Isle of Man ( ; , ), or Mann ( ,
), is a self-governing British Crown
dependency, located in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
head of state
is Queen Elizabeth II
holds the title of Lord of Mann
is represented by a Lieutenant
Governor. The island is not part of the United Kingdom but foreign relations, defence, and ultimate
good governance of the Isle of Man
are the responsibility of the government of the United
Inhabited for millennia, the island gradually became a Celtic-Norse
community as the Norse settled
there, starting about AD 850. This has left a legacy ranging from the
Tynwald parliament to many local place names.
period of alternating rule by the kings of England and Scotland, the Manx
came under the feudal over-lordship of the English Crown.
The lordship revested
into the British
Crown in 1764 but the island never became part of the United
Kingdom and retained its status as an internally self-governing
The Isle of Man is not a part of the European Union
, but has a limited
relationship concerning the free movement of goods.
Ancient times to present
The Isle of Man became separated from Britain and Ireland by about
8000 BC. It appears that colonisation took place by sea sometime
before 6500 BC
. The first residents lived
in small natural shelters
fishing and gathering for their food. They used small tools made of
flint or bone, which have been found near the coast.
Representatives of these artifacts are kept at the Manx
Period marked the coming of
knowledge of farming, better stone tools and pottery. It was during
this period that Megalithic Monuments began to appear around the
island. Examples from this period can be found at
Cashtal yn Ard near Maughold, King Orry's Grave in Laxey, Meayll
Circle near Cregneash, and Ballaharra Stones in St
The Megaliths were not the only culture
during this time, there were also the local Ronaldsway
and Bann cultures.
During the Bronze Age
, the large communal
tombs of the Megaliths were replaced with smaller burial mounds.
Bodies were put in stone lined graves along with ornamental
containers. The Bronze Age burial mounds created long lasting
markers about the countryside.The Iron Age
marked the beginning of Celtic
influence. Large hill forts appeared on hill summits, and smaller
promontory forts along the coastal cliffs, while large
timber-framed roundhouses were built. It is likely that the first
to inhabit the Island
were of the Brythonic
Around AD 700 it is assumed that Irish invasion or immigration
formed the basis of the early Manx population. This is evident in
the change in language used in Ogham
inscriptions. Manx Gaelic
closely related to Irish
and Scots Gaelic
settlement of the Isle of Man began at
the end of the 8th century. The Vikings established Tynwald and
introduced many land divisions that still exist.
left the Manx Runestones
the Manx language does contain Norse influences, they are few.
Kingdom of Mann and the
Isles was created by Godred Crovan
in 1079 after the Battle of Skyhill. During Viking times, the islands of this
kingdom were called the or ("southern isles") in contrast to the
("northern isles") of Orkney, Shetland and the Hebrides.
This later became Anglicised as Sodor.
Church of England diocese is still
called the Diocese of Sodor and Man although it only covers Man.
(When the Rev. W.V. Awdry wrote
The Railway Series, he
invented the island of Sodor as an imaginary island
located between the Isle of Man and the Cumbrian coast.)
In 1266, as dictated in the Treaty of
, Norway's King Magnus VI
the isles to Scotland. The Isle of Man came under English control
in the 14th century. During this period the Isle was dominated by
the Stanley family, who also held the title of Earl of Derby
, who had been given possession
of Man by King Henry IV
. In 1703
the Act of Settlement
peasant rights and marked the beginning of a move away from
government. In 1765, however, the
British Crown secured a
greater control over the island
, without incorporating it into
Great Britain, laying the grounds for the island's status as a
.In 1866 greater
autonomy was restored to the island's parliament and a full
transition to democracy began. The Isle quickly developed as a
finance centre and tourist destination, becoming increasingly
prosperous during the 20th century. During both the First
and Second World
the island was used as a location for internment
for Central Powers
citizens and suspected
Tynwald, the island's parliament, was nominally founded in
AD 979. It is arguably the oldest continuous parliament in the
world. The annual ceremonial meeting in July on Tynwald Day
, the island's national day,
continues to be held at Tynwald Hill, where titles are announced
and a brief description of the new laws enacted by Tynwald during
the previous year is given.
