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The Isle of Man ( ; , ), or Mann ( , ), is a self-governing British Crown dependency, located in the Irish Seamarker between the islands of Great Britainmarker and Irelandmarker. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann. The Crown is represented by a Lieutenant Governormarker. The island is not part of the United Kingdommarker but foreign relations, defence, and ultimate good governance of the Isle of Man are the responsibility of the government of the United Kingdom.

Inhabited for millennia, the island gradually became a Celtic-Norse community as the Norse settled there, starting about AD 850. This has left a legacy ranging from the Tynwaldmarker parliament to many local place names. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Englandmarker and Scotlandmarker, the Manx came under the feudal over-lordship of the English Crown. The lordship revested into the British Crown in 1764 but the island never became part of the United Kingdom and retained its status as an internally self-governing jurisdiction.

The Isle of Man is not a part of the European Union, but has a limited relationship concerning the free movement of goods.


Ancient times to present

The Isle of Man became separated from Britain and Ireland by about 8000 BC. It appears that colonisation took place by sea sometime before 6500 BC. The first residents lived in small natural shelters, hunting, fishing and gathering for their food. They used small tools made of flint or bone, which have been found near the coast. Representatives of these artifacts are kept at the Manx Museum.

The Neolithic Period marked the coming of knowledge of farming, better stone tools and pottery. It was during this period that Megalithic Monuments began to appear around the island. Examples from this period can be found at Cashtal yn Ard near Maugholdmarker, King Orry's Grave in Laxeymarker, Meayll Circle near Cregneashmarker, and Ballaharra Stones in St John'smarker. The Megaliths were not the only culture during this time, there were also the local Ronaldsway and Bann cultures.

During the Bronze Age, the large communal tombs of the Megaliths were replaced with smaller burial mounds. Bodies were put in stone lined graves along with ornamental containers. The Bronze Age burial mounds created long lasting markers about the countryside.The Iron Age marked the beginning of Celtic cultural influence. Large hill forts appeared on hill summits, and smaller promontory forts along the coastal cliffs, while large timber-framed roundhouses were built. It is likely that the first Celtic tribes to inhabit the Island were of the Brythonic variety. Around AD 700 it is assumed that Irish invasion or immigration formed the basis of the early Manx population. This is evident in the change in language used in Ogham inscriptions. Manx Gaelic remains closely related to Irish and Scots Gaelic.

Viking settlement of the Isle of Man began at the end of the 8th century. The Vikings established Tynwaldmarker and introduced many land divisions that still exist. They also left the Manx Runestones. Although the Manx language does contain Norse influences, they are few. The Norse Kingdom of Mann and the Isles was created by Godred Crovan in 1079 after the Battle of Skyhillmarker. During Viking times, the islands of this kingdom were called the or ("southern isles") in contrast to the ("northern isles") of Orkneymarker, Shetlandmarker and the Hebridesmarker. This later became Anglicised as Sodor. The Church of England diocese is still called the Diocese of Sodor and Manmarker although it only covers Man.

(When the Rev. W.V. Awdry wrote The Railway Series, he invented the island of Sodor as an imaginary island located between the Isle of Man and the Cumbrianmarker coast.)

In 1266, as dictated in the Treaty of Perth, Norway's King Magnus VI ceded the isles to Scotland. The Isle of Man came under English control in the 14th century. During this period the Isle was dominated by the Stanley family, who also held the title of Earl of Derby, who had been given possession of Man by King Henry IV. In 1703 the Act of Settlement secured peasant rights and marked the beginning of a move away from feudal government. In 1765, however, the British Crown secured a greater control over the island, without incorporating it into Great Britain, laying the grounds for the island's status as a Crown dependency.In 1866 greater autonomy was restored to the island's parliament and a full transition to democracy began. The Isle quickly developed as a finance centre and tourist destination, becoming increasingly prosperous during the 20th century. During both the First and Second World Wars the island was used as a location for internment camps for Central Powers and Axis citizens and suspected sympathisers, respectively.


