmal Kasab, one of the militants, was caught alive.


U.S. State Department list





See also



Notes

  1. "the Russian counterterrorism law defines terrorism as "the ideology of violence and practice of exerting pressure on decision making by state bodies"" pp. 28, Terrorism in asymmetrical conflict: ideological and structural aspects, by Ekaterina Stepanova, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Oxford University Press US, 2008 ISBN 0199533555, 9780199533558 186 pages).
  2. See ref:"purpose" and ref:"justification"
  3. Tony Blair, "Speech to the Los Angeles World Affairs Council", http://www.number10.gov.uk/output/Page9948.asp
  4. Nassar, Jamal R. Globalization and Terrorism: The Migration of Dreams and Nightmares. 2005, page 87.
  5. Karim, Karim H. Islamic Peril: Media and Global Violence. 2003, page 10.
  6. Pratt, Douglas. The Challenge Of Islam: Encounters In Interfaith Dialogue. 2005, page 173.
  7. For example, according to Pape, from 1980 to 2003 suicide attacks amounted to only 3% of all terrorist attacks, but accounted for 48% of total deaths due to terrorism - this excluding 9/11 attacks, from Pape, Dying to Win, (2005), p.28
  8. Suicide Terrorism in the Middle East: Origins and Response
  9. The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism p.138, 144
  10. http://books.google.com/books?id=SAQ8Oa6zWF4C&printsec=frontcover
  11. Understanding Terror Networks, Marc Sageman.
  12. Wright, Loming Tower (2006), p.304
  13. Olivier Roy Interview (2007): Conversations with History; Institute of International Studies, UC Berkeley
  14. Disabled Often Carry Out Afghan Suicide Missions
  15. Qutbism, An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism by Dale C. Eikmeier accessed 17 June 2009
  16. Full text: bin Laden's 'letter to America' accessed 24 may 2007
  17. Sexual perverts and the link to Islamic terrorists, The London Daily News,17 October 2008.
  18. Dangerous and depraved: paedophiles unite with terrorists online, Richard Kerbaj, Dominic Kennedy, Richard Owen and Graham Keeley, The Times, 17 October 2008; accessed 30 November 2008.
  19. Abu Hamza Al-Muhajir: Al-Zarqawi's Death Will Not End the Jihad, Middle East Media Research Institute, Special Dispatch Series - No. 1188, 20 June 2006
  20. Message to the World p.202, from 53-minute audiotape that "was circulated on various websites." dated Feb. 14, 2003. "Among a Band of Knights." ]
  21. Messages to the World, Verso, 2006, p.143, from Interview published in Al-Quds Al-Arabi in London 12 November 2001 (originally published in Pakistani daily, Ausaf, 7 November), shortly before the Northern Alliance entry into Kabul.
  22. ref name="Sells">{{cite news | author=Michael Sells | title=Understanding| url:http://www.scribd.com/doc/17424528/Islam-and-Terrorism-by-Dr-Zakir-Naik
  23. http://www.ilovezakirnaik.com/misconceptions/a05.htm
  24. Lewis, Bernard, 'Islam: The Religion and the People' (2009). Page 53, 145-150
  25. [1]
  26. http://www.jihadunspun.com/intheatre_internal.php?article=109033&list=/home.php
  27. Pickthall, Muhammad Marmaduke: “War and Religion” page 22. The Woking Muslim Mission and Literary Trust, Surrey, England
  28. “Forgiving or exacting Revenge on Wrongdoers” Ibn Kathir’s commentary on verse 42:40
  29. " "The Book, "Is Salafiyyah a cause of Terrorism""
  30. " "The Mufti of Saudi Arabia on the New York Attacks"
  31. " "The Major Scholars on the Salafi Position Towards the Suicide Bombings by the Khawaarij in Riyadh"
  32. Abdal-Hakim Murad, Bin Laden’s Violence is a Heresy Against Islam
  33. Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism DALE C. EIKMEIER From Parameters, Spring 2007, pp. 85-98.
  34. http://www.yementimes.com/article.shtml?i=799&p=community&a=2 Peter Willems, “The Dialogue Committee is Known Internationally,” Yemen Times, 16 December 2004 to 19 December 2004
  35. http://www.jweekly.com/article/full/38467/man-of-faiths-preeminent-religion-scholar-huston-smith-reflects-on-judaism-
  36. BBC News | SOUTH ASIA | Jaish-e-Mohammad: A profile
  37. Attack May Spoil Kashmir Summit
  38. Jama'atul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB), from South Asia Terrorism Portal
  39. The Rising Tide of Islamism in Bangladesh By Maneeza Hossain, Hudson Institute: Current Trends in Islamist Ideology vol. 3, February 16, 2006
  40. The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism, Columbia University Press (2007), p.69-70
  41. The Consequences of Insurgent Attacks in Afghanistan April 2007 Volume 19, No. 6(C)
  42. Complete English translation text of 2004 Osama bin Laden videotape on Al-Jazeera.