The north of the island seen from the air [Triangle area of Kirk
Michael (West), Point of Ayre (North) and Ramsey (east)
As well as the main island of Mann itself, the Isle of Man includes
some nearby small islands: the seasonally inhabited Calf of Man;
Chicken Rock on which stands an unmanned lighthouse; and St
Patrick's Isle and St Michael's Isle, both connected to the
mainland by permanent roads/causeways.
of Man is located in the middle of the northern Irish Sea, approximately equidistant from the islands of
Britain and Ireland.
context of Britain, the island lies closest to Scotland followed by England and then
The Isle is long and wide at its widest point. It has an area of
Hills in the north and south are bisected by a central valley. The
extreme north is exceptionally flat, consisting mainly of deposits
built up by deposition from glacial advances from western Scotland
during colder times. There are more recently deposited shingle beaches at the Point of Ayre. The island has only one mountain higher than
, Snaefell, with a height of .
According to an old
saying, from the summit one can see six kingdoms: those of Mann,
Scotland, England, Ireland, Wales, and Heaven. Some versions add a
seventh kingdom, that of North Ireland, the Sea, or Neptune.
to the 2006 interim census, the Isle of Man is home to 80,058
people, of whom 26,218 reside in the island's capital Douglas. Most of the population were born in the
British Isles, with 47.6% born in the Isle of Man, 37.2% born in
England, 3.4% in Scotland, 2.1% in Northern Ireland, 2.1% in the Republic of Ireland, 1.2% in Wales and 0.3% born in the Channel Islands.
The Isle of Man Full Census
, most recently held in 2001,
has been a ten-yearly occurrence since 1821, with interim censuses
being introduced from 1966. It is separate from, but closely
related to, the Census in
the United Kingdom
The 2001 Census was conducted by the Economic Affairs Division of
the Isle of Man Treasury
the authority of the Census Act 1929
The Isle of Man has a temperate
with cool summers and mild winters. Average rainfall is higher than the
average for the British
Isles, due to its location to the west of Great Britain
and sufficient distance from Ireland for moisture to be accumulated
by the prevailing south-westerly winds. Average rainfall is
highest at Snaefell, where it is around 1900 mm a year.
lower levels it can be around 800 mm a year. Temperatures
remain fairly cool, with the recorded maximum being 28.9 °C at
A satellite image of the Isle of Man.
The United Kingdom is responsible for the island's defence and
ultimately for good governance
for representing the island in international forums, while the
island's own parliament and government have competence over all
island's parliament is Tynwald, which dates
from at least AD 979 and is the oldest continuously existing
ruling body in the world. Tynwald is a bicameral legislature,
comprising the House of
Keys (directly elected by universal suffrage) and the
Legislative Council (consisting of indirectly elected and ex-officio members).
bodies meet together in joint session as Tynwald.
The executive branch of government is the Council of
, which is composed of members of Tynwald. It is
headed by the Chief
, currently Tony
Council of Ministers comprises the greater part of the House of
Vice-regal functions of the Head of State are
performed by a Lieutenant Governor.
External relations and security
Under British law
, the Isle of Man is
not part of the United Kingdom. However, the UK takes care of its
external and defence affairs, and retains paramount power to
legislate for the island. There are no independent military forces
on the Isle of Man. There is an independent Isle of Man police
force, which is controlled directly by the Isle of Man Government,
but which nonetheless voluntarily submits to inspection by the UK
inspectorate of police.
