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Arran or the Isle of Arran (Scots Gaelic: Eilean Arainn) is the largest island in the Firth of Clydemarker, Scotland, and with an area of is the seventh largest Scottish island. It is in the unitary council area of North Ayrshire and the 2001 census had a resident population of 5,058. Although commonly associated with the Hebridesmarker, with which it shares many cultural and physical similarities, these latter islands are located to the north and west beyond Kintyremarker. Arran is mountainous and has been described as a "geologist's paradise".

There has been continuous habitation since the early Neolithic period, from which time on there are numerous prehistoric remains. From the 6th century on Goidelic-speaking peoples from Ireland colonised the island and it became a centre of religious activity. During the troubled Viking Age Arran became the property of the Norwegianmarker crown before becoming formally absorbed by the kingdom of Scotland in the thirteenth century. The 19th century "clearances" led to significant reductions in population and the end of the Gaelic language and way of life.

The economy and population have recovered in recent years, the main industry being tourism. There is diversity of wildlife, including three species of tree endemic to the area.


Most of the islands of Scotland have been occupied by the speakers of at least four languages since the Iron Age, and many of the names of these islands have more than one possible meaning as a result. Arran is therefore not unusual in that the derivation of the name is far from clear. Mac an Tàilleir (2003) states that "it is said to be unrelated to the name Aranmarker in Ireland" (which means "kidney shaped", cf Irish ára "kidney"). Unusually for a Scottish island, Haswell-Smith (2004) offers a Brythonic derivation and a meaning of "high place" which at least corresponds with the geography - Arran is significantly loftier than all the land that immediately surrounds it along the shores of the Firth of Clyde.

Any other Brythonic place names that may have existed were later replaced as the Goidelic-speaking Gaels spread from Ireland via their adjacent kingdom of Dál Riata. During the Viking Age the island, along with the vast majority of the Scottish islands, became the property of the Norwegianmarker crown, at which time it may have been known as "Herrey" or "Hersey". As a result of this Norse influence, many current place names on Arran are of Viking origin.

Geography and geology

The island lies in the Firth of Clydemarker between Ayrmarker and Kintyremarker. The profile of the north Arran hills as seen from the Ayrshiremarker coast is a well-known sight referred to as the "Sleeping Warrior" due to its resemblance to a resting human figure. The highest of these hills is Goat Fellmarker at . There are three other Corbetts all in the north east; Caisteal Abhailmarker, Cìr Mhòrmarker and Beinn Tarsuinnmarker. Bheinn Bharrain is the highest peak in the north west at .

The largest valley on the island is Glen Iorsa to the west, whilst narrow Glen Sannox (Gaelic: Gleann Shannaig) and Glen Rosa (Gaelic: Gleann Ròsa) to the east surround Goat Fell. The terrain to the south is less mountainous, although a considerable portion of the interior lies above and the summit of A' Chruach reaches . There are two other Marilyns in the south, Tighveinmarker and Beinn Bhreac.

The island is sometimes referred to as "Scotland in miniature", as it is divided into "Highland" and "Lowland" areas by the Highland Boundary Fault which runs northeast to southwest across Scotland. The island is a popular destination for geologists, who come to see intrusive igneous landforms such as sill and dyke as well as sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Mesozoic.
Most of the interior of the northern half of the island is taken up by a large granite batholith that was created by substantial volcanic activity around 60 million years ago in the Tertiary period. There is an older outer ring of coarse granites and an inner core of finer grained material. Sedimentary rocks dominate the southern half of the island, especially Old and New Red Sandstone. Some of these sandstones contain fulgurites - pitted marks that may have been created by Permian lightening strikes. Sand dunes are preserved in Permian sandstones near Brodickmarker, there are localised outcrops of Triassic rocks and even a rare example of Cretaceous chalk.

Visiting in 1787, the geologist James Hutton found his first example of an unconformity to the north of Newton Point near Lochranzamarker, which provided evidence for his Plutonist theories of uniformitarianism and about the age of the Earth. This spot is one of the most famous places in the study of geology.