Tynwald, the island's parliament, was nominally founded in AD 979. It is arguably the oldest continuous parliament in the world. The annual ceremonial meeting in July on Tynwald Day, the island's national day, continues to be held at Tynwald Hill, where titles are announced and a brief description of the new laws enacted by Tynwald during the previous year is given.


Map of the Isle of Man
The north of the island seen from the air [Triangle area of Kirk Michael (West), Point of Ayre (North) and Ramsey (east)

As well as the main island of Mann itself, the Isle of Man includes some nearby small islands: the seasonally inhabited Calf of Man; Chicken Rock on which stands an unmanned lighthouse; and St Patrick's Isle and St Michael's Isle, both connected to the mainland by permanent roads/causeways.

The Isle of Man is located in the middle of the northern Irish Seamarker, approximately equidistant from the islands of Britainmarker and Irelandmarker. In the context of Britain, the island lies closest to Scotlandmarker followed by Englandmarker and then Walesmarker.

The Isle is long and wide at its widest point. It has an area of around .

Hills in the north and south are bisected by a central valley. The extreme north is exceptionally flat, consisting mainly of deposits built up by deposition from glacial advances from western Scotland during colder times. There are more recently deposited shingle beaches at the Point of Ayremarker. The island has only one mountain higher than , Snaefellmarker, with a height of . According to an old saying, from the summit one can see six kingdoms: those of Mann, Scotland, England, Ireland, Wales, and Heaven. Some versions add a seventh kingdom, that of North Irelandmarker, the Sea, or Neptune.


According to the 2006 interim census, the Isle of Man is home to 80,058 people, of whom 26,218 reside in the island's capital Douglasmarker. Most of the population were born in the British Isles, with 47.6% born in the Isle of Man, 37.2% born in England, 3.4% in Scotland, 2.1% in Northern Irelandmarker, 2.1% in the Republic of Irelandmarker, 1.2% in Wales and 0.3% born in the Channel Islands.


The Isle of Man Full Census, most recently held in 2001, has been a ten-yearly occurrence since 1821, with interim censuses being introduced from 1966. It is separate from, but closely related to, the Census in the United Kingdom.

The 2001 Census was conducted by the Economic Affairs Division of the Isle of Man Treasury, under the authority of the Census Act 1929.


The Isle of Man has a temperate climate, with cool summers and mild winters. Average rainfall is higher than the average for the British Islesmarker, due to its location to the west of Great Britain and sufficient distance from Ireland for moisture to be accumulated by the prevailing south-westerly winds. Average rainfall is highest at Snaefellmarker, where it is around 1900 mm a year. At lower levels it can be around 800 mm a year. Temperatures remain fairly cool, with the recorded maximum being 28.9 °C at Ronaldsway.


A satellite image of the Isle of Man.

The United Kingdom is responsible for the island's defence and ultimately for good governance, and for representing the island in international forums, while the island's own parliament and government have competence over all domestic matters.


The island's parliament is Tynwaldmarker, which dates from at least AD 979 and is the oldest continuously existing ruling body in the world. Tynwald is a bicameral legislature, comprising the House of Keysmarker (directly elected by universal suffrage) and the Legislative Councilmarker (consisting of indirectly elected and ex-officio members). These two bodies meet together in joint session as Tynwald.

The executive branch of government is the Council of Ministers, which is composed of members of Tynwald. It is headed by the Chief Minister, currently Tony Brown MHK. The Council of Ministers comprises the greater part of the House of Keys.

Vice-regal functions of the Head of State are performed by a Lieutenant Governormarker.

External relations and security

Under British law, the Isle of Man is not part of the United Kingdom. However, the UK takes care of its external and defence affairs, and retains paramount power to legislate for the island. There are no independent military forces on the Isle of Man. There is an independent Isle of Man police force, which is controlled directly by the Isle of Man Government, but which nonetheless voluntarily submits to inspection by the UK inspectorate of police.


Citizenship in the Isle of Man is governed by UK law. Passports issued by the Isle of Man Passport Office say "British Islands - Isle of Man" on the cover but the nationality status stated on the passport is simply "British Citizen". However, although Manx passport holders are British citizens, because the Isle of Man is not part of the European Union, those without a grandparent born in the UK (or who have not lived continuously for a period of five or more years in the UK) do not have the same rights as other British citizens with regard to employment and establishment in the EU. Isle of Man passports can be issued to any British citizen in the Isle of Man (whether or not that person has "Manx status" under the local Isle of Man employment laws). They can also be issued to Manx-connected British citizens residing in the UK or any of the other Crown Dependencies.