Citizenship in the Isle of Man is governed by UK law. Passports
issued by the Isle of Man Passport Office say "British Islands
- Isle of Man"
on the cover but the nationality status stated
on the passport is simply "British Citizen"
although Manx passport holders are British citizens, because the
Isle of Man is not part of the European
, those without a grandparent born in the UK (or who have
not lived continuously for a period of five or more years in the
UK) do not have the same rights as other British citizens with
regard to employment and establishment in the EU. Isle of Man
passports can be issued to any British citizen in the Isle of Man
(whether or not that person has "Manx status" under the local Isle
of Man employment laws). They can also be issued to Manx-connected
British citizens residing in the UK or any of the other Crown
The Isle of Man holds neither membership nor associate membership
of the European Union
. Protocol 3 of
the UK's Act of Accession to the Treaty
permits trade for Manx goods without tariffs. In
conjunction with the Customs and Excise agreement with the UK, this
facilitates free trade with the UK. While Manx goods can be freely
moved within the EU, capital and services cannot be. EU citizens
are entitled to travel and reside in the island without
Commonwealth of Nations
The Isle of Man is not itself a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
. By virtue
of its relationship with the United Kingdom, it takes part in
several Commonwealth institutions, including the Commonwealth
and the Commonwealth Games
Isle of Man local authorities and
Most Manx politicians stand for election as independents rather
than as representatives of political parties. Though political
parties do exist, their influence is not nearly as strong as in the
United Kingdom.The largest political party is the recently
established Liberal Vannin
, which promotes greater Manx independence and more
accountability in Government. A nationalist pressure group Mec Vannin
advocates the establishment of a
Local government on the Isle of Man is based around the concept of
ancient parishes. There are two types of local authorities: a
corporation for the Borough of
Douglas, and bodies of 'commissioners' for the town districts of
Castletown, Peel and Ramsey, the village districts of Kirk Michael, Laxey, Onchan, Port Erin and Port St
Mary, and the 15 'parish districts' (those parishes or
parts of parishes which do not fall within the districts previously
Local authorities are under the supervision of
the Isle of Man Government's Department of Local Government and the
The Isle of Man is a "low tax economy" with no capital gains tax
, wealth tax
, stamp duty
or inheritance tax
and a top rate of
of 18%. A "tax cap" is in
force. The maximum amount of tax payable by an individual is
£100,000 or £200,000 for couples if they choose to have their
incomes jointly assessed. The £100,000 tax cap equates to an
assessable income of approximately £570,000. Personal income is
assessed and taxed on a total 'worldwide' income basis rather than
a remittance basis. This means that all income earned throughout
the world is assessable for Manx tax rather than only income earned
in or brought into the Island.
The rate of corporation tax
is 0% for
almost all types of income, the only exceptions are that the
profits of banks are taxed at 10%, as is rental (or other) income
from land and buildings situated on the Isle of Man.
, manufacturing, and
tourism form key sectors of the economy. Agriculture and fishing,
once the mainstays of the economy, now make declining contributions
to the Island's Gross Domestic
Trade takes place mostly with the United Kingdom. The island is in
customs union with the UK, and related revenues are pooled and
shared under the Common Purse
The Manx government promotes island locations for making films by
contributing to the production costs. Since 1995 over eighty films
have been made on the island.
The main telephone provider on the Isle of Man is Manx Telecom
. The island has three mobile
operators: Manx Telecom, Cloud9
. Broadband internet
services are available through four local providers which are
Wi-Manx, Domicilium, Manx Computer Bureau and Manx Telecom. The
island does not have its own ITU country code
, but is accessed
via the UK's code (+44) and the island's telephone numbers are part
of the UK telephone
with local dialling codes 01624 (landlines) and
In 1996, the Isle of Man Government obtained permission to use the
national top-level domain
(TLD) and has ultimate
responsibility for its use. The domain is managed on a daily basis
by Domicilium, an island-based internet service provider.