The Pleistocene glaciations almost entirely covered Scotland in ice and Arran's highest peaks may have been nunataks at this time. After the last retreat of the ice at the close of the Pleistocene epoch sea levels were up to lower than at present and it is likely that circa 14,000 BP the island was connected to mainland Scotland. Sea level changes and the isostatic rise of land makes charting post-glacial coastlines a complex task, but it is evident that the island is ringed by post glacial raised beaches. King's Cave on the south west coast is an example of an emergent landform on such a raised beach. This cave, which is over long and up to high, lies well above the present day sea level. There are tall sea cliffs to the north east including large rock slides under the heights of Torr Reamhar and at Scriden (An Scriodan) at the far north end of the island.


Arran has a number of villages that are mainly found around the shoreline. The "capital" is Brodickmarker (Old Norse: "broad bay"), which is the site of the ferry terminal, several hotels and the majority of shops, although Lamlashmarker is actually the largest village on the island. (In 2001 the former's population was 621 and Lamlash's was 1,010.) Brodick Castlemarker is a seat of the Dukes of Hamilton. Other villages include Lochranzamarker in the north, Corriemarker in the north east, Blackwaterfootmarker in the south west, Kildonanmarker in the south and Whiting Baymarker in the south east.

Surrounding islands

Arran has three smaller satellite islands: Holy Islemarker lies to the east opposite Lamlash, Pladdamarker is located off Arran's south coast and tiny Hamilton Isle lies just off Clauchlands Point north of Holy Isle. Eilean na h-Àirde Bàine off the south west of Arran at Corriecravie is a skerry connected to Arran at low tide.

Other islands in the Firth of Clydemarker include Bute, Great Cumbraemarker and Inchmarnockmarker.


The influence of the Atlantic Oceanmarker and the Gulf Stream create a mild oceanic climate. Temperatures are generally cool, averaging about 6 °C (43 °F) in January and 14 °C (57 °F) in July at sea level.

The southern half of the island, being less mountainous has a more favourable climate than the northern half and the east coast is more sheltered from the prevailing winds than the west and south.

Snow seldom lies at sea level and frosts are less frequent than the mainland. In common with most islands of the west coast of Scotland, rainfall is generally high at between 1500mm (60in) per annum in the south and west and 1900mm (75in) per annum in the north and east. The mountains are wetter still with the summits receiving over 2550mm (100in) annually. May and June are the sunniest months, with upwards of 200 hours of bright sunshine being recorded on average.



Machrie Moor Standing Stones
Arran has a particular concentration of early Neolithic Clyde Cairns, a form of Gallery grave. The typical style of these structures is that of a rectangular or trapezoidal stone and earth mound that encloses a chamber lined with larger stones labs. Pottery and bone fragments found inside the chambers suggest they were used for internment and some have forecourts, which may have been an area for public display or ritual. There are two good examples in Monamore Glen east of the village of Lamlash, and similar structures called the Giant's Graves above Whiting Bay. There are numerous standing stones dating from prehistoric times, including six stone circles on Machrie Moor (Gaelic: Am Machaire).

Several Bronze Age sites have been excavated, including "Ossian's Mound" near Clachaig and a cairn near Blackwaterfoot that produced a bronze dagger and a gold fillet. Torr a' Chaisteal Dun in the south west near Sliddery is the ruin of a Iron Age fortified structure dating from about AD 200. The original walls would have been or more thick and enclosed a circular area about in diameter.

Gaels, Vikings and the medieval era

An ancient Irish poem called Agalllamh na Senorach, first recorded in the 13th century, describes the attractions of the island.
Arran of the many stags
The sea strikes against her shoulders,
Companies of men can feed there,
Blue spears are reddended among her boulders.

Merry hinds are on her hills,
Juicy berries are there for food,
Refreshing water in her streams,
Nuts in plenty in the wood.

The monastery of Aileach founded by St. Brendan in the 6th century may have been on Arran and St. Molaise was also active, with Holy Isle being a centre of his activities. The caves below Keil Point (Gaelic: Rubha na Cille) contain a slab which may have been an ancient altar. This stone has two petrosomatoglyphs on it, the prints of two right feet, said to be of Saint Columba.