European Union

The Isle of Man holds neither membership nor associate membership of the European Union. Protocol 3 of the UK's Act of Accession to the Treaty of Rome permits trade for Manx goods without tariffs. In conjunction with the Customs and Excise agreement with the UK, this facilitates free trade with the UK. While Manx goods can be freely moved within the EU, capital and services cannot be. EU citizens are entitled to travel and reside in the island without restriction.

Commonwealth of Nations

The Isle of Man is not itself a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. By virtue of its relationship with the United Kingdom, it takes part in several Commonwealth institutions, including the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Commonwealth Games.


Isle of Man local authorities and sheadings

Most Manx politicians stand for election as independents rather than as representatives of political parties. Though political parties do exist, their influence is not nearly as strong as in the United Kingdom.The largest political party is the recently established Liberal Vannin Party, which promotes greater Manx independence and more accountability in Government. A nationalist pressure group Mec Vannin advocates the establishment of a sovereign republic.

Local government

Local government on the Isle of Man is based around the concept of ancient parishes. There are two types of local authorities: a corporation for the Borough of Douglas, and bodies of 'commissioners' for the town districts of Castletownmarker, Peelmarker and Ramseymarker, the village districts of Kirk Michael, Laxeymarker, Onchanmarker, Port Erinmarker and Port St Marymarker, and the 15 'parish districts' (those parishes or parts of parishes which do not fall within the districts previously mentioned). Local authorities are under the supervision of the Isle of Man Government's Department of Local Government and the Environnment (DOLGE).


The Isle of Man is a "low tax economy" with no capital gains tax, wealth tax, stamp duty, or inheritance tax and a top rate of income tax of 18%. A "tax cap" is in force. The maximum amount of tax payable by an individual is £100,000 or £200,000 for couples if they choose to have their incomes jointly assessed. The £100,000 tax cap equates to an assessable income of approximately £570,000. Personal income is assessed and taxed on a total 'worldwide' income basis rather than a remittance basis. This means that all income earned throughout the world is assessable for Manx tax rather than only income earned in or brought into the Island.

The rate of corporation tax is 0% for almost all types of income, the only exceptions are that the profits of banks are taxed at 10%, as is rental (or other) income from land and buildings situated on the Isle of Man.

Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism form key sectors of the economy. Agriculture and fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, now make declining contributions to the Island's Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Trade takes place mostly with the United Kingdom. The island is in customs union with the UK, and related revenues are pooled and shared under the Common Purse Agreement.

The Manx government promotes island locations for making films by contributing to the production costs. Since 1995 over eighty films have been made on the island.


The main telephone provider on the Isle of Man is Manx Telecom. The island has three mobile operators: Manx Telecom, Cloud9 and Sure. Broadband internet services are available through four local providers which are Wi-Manx, Domicilium, Manx Computer Bureau and Manx Telecom. The island does not have its own ITU country code, but is accessed via the UK's code (+44) and the island's telephone numbers are part of the UK telephone numbering plan with local dialling codes 01624 (landlines) and 07624/07924 (mobiles).

In 1996, the Isle of Man Government obtained permission to use the .im national top-level domain (TLD) and has ultimate responsibility for its use. The domain is managed on a daily basis by Domicilium, an island-based internet service provider.

In December 2007, the Manx Electricity Authority and its telecommunications subsidiary, e-llan Communications commissioned the lighting of a new fibre-optic link that connects the island to a worldwide fibre-optic network.

The Isle of Man has three radio stations: Manx Radio, Energy FM and 3 FM.

There is no insular television service and local transmitters retransmit analogue broadcasts of BBC 1 and BBC 2 (with BBC North West regional programmes), ITV1 (with Granada Television regional programming) and Channel 4. Freeview is available through the local transmitters with a limited local service of digital terrestrial television being shown. However, in areas where local geography is favourable, terrestrial television (including digital terrestrial) can be received direct from transmitters located in the United Kingdom or Republic of Ireland, with all freeviews services being available in these areas.