In December 2007, the Manx
and its telecommunications subsidiary,
e-llan Communications commissioned the lighting of a new
fibre-optic link that connects the island to a worldwide
The Isle of Man has three radio stations: Manx Radio
, Energy FM
There is no insular television service and local transmitters
retransmit analogue broadcasts of BBC 1
regional programmes), ITV1
programming) and Channel 4
is available through the local
transmitters with a limited local service of digital terrestrial
being shown. However, in areas where local geography
is favourable, terrestrial
) can be received direct from transmitters located
in the United Kingdom or Republic of Ireland, with all freeviews
services being available in these areas.
services are available by satellite, such as Sky Digital, and Freesat from the group of satellites at 28.2°
east , as well as services from a range of other
satellites around Europe such as the Astra satellites
at 19.2° east and Hotbird.
The Isle of Man has three newspapers, all weeklies, and all owned
by Isle of Man Newspapers
The Isle of Man Courier
(distribution 36,318) is free and distributed to homes on the
island. The other two newspapers are Isle of Man Examiner
13,276) and the Manx Independent
Postal services are the responsibility of Isle of Man Post
, which took over from the
UK General Post Office
The island has a total of of public roads, all of which are paved.
Many of the roads on the island have no speed limit.
Douglas is served by frequent ferries to and from England and more
limited summer-only services from Ireland. All ferries are operated
by the Isle of Man
Steam Packet Company
commercial airport on the island is the Isle of Man
Airport at Ronaldsway.
The island used to have an extensive narrow-gauge railway system,
both steam-operated and electric, but the majority of the steam
railway tracks have been taken out of service and the track
removed. Currently there is a steam railway which
runs between Douglas and Port Erin, an electric railway which runs
between Douglas and Ramsey and an electric mountain railway which
The lines are mostly operated for the
benefit of tourists, though some people use them for
There is a comprehensive bus network, operated by Isle of Man Transport
The culture of the Isle of Man is influenced by its Celtic
and to a lesser extent its Norse
origins, though its close proximity to the
UK, period as a UK tourist destination and recent mass immigration
by British migrant workers has meant that British influence has
been dominant since the Revestment period. Recent revival campaigns
have attempted to preserve the surviving vestiges of Manx culture
after a long period of Anglicisation
and significant interest in the Manx language, history and musical
tradition have been the result.
Etymology of name
The origin of the name Isle of Man is unclear. In the Manx
Gaelic language the Isle of Man is known
as , where is a Gaelic word meaning 'island'. The earliest form of
'Man' is or giving the genitive
leading to the word , which is lenited
used after the feminine word Ellan, giving Mhannin. As 'mh' is
pronounced like a 'v' in Goidelic
, in modern Manx the name becomes . These forms are
related to the figure of Celtic
known as Manannán
to the Irish and Manawydan
to the Welsh.
The name enters recorded history as Mona
, 54 BC), and is also recorded as
(Pliny the Elder
, AD 77), Monœda
, AD 150), Mevania
416), and Eubonia
by Irish writers. In
records it is Manaw
and in the Icelandic sagas
.Though the Isle of Man was never incorporated into the
, the island was noted in
Greek and Roman accounts
it was called variously Monapia
. The Old Welsh and Old Irish
names for the Isle of Man, Mano and Manau, also
occur in Manau Gododdin, the
name for an ancient district in north Britain along the lower
Forth . The name is probably connected with that of
the island of Môn and
possibly with the Celtic root reflected in Welsh mynydd, Breton menez, Scottish Gaelic monadh ‘mountain’
. These probably derive from the Proto-Indo-European root
*men- ‘to tower’ referring to the island apparently rising
out of the Irish
Sea on the horizon .
The official language of the Isle of Man is English. Manx Gaelic
has traditionally been spoken but
is now considered "critically endangered".