In the 11th century Arran became part of the Sodor (Old Norse: 'Suðr-eyjar'), or South Isles of the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles, but on the death of Godred Crovan in 1095 all the isles came under the direct rule of Magnus III of Norway. Lagman (1103-1104) restored local rule. After the death of Somerled, Arran and Bute were ruled by his son Angus. In 1237, the Scottish isles broke away completely from the Isle of Manmarker and became an independent kingdom, before being ceded to the Scottish crown in 1266 by the Treaty of Perth. A substantial Viking grave has been discovered near King's Cross south of Lamlash, containing whalebone, iron rivets and nails, fragments of bronze and a 9th century bronze coin, and another grave of similar date nearby yielded a sword and shield. Arran was also part of the medieval Bishopric of Sodor and Man.

On the opposite side of the island near Blackwaterfoot is the King's Cave (see above) where Robert the Bruce is said to have taken shelter in the 14th century. Bruce returned to the island in 1326, having earlier granted lands to Fergus MacLouis for assistance rendered during his time of concealment there. Brodick Castle played a prominent part in the island's medieval history. Probably dating from the 13th century, it was captured by English forces during the Wars of Independence before being taken back by Scottish troops in 1307. It was badly damaged by action from English ships in 1406 and sustained an attack by John of Islay, the Lord of the Isles in 1455. Originally a seat of the Clan Stewart of Menteith it passed to the Boyd family in the 15th century.

Modern era

At the commencement of the Early modern period James, Duke of Hamilton became a privy counsellor to James IV of Scotland and helped to arrange his marriage to Princess Margaret Tudor of England. As a reward he was created Earl of Arran in 1503. The local economy for much of this period was based on the run rig system, the basic crops being oats, barley and potatoes and the population slowly grew to about 6,500. In the early 19th century Alexander, tenth Duke of Hamilton (1767–1852) embarked on a programme of clearances that had a devastating effect on the island's population. These "improvements" typically led to the land being rented out to as many as twenty-seven families being converted into a single farm. In some cases, alternative land was promised in Canada for each adult emigrant male. In April 1829, for example, 86 islanders boarded the brig Caledonia for the two-month journey, half their fares being paid for by the Duke. However, on arrival in Quebecmarker only was made available to the to the heads of extended families. Whole villages were removed and the Gaelic culture of the island devastated. The writer James Hogg wrote: "Ah! Wae's me. I hear the Duke of Hamilton's crofters are a' gaun away, man and mother's son, frae the Isle o' Arran. Pity on us!". A memorial to this early form of ethnic cleansing has been constructed on the shore at Lamlash, paid for by a Canadian descendant of the emigrants.

Overview of population trends
Year Population
1755 3,646
1782 5,804
1821 6,600
1841 6,241
1881 4,730
1891 4,824
Year Population
1931 4,506
1961 3,700
1971 3,564
1981 3,845
1991 4,474
2001 5,058


Nonetheless, Gaelic was still spoken widely on Arran at the beginning of the 20th century. The 1901 Census reported 25-49% Gaelic speakers on the eastern side of the island and 50-74% on the western side of the island. By 1921 the percentage for the whole island had dropped to less than 25%. From then onwards, the number of speakers fell into the vague 0-24.9% bracket. However, Nils Holmer quotes the Féillire (a Gaelic almanack) reporting 4,532 inhabitants on the island in 1931 with 605 Gaelic speakers, showing that Gaelic had declined to about 13% of the population. It continued to decline until the last native speakers of Arran Gaelic died in the 1990s. The 1.6% Gaelic speakers in the 1991 Census and the 1.5% in the 2001 Census represent Gaelic speakers from other areas settling on the island.

Arran Gaelic is reasonably well documented. Holmer carried out fieldwork on the island in 1938, reporting Gaelic being spoken by "a fair number of old inhabitants". He interviewed 53 informants from various locations and his description of the dialect, The Gaelic of Arran, was published in 1957 and runs to 211 pages of phonological, grammatical and lexical information. The Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland, which collected Gaelic dialect data in Scotland between 1950 and 1963 also interviewed 5 native speakers of Arran Gaelic.