Many TV services are available by satellite, such as Sky Digital, and Freesat from the group of satellites at 28.2° eastmarker , as well as services from a range of other satellites around Europe such as the Astramarker satellites at 19.2° east and Hotbird.

The Isle of Man has three newspapers, all weeklies, and all owned by Isle of Man Newspapers. The Isle of Man Courier (distribution 36,318) is free and distributed to homes on the island. The other two newspapers are Isle of Man Examiner (circulation 13,276) and the Manx Independent (circulation 12,255).

Postal services are the responsibility of Isle of Man Post, which took over from the UK General Post Office in 1973.


The island has a total of of public roads, all of which are paved. Many of the roads on the island have no speed limit.

Douglas is served by frequent ferries to and from England and more limited summer-only services from Ireland. All ferries are operated by the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company.

The only commercial airport on the island is the Isle of Man Airportmarker at Ronaldsway.

The island used to have an extensive narrow-gauge railway system, both steam-operated and electric, but the majority of the steam railway tracks have been taken out of service and the track removed. Currently there is a steam railway which runs between Douglas and Port Erin, an electric railway which runs between Douglas and Ramsey and an electric mountain railway which climbs Snaefellmarker. The lines are mostly operated for the benefit of tourists, though some people use them for commuting.

There is a comprehensive bus network, operated by Isle of Man Transport.


The culture of the Isle of Man is influenced by its Celtic and to a lesser extent its Norse origins, though its close proximity to the UK, period as a UK tourist destination and recent mass immigration by British migrant workers has meant that British influence has been dominant since the Revestment period. Recent revival campaigns have attempted to preserve the surviving vestiges of Manx culture after a long period of Anglicisation, and significant interest in the Manx language, history and musical tradition have been the result.

Etymology of name

The origin of the name Isle of Man is unclear. In the Manx Gaelic language the Isle of Man is known as , where is a Gaelic word meaning 'island'. The earliest form of 'Man' is or giving the genitive name leading to the word , which is lenited when used after the feminine word Ellan, giving Mhannin. As 'mh' is pronounced like a 'v' in Goidelic languages, in modern Manx the name becomes . These forms are related to the figure of Celtic mythology known as Manannán to the Irish and Manawydan to the Welsh.

The name enters recorded history as Mona (Julius Caesar, 54 BC), and is also recorded as Monapia or Monabia (Pliny the Elder, AD 77), Monœda (Ptolemy, AD 150), Mevania or Mænavia (Paulus Orosius, 416), and Eubonia or Eumonia by Irish writers. In Welsh records it is Manaw, and in the Icelandic sagas it is Mön.Though the Isle of Man was never incorporated into the Roman Empire, the island was noted in Greek and Roman accounts where it was called variously Monapia, Mοναοιδα (Monaoida), Mοναρινα (Monarina), Menavi and Mevania. The Old Welsh and Old Irish names for the Isle of Man, Mano and Manau, also occur in Manau Gododdin, the name for an ancient district in north Britain along the lower Firth of Forthmarker . The name is probably connected with that of the island of Mônmarker and possibly with the Celtic root reflected in Welsh mynydd, Breton menez, Scottish Gaelic monadh ‘mountain’ . These probably derive from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- ‘to tower’ referring to the island apparently rising out of the Irish Seamarker on the horizon .


The official language of the Isle of Man is English. Manx Gaelic has traditionally been spoken but is now considered "critically endangered".

The Manx Gaelic language is a Goidelic Celtic language and is one of a number of insular Celtic languages spoken in the British Isles. Manx Gaelic has been officially recognised as a legitimate autochthonous regional language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, ratified by the United Kingdom on 27 March, 2001 on behalf of the Isle of Man government.