The Manx Gaelic language
is a Goidelic
Celtic language and is one of a
number of insular Celtic
spoken in the British Isles. Manx Gaelic has been
officially recognised as a legitimate autochthonous regional language
under the European
Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
, ratified by the
United Kingdom on 27 March, 2001 on behalf of the Isle of Man
The Manx language
is closely related
to the Irish language
and Scottish Gaelic
. By the middle of the 20th
century only a few elderly native
remained: the last of them, Ned Maddrell
, died on 27 December, 1974. By
then a scholarly revival
to spread to the populace and many had learned Manx as a second
language. The first native speakers of Manx (bilingual with
English) in many years have now appeared: children brought up by
Manx-speaking parents. Primary immersion education in Manx is
provided by the Manx government: since 2003, the former St
John's School building has been used by the (Manx
Degrees in Manx are available from
the Isle of Man College
Centre for Manx Studies
Manx-language playgroups also exist and Manx language classes are
available in island schools. In the 2001 census, 1,689 out of
76,315, or 2.2% of the population, claimed to have knowledge of
Manx, although the degree of knowledge in these cases was
In common use are the greetings and which mean 'good morning' and
'good afternoon' respectively. The Manx language knows no 'evening'
as it is 'afternoon'. Another frequently heard Manx expression is
meaning 'time enough', and represents a stereotypical view of the
Manx attitude to life.
For centuries, the island's symbol has been its ancient triskelion
, a device similar to Sicily's Trinacria
: three bent legs, each with a spur,
joined at the thigh. The Manx triskelion does not appear to have an
official design; government publications, currency, flags, the
tourist authority and others all use different variants. Most, but
not all, preserve rotational
, some running clockwise, others anti-clockwise
. Some have the uppermost thigh
at 12:00, others at 11:30 or 10:00, etc. Some have the knee bent at
90°, some at 60°, some at closer to 120°. Also the degree of
ornamentation of the leg wear and spur varies considerably.
The three legs refer to the island's motto (adopted late in the
symbol's history): , traditionally translated from Latin as
'Whithersoever you throw it, it will stand', or 'Whichever way you
throw it, it will stand'.
The origin of the 'Three Legs of Man' (as they are usually called)
is explained in the Manx legend that Manannan
repelled an invasion by
transforming into the three legs and rolling down the hill and
defeating the invaders.
Variations on the Manx triskelion are still in use on the coats of
arms belonging to the different branches of the ancient Norwegian
noble family that ruled Mann until the 13th century. This
particular version belongs to the Skancke
branch of the Skanke
family. The name stems
, the Norwegian version of the word 'shank', or
'leg'. The Norse royal family of Man stayed on the island for some
years after the death of Magnus
and the beginning of Scottish rule. The family's emigration
only came after the final attempt on the part of the Manx at
restoring the old Sudreyar dynasty in the 1275 uprising against the
Scots. This revolt failed disastrously, ending in
the deaths of hundreds of rebels, including the last Norse King of Mann, Godred VI Magnuson when the
Manx suffered defeat in the decisive Battle of
Ronaldsway, near Castletown.
When the Norse-Manx royals arrived in
Norway they took service as nobles of the Norwegian king, quickly
becoming knights, landlords, and clergy under the Norwegian
- See also Diocese of
Sodor and Man
The predominant religious tradition of the island is Christianity
, and the ancient Christian Church
of the island is today part of the Anglican Communion
. The diocese
has an unbroken history from 1154 to the
present day, during which there have been many changes in tradition
and detail. As with all ancient Anglican churches, the diocese was
once (and until the reformation) part of the then mainstream of
western Christian tradition, the Roman Catholic Church
. The diocese has
been part of the national churches of Norway, Scotland, and
England, and within the latter has been part of both the Province
of Canterbury and the Province of York of the Church of England
at different times. It
has also come under the influence of Irish religious tradition.
Today its bishop and 45 parish churches are formally part of the
Province of York.
Other Christian churches also operate on the Isle of Man. The
second largest denomination is the Methodist Church
, which is close in size to
the Anglican diocese. There are eight Roman Catholic parish
churches, under the authority of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of
Liverpool. Additionally there are five Baptist churches, four
Pentecostal churches, and two United Reformed churches.