The Arran dialect falls firmly into the southern group of Gaelic dialects (referred to as the "peripheral" dialects in Celtic studies) and thus shows:
  • a glottal stop replacing an Old Irish hiatus, eg rathad 'road' /rɛʔət̪/ (normally /rˠa.ət̪/)
  • the dropping of /h/ between vowels e.g. athair 'father' /aəɾ/ (normally /ahəɾʲ/)
  • the preservation of a long l, n and r, e.g. fann 'weak' /fan̪ˠː/ (normally /faun̪ˠ/ with diphthongisation).
The most unusual feature of Arran Gaelic is the /w/ glide after labials before a front vowel, eg math 'good' /mwɛh/ (normally /mah/).

Mac an Tàilleir (2003) notes that the island has a poetic name Arainn nan Aighean Iomadh - "Arran of the many stags" and that a native of the island or Arannach is also nick-named coinean mòr in Gaelic, meaning "big rabbit". Locally, Arainn was pronounced /ɛɾɪɲ/.

Local government

From the seventeenth century to the late twentieth century Arran was part of the County of Butemarker. After the 1975 reorganisation of local government Arran became part of the district of Argyll and Bute in Strathclyde Region.

This two-tier system of local government lasted until 1996 when the Local Government etc. Act 1994 came into effect, abolishing the regions and districts and replacing them with 32 unitary authorities. Arran is now in the North Ayrshire council area, along with some of the constituent islands of the old County of Bute.

For some statistical purposes Arran is within the registration county of Ayrshiremarker and for ceremonial purposes within the lieutenancy area of Ayrshire and Arran.

In the House of Commons, Arran has been contained since 2005 in the Ayrshire North and Arran constituencymarker, currently represented by Katy Clark of the Labour Party. It was previously contained in the seat of Cunninghame North from 1983 to 2005, and in Ayrshire North and Bute from 1918 to 1983.

In the Scottish Parliamentmarker, Arran is in the constituency of Cunninghame North, represented by Kenneth Gibson of the SNP. Labour held the seat until 2007, when the SNP gained it with a majority of just 48, making it currently the most marginal seat at Holyrood.


Arran is connected with the Scottish mainland by two Caledonian MacBrayne ferries, one from Brodick to Ardrossan and the second (in summertime only) from Lochranza to Claonaigmarker. Summer day trips are also available on board the paddle steamer PS Waverley and a summertime service operated by a local resident connects Lamlash to the neighbouring Holy Isle.

There are three roads on the island. The long coast road circumnavigates the island. In 2007, a stretch of this road, previously designated as the A841, was de-classified to a 'C' road. Travelling south from Whiting Bay, the C147 goes round the south coast continuing north up the west coast of the island to Lochranza. At this point the road becomes the A841 down the east coast back to Whiting Bay.

At one point the coast road ventures inland, this is to climb the pass at Boguillie between Creag Ghlas Laggan and Caisteal Abhail, located between Sannox and Lochranza.

The other two roads run across from the east to the west side of the island. The main cross-island road is the long B880 from Brodick to Blackwaterfoot called "The String", which climbs over Gleann an t-Suidhe. About along the B880 from Brodick, a minor road branches off to the right to Machrie. The single track road "The Ross" runs miles from Lamlash to Lagg and Sliddery via Glen Scorodale (Gaelic: Gleann Sgoradail).

The island can be explored using public transport using a bus service operated by Stagecoach.


The main industry of the island is tourism, one of the main attractions being the imposing Brodick Castlemarker, owned by the National Trust for Scotland. The Auchrannie Resort, which contains 2 hotels, 3 restaurants and 2 leisure complexes, is one of biggest employers on island. Local businesses include the Arran Distillerymarker, which was built in 1991 in Lochranzamarker, and Arran Aromatics, which produces a range of toiletries.

Farming and forestry are other important industries. 2008 plans for a large salmon farm holding 800,000 or more fish in Lamlash Bay have been criticised by the Community of Arran Seabed Trust. They feared the facility could jeopardise Scotland's first community marine conservation area, which was announced in September 2008.