  43. Michael, Maggie. Bin Laden, in statement to U.S. people, says he ordered Sept. 11 attacks. The Associated Press. 29 October 2004.
  44. Excerpts from the BBC. 29 October 2004.
  45. Langhorne, R. (2006), "The Essentials of Global Politics", Hodder Arnold
  46. "Al Qaeda", http://www.answers.com/topic/al-qaeda
  47. 500 Terror Attacks in EU in 2006 - But Only 1 by Islamists, Spiegel Online, 4 Nov 2007
  48. Foreign Affairs, January/February 2008, p.74, "The Myth of the Authoritarian Model"
  49. Turkish Hizbullah
  50. Terrorized Turkey by Evan Kohlmann
  51. The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism p.131
  52. Report on Terrorist Incidents - 2006 6600 out of 14000
  53. Iraqi Insurgency Groups the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies estimates roughly 1,000 foreign Islamic jihadists
  54. International Herald Tribune (15 March 2007). "A new face of Al Qaeda emerges in Lebanon". Retrieved 20 May 207.
  55. Le Figaro (16 April 2007). "Fatah Al-Islam: the new terrorist threat hanging over Lebanon". Retrieved 20 May 2007.
  56. Reuters (19 May 2007). "Lebanese army battles militants at Palestinian camp". Retrieved 20 May 2007.
  57. Reuters (20 May 2007). "Facts about militant group Fatah al-Islam". Retrieved 20 May 2007.
  58. The United States, Canada, Israel and the Netherlands regard Hezbollah as a "terrorist" organization, while the United Kingdom and Australia consider only Hezbollah's external security organization to be a terrorist organization.
  59. Roy, Olivier, The Failure of Political Islam, Harvard University Press, (1994), p.115
  60. Pape, Robert, Dying to Win, Random House, 2005, p.129
  61. Ranstorp, Magnus, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, St. Martins Press, 1997 p.89-90
  62. Ranstorp, Magnus, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, St. Martins Press, 1997, p.54
  63. Kepel, Gilles, Jihad, (2002), p.129
  64. Ranstorp, Magnus, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, St. Martins Press, 1997, p.127
  65. Ranstorp, Magnus, Hizb'allah in Lebanon : The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis, p.60
  66. Asia Times Online :: Middle East News - Hezbollah's transformation
  67. p.154, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam by Gilles Kepel (2002)
  68. The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas)
  69. Hamas says still seeks Israel's destruction | International | Reuters
  70. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam by Gilles Kepel, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, (2002), p.331
  71. Humphreys, R. (2005), "Between Memory and Desire: The Middle East in a Troubled Age", University of California Press
  72. p.122, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam by Gilles Kepel)
  73. Backgrounder: Armed Islamic Group (Algeria, Islamists) (a.k.a. GIA, Groupe Islamique Armé, or al-Jama'ah al-Islamiyah al-Musallaha)
  74. Kepel, Gilles, Jihad, (2003)
  75. FBI Updates Most Wanted Terrorists and Seeking Information – War on Terrorism Lists, FBI national Press Release, 24 February 2006
  76. RONEN BERGMAN "Living to Bomb Another Day", nyt.com, September 9, 2008
  77. BBC NEWS | World | Middle East | Plea to release Iraqi aid workers
  78. BBC NEWS | World | Middle East | Iraq ministry hostages 'tortured'
  79. BBC NEWS | World | Middle East | Press fury at killing of Algerians
  80. Statement of purpose
  81. Hizbullah: Views and Concepts
  82. Free Muslims Coalition
  83. Halliday, Fred: Islam and the Myth of Confrontation: Religion and Politics in the Middle East (New York: I.B. Tauris, 2003), 107
  84. [2]
  85. The Age of Sacred Terror, by Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, New York : Random House, c2002, p.213. (Source: Nicolas Le Quesne, `Islam in Europe: A Changing Faith` Time Europe, 24 December 2001, 44
  86. [3]
  87. Bbc News
  88. Delhi blasts toll is 59, 200 injured- rediff.com
  89. Deadly Bombings Hit Jordan - TheStreet.com, 9 November 2005
  90. Jordan bombings kill 57, wound 300 - Al Jazeera, 9 November 2005
  91. Bomber's wife arrested in Jordan - BBC, 13 November 2005
  92. Hindustan Times - Terror strikes Varanasi; 28 killed, no claim yet
  93. India on high alert as bombers sought - Telegraph
  94. AFP: Indian police arrest 10 for serial blasts - August 16, 2008
  95. Washington Post - 26 November, 2008: Dozens Die in Mumbai Attacks
  96. Washington Post - 1 December, 2008: More Indian Officials Quit in Aftermath of Attacks


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