There is a small Jewish community on the island, with a synagogue
Myth, legend and folklore
In Manx mythology, the island was ruled by Manannán mac Lir
, a Celtic sea god
, who would draw his misty
cloak around the island to protect it from invaders. One of the
principal theories about the origin of the name Mann
that it is named after Manannan.
In the Manx tradition of folklore
are many stories of mythical creatures and characters. These include the , a
malevolent spirit who according to legend blew the roof off St
Trinian's Church in a fit of pique; the ; the ; and the , a
ghostly black dog who wandered the
walls and corridors of Peel Castle.
The Isle of Man is also said to be home to fairies
, known locally as 'the little folk'
or 'themselves'. There is a famous Fairy Bridge and it is said to be bad luck if one fails to wish
the fairies good morning or afternoon when passing over it.
It used to be a tradition to leave a coin on the bridge to ensure
good luck. Other types of fairies are the and the .
Irish story tells how Lough
Neagh was formed when Ireland's legendary giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (sometimes known as
Finn McCool) scooped up a portion of the land and tossed it at a
Scottish rival. He missed, and the chunk of earth landed in
Sea, thus creating the island.
Peel Castle has been proposed as a possible location of the
Traditionally the national dish of the island is 'Spuds and
Herrin', boiled potatoes and herring. This plain dish is chosen
because of its role supporting the subsistence farmers of the
island, who crofted the land and fished the sea for centuries.
Another foodstuff long associated with the island is the kipper, a
A more recent claim for the title of national dish would be the
ubiquitous chips, cheese and gravy. This analog of poutine
is found in most of the island's fast-food
outlets, and consists of thick cut chips
, covered in shredded Manx
and topped with a
Seafood has traditionally accounted for a large proportion of the
local diet. Although commercial fishing has declined in
recent years, local delicacies include Manx kippers (smoked herring) which are produced by the
smokeries in Peel on the west coast of the island, albeit mainly
Sea herring these days.
The smokeries also
produce other specialities including smoked salmon and bacon.
Crab, lobster and scallops are commercially fished, and the
('Queenies') is regarded
as a particular delicacy, with a light, sweet flavour. Cod,
and mackerel are often angled for
the table, and freshwater trout and salmon can be taken from the
local rivers and lakes, supported by the Government fish hatchery
Cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry are all commercially farmed, Manx
lamb from the hill-farms being a popular dish. The Loaghtan
, the indigenous breed of Manx sheep,
has a rich, dark meat that has found favour with chefs, featuring
in dishes on the BBC's Masterchef
Milk and cheese are produced by IOM Creameries. Manx cheese has
been a particular success, featuring smoked and herb-flavoured
varieties and is stocked by many of the UK's supermarket chains.
Manx cheese took bronze medals in the 2005 British Cheese Awards,
and sold 578 tonnes over the year.
Beer is brewed on a commercial scale by Okells
(established in 1850) and Bushy's Brewery
The Isle of Man is represented as a nation in the Commonwealth Games
and the Island Games
and will be hosting the IV
Commonwealth Youth Games
2011. Manx sports people have won three golds at
, the most recent being Mark
, a professional cyclist, in 2006 in the Scratch race
. Cavendish has had great success
in cycling, having won ten stages of the Tour de France
to date. The island started
in 1985, and also hosted the Island Games in 2001.
Isle of Man teams and individuals participate in many sports both
on and off the island including rugby union, football
, gymnastics, hockey
, netball, bowling and cricket. Being an
island, many types of watersports are also popular with
The main international motorcycle event associated with the island
is the Isle of Man TT
, which began in
and takes place in late May
and early June. It is now an international road racing
event for motorbikes and used to be
part of the World Championship. The Manx Grand
Prix is a motorcycle event for amateurs and private entrants
that uses the same Snaefell Mountain Course in late August and early September.
is the national sport of the Isle of
Man. It is similar to the Irish hurling
Scottish game of shinty
. Once the most
popular sport on the island, it ceased to be played by the start of
the 20th century. It has more recently been revived with an
annual match at St John's.