Arran Brewery

The Brewery logo
The Arran Brewery is a microbrewery founded in March 2000 in Cladachmarker, near Brodickmarker. The brewery produces three regular cask and bottled beers: Arran Ale 3.8% abv, Arran Dark 4.3% and the wheat beer Arran Blonde 5.0% (the most popular brand). In addition there are two seasonal brews - one in summer and in winter - the dark and gingery Arran Fireside. Additional brews from the Arran Distillery include Arran Sunset, Arran Milestone and Red Squirrel.

The Arran Brewery went into liquidation in May 2008 and was subsequently sold to Marketing Management Services International Ltd. in June 2008, with a view to resuming production shortly thereafter. The brewery is now back in production.

Culture, media and the arts

The Scottish Gaelic dialect of Arran died out when the last speaker Donald Craig died in the 1970s. However, there is now a Gaelic House in Brodick, set up at the end of the 1990s. Brodick Castlemarker features on the Royal Bank of Scotland £20 note and Lochranza Castle was used as the model for the castle in the Tintin adventure The Black Island.

Arran has two newspapers: the Arran Voice and The Arran Banner. The latter was listed in the Guinness Book of Records in November 1984 under the "Newspaper Records" section. Under the sub-heading of "Most read" it was entered under the title of "local newspaper which achieves the closest to a saturation circulation in its area". The entry reads: "The Arran Banner, founded in 1974, has a readership of more than 97 per cent in Britain’s seventh largest off-shore island". However, this claim is now unlikely to be wholly true with the arrival of the island's second newspaper.

The knitting style used to create Aran sweaters is often mistakenly associated with the Isle of Arran rather than the Irish Aran Islandsmarker.

Natural history

The island has three endemic species of tree, the Arran Whitebeams. These trees are the Scottish or Arran Whitebeam (Sorbus arranensis), the Bastard Mountain Ash or Cut-leaved Whitebeam (Sorbus pseudofennica) and the Catacol Whitebeam (Sorbus pseudomeinichii). If rarity is measured by numbers alone they are amongst the most endangered tree species in the world. They are protected in Glen Diomhan off Glen Catacolmarker, at the north end of the island by a partly fenced off National Nature Reserve, and are monitored by staff from Scottish Natural Heritage. Only 236 Sorbus pseudofennica and 283 Sorbus arranensis were recorded as mature trees in 1980. They are typically trees of the mountain slopes, close to the tree line. However, they will grow at lower altitudes, and are being preserved within Brodick Country Park.

Over 200 species of bird have been recorded on Arran including including Black Guillemot, Eider, Peregrine Falcon and the Golden Eagle. In 1981 there were 28 Ptarmigan on Arran, but in 2009 it was reported that extensive surveys had been unable to record any. Similarly, the Red-billed Chough no longer breeds on the island.

Red Deer are numerous on the northern hills, and there are populations of Red Squirrel, Badger, Otter, Adder and Common Lizard. Offshore there are Harbour Porpoises, Basking Sharks and various species of dolphin.

Notable residents

See also



  1. Haswell-Smith (2004) pp. 11-17.
  2. Downie (1933) pp. 38–39.
  3. Keay & Keay (1994) p. 42 refer to "the profile of the 'Sleeping Warrior' of Arran as seen from the Clyde Coast". Various websites claim the phrase refers to single hills, none of which individually resemble a reclining human figure.
  4. "Arran Page 1" Retrieved 22 February 2009.
  5. Downie (1933) p. 2.
  6. Johnstone et al. (1990) pp. 223-26.
  7. Haswell-Smith (1994) p. 13.
  8. "Get-a-map". Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 30 March 2008.
  9. McKirdy et al. (2007) pp. 297- 301.
  10. McKirdy et al. (2007) pp. 143, 144, 149.
  11. The implications of this small chalk outcrop are considerable. It suggests that like much of southern England, Scotland once had considerable deposits of this material that have been subsequently eroded away, although there is no clear-cut evidence of this. See McKirdy et al. (2007) p. 298.
  12. The site was not sufficiently convincing for him to publish his find until the discovery of a second site near Jedburgh.
  13. Murray (1973) pp. 68-69.
  14. McKirdy et al. (2007) p. 28.
  15. Downie (1933) pp. 70-71.
  16. This cave is one of several associated with the legend of Robert the Bruce and the spider. See McKirdy et al. (2007) p. 301.
  17. Downie (1933) p. 19 records that the Scriden rocks fell "it is said, some two hundred years ago, with a concussion that shook the earth and was heard in Bute and Argyllshire".
  18. "Scrol Browser" Scotland's Census Results Online. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
  19. "Regional mapped climate averages" Met Office. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  20. Noble (2006) pp. 104–08.
  21. "Machrie Moor Stone Circles". Undiscovered Scotland. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  22. Downie (1933) pp. 29–30.
  23. "Torr a' Chaisteal Dun". Undiscovered Scotland. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  24. Downie (1933) pp. 34–35.
  25. Downie (1933) pp. 35–37.
  26. Beare (1996) p. 26.
  27. Murray (1973) p. 167–71.
  28. Downie (1933) pp. 38–40.
  29. "King's Cave: The cave at Drummadoon". Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  30. Downie (1933) pp.42–43. He states that the 1406 attack led by the Earl of Lennox "utterly destroyed" the structure.
  31. Coventry (2008) pp. 53, 255, 551.
  32. Quoted by Haswell Smith (2004) p. 12.
  33. Mackillop, Dugald "The History of the Highland Clearances: Buteshire - Arran" Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  34. "Lagantuine - Isle of Arran, Ayrshire UK" Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  35. Haswell Smith (2004) p. 11.
  36. Mac an Tàilleir, Iain (2004) 1901-2001 Gaelic in the Census (PowerPoint ) Linguae Celticae. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  37. Holmer (1957) p. vii.
  38. Fleming, D. (2003) Occasional Paper 10 (pdf) General Register Office for Scotland. Retrieved 27 February 2009.
  39. Ó Dochartaigh (1997) p. 84-85.
  40. Downie (1933) p. 1 confirms this status at the publication date.
  41. With respect to Scotland the phrase "unitary authority" is merely descriptive; in the United Kingdom the phrase is a designation that is specific to English local government areas.
  42. "2007 Election Results Analysis: Table 18" (pdf) Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  43. "Arran: Getting there/around" Caledonian MacBrayne. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  44. coast road reclassified" Arran Coast Road. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
  45. Downie (1933) p. 5.
  46. "Arran Bus Timetable 2009" (pdf) Stagecoach. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
  47. "Auchrannie Resort on the Isle of Arran" Retrieved 1 March 2008
  48. "Banner goes from strength to strength." (13 April 2007) Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  49. "Arran Wildlife". Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  50. Available as Ptarmigan disappearing from southern Scotland
  51. Downie (1933) p. 132 includes the Ptarmigan in a list of birds no longer extant on the island at that time including the Red Kite, Hobby, White-tailed Sea Eagle, Hen Harrier and Capercaillie.
  52. "A6.102a Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (breeding)" (pdf) JNCC. Retrieved 1 August 2009.
  53. "Sir Kenneth Calman - biography" BMA. Retrieved 20 June 2009.


  • Beare, Beryl (1996) Scotland. Myths & Legends. Avonmouth. Parragon. ISBN 0752516949
  • Coventry, Martin (2008) Castles of the Clans. Musselburgh. Goblinshead. ISBN 9781899874361
  • Downie, R. Angus (1933) All About Arran. Glasgow. Blackie and Son.
  • Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004) The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh. Canongate. ISBN 1841954543
  • Holmer, N. (1957) The Gaelic of Arran. Dublin. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
  • Johnstone, Scott; Brown, Hamish; and Bennet, Donald (1990) The Corbetts and Other Scottish Hills. Edinburgh. Scottish Mountaineering Trust. ISBN 0907521290
  • Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. ISBN 0002550822
  • McKirdy, Alan Gordon, John & Crofts, Roger (2007) Land of Mountain and Flood: The Geology and Landforms of Scotland. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 9781841583570
  • Murray, W.H. (1973) The Islands of Western Scotland. London. Eyre Methuen. SBN 413303802
  • Noble, Gordon (2006) Neolithic Scotland: Timber, Stone, Earth and Fire. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0748623388
  • Ó Dochartaigh, C. (1997) Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland. Dublin. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.

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