Born or brought up on the island
- The Bee Gees, pop music group.
- Mark Cavendish, professional
cyclist for Team Columbia HTC.
- Christine Collister,
contemporary folk singer.
- Illiam Dhone (or William Christian)
led an uprising against English rule over the island; executed in
- Frank Kermode, literary
- Charles Kerruish, in 1961
became first Manx-born head of government.
- Nigel Kneale, science fiction and
- Archibald Knox, arts and crafts
- David Knight, professional enduro
- Ned Maddrell, last native speaker
of the Manx language, (died
- Davy Knowles , front man of Back
Moved to the island
- Sir Thomas Henry Hall Caine, British
novelist and playwright.
- Jeremy Clarkson, motoring
journalist and Top Gear presenter .
- John Rhys Davies, actor.
- George MacDonald Fraser,
- Andy Kershaw, disc jockey.
- Nigel Mansell, 1992 Formula One and 1993 Indy
Car World Champion.
- James Toseland, World Super Bike
- Sir Norman Wisdom, British actor
- Chris Norman, an English soft rock
singer, Lead singer of Smokie, an English glam rock band from
Bradford, which found success in Europe in the 1970s.
- Ellan is Manx for island; Vannin is
the genitive case of Mannin, and means of
- p8, Richard Bradley The prehistory of Britain and
Ireland, Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN
- Manx Museum Mesolithic collections
- Manx Museum Neolithic collections
- Manx Museum Bronze Age collections
- Manx Museum Celtic Farmers (Iron Age) collections
- Diocese of Sodor and Mann - Manx Notebook
- Sibley, Brian (1995), The Thomas the Tank Engine Man,
Heinemann, ISBN 0 434 96909 5, p.154
- Manx Notebook website, Act of Revestment
- Manx National Heritage website
- Both the Icelandic parliament and the Faroe Islands' parliament are older, but were
abolished from 1800 to 1845 and 1816 to 1852, respectively.
- Tynwald website
- Ian O'Leary Lecture
- Isle of Man Government website
- British Library page on the Chronicle of
- Royal Commission on the Constitution 1969 - 1973, Volume I,
Report (Cmnd 5460)
- Isle of
Man Constabulary website
- Manx government explanation of Protocol 3
- Direct Tax - Isle of Man Government
- New Assessor of Income Tax - Isle of Man
- Forget Monaco: Isle of Man cuts tax to tempt
super-rich - Tax, Money - Independent.co.uk
- Isle of Man - About the Island
- The Isle of Man. A Social, Cultural and Political
History. by R.H. Kinvig pp18 (1975) (3rd Edition) Liverpool
University Press ISBN 0-85323-391-8
- Kneale, Victor (2006). "Ellan Vannin (Isle of Man)" .
"Britonia". In John T. Koch, Celtic Culture: A Historical
Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, p. 676.
- Simple Names
- The Several Names of Man
- A Description of the Isle of Man
- The Isle of Man. A Social, Cultural and Political
History. by R.H. Kinvig pp18-19 (1975) (3rd Edition) Liverpool
University Press ISBN 0-85323-391-8
- Rivet A L F and Smith Colin. (1979:410-11) The Place Names
of Roman Britain, Batsford, (Pp xviii + 526, pls, ills, + bib
- Koch, John T. (2006:676) Celtic Culture: A Historical
Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO Ltd. ISBN 1851094407. ISBN
- Koch, John T. (2006:679) Celtic Culture: A Historical
Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO Ltd. ISBN 1851094407. ISBN
Etymologisches Woerterbuch: Record number 1277 (Root /
- Full details in A Moore's comprehensive history which is
available on-line in full.
- A full list is given on the diocesan
- See official entry in the Anglican Communion directory.
- All churches on the island are listed on this
- Isle of Man - Factfile - Daily Life
- Russel, G. 1988. Distribution and development of some Manx
epiphyte populations. Helgolander Meeresunters.
42: 477 - 492.