The Manx language is closely related to the Irish language and Scottish Gaelic. By the middle of the 20th century only a few elderly native speakers remained: the last of them, Ned Maddrell, died on 27 December, 1974. By then a scholarly revival had begun to spread to the populace and many had learned Manx as a second language. The first native speakers of Manx (bilingual with English) in many years have now appeared: children brought up by Manx-speaking parents. Primary immersion education in Manx is provided by the Manx government: since 2003, the former St John'smarker School building has been used by the (Manx language-medium school). Degrees in Manx are available from the Isle of Man College and the Centre for Manx Studies. Manx-language playgroups also exist and Manx language classes are available in island schools. In the 2001 census, 1,689 out of 76,315, or 2.2% of the population, claimed to have knowledge of Manx, although the degree of knowledge in these cases was presumably varied.

In common use are the greetings and which mean 'good morning' and 'good afternoon' respectively. The Manx language knows no 'evening' as it is 'afternoon'. Another frequently heard Manx expression is meaning 'time enough', and represents a stereotypical view of the Manx attitude to life.


Manx triskelion.
For centuries, the island's symbol has been its ancient triskelion, a device similar to Sicily's Trinacria: three bent legs, each with a spur, joined at the thigh. The Manx triskelion does not appear to have an official design; government publications, currency, flags, the tourist authority and others all use different variants. Most, but not all, preserve rotational symmetry, some running clockwise, others anti-clockwise. Some have the uppermost thigh at 12:00, others at 11:30 or 10:00, etc. Some have the knee bent at 90°, some at 60°, some at closer to 120°. Also the degree of ornamentation of the leg wear and spur varies considerably.

The three legs refer to the island's motto (adopted late in the symbol's history): , traditionally translated from Latin as 'Whithersoever you throw it, it will stand', or 'Whichever way you throw it, it will stand'.

The origin of the 'Three Legs of Man' (as they are usually called) is explained in the Manx legend that Manannan repelled an invasion by transforming into the three legs and rolling down the hill and defeating the invaders.

Variations on the Manx triskelion are still in use on the coats of arms belonging to the different branches of the ancient Norwegian noble family that ruled Mann until the 13th century. This particular version belongs to the Skancke branch of the Skanke family. The name stems from skank, the Norwegian version of the word 'shank', or 'leg'. The Norse royal family of Man stayed on the island for some years after the death of Magnus III and the beginning of Scottish rule. The family's emigration only came after the final attempt on the part of the Manx at restoring the old Sudreyar dynasty in the 1275 uprising against the Scots. This revolt failed disastrously, ending in the deaths of hundreds of rebels, including the last Norse King of Mann, Godred VI Magnuson when the Manx suffered defeat in the decisive Battle of Ronaldswaymarker, near Castletownmarker. When the Norse-Manx royals arrived in Norway they took service as nobles of the Norwegian king, quickly becoming knights, landlords, and clergy under the Norwegian Crown.


See also Diocese of Sodor and Manmarker
The predominant religious tradition of the island is Christianity, and the ancient Christian Church of the island is today part of the Anglican Communion. The diocese has an unbroken history from 1154 to the present day, during which there have been many changes in tradition and detail. As with all ancient Anglican churches, the diocese was once (and until the reformation) part of the then mainstream of western Christian tradition, the Roman Catholic Church. The diocese has been part of the national churches of Norway, Scotland, and England, and within the latter has been part of both the Province of Canterbury and the Province of York of the Church of England at different times. It has also come under the influence of Irish religious tradition. Today its bishop and 45 parish churches are formally part of the Province of York.

Other Christian churches also operate on the Isle of Man. The second largest denomination is the Methodist Church, which is close in size to the Anglican diocese. There are eight Roman Catholic parish churches, under the authority of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Liverpool. Additionally there are five Baptist churches, four Pentecostal churches, and two United Reformed churches.

There is a small Jewish community on the island, with a synagogue in Douglas.

Myth, legend and folklore

In Manx mythology, the island was ruled by Manannán mac Lir, a Celtic sea god, who would draw his misty cloak around the island to protect it from invaders. One of the principal theories about the origin of the name Mann is that it is named after Manannan.

In the Manx tradition of folklore, there are many stories of mythical creatures and characters. These include the , a malevolent spirit who according to legend blew the roof off St Trinian's Church in a fit of pique; the ; the ; and the , a ghostly black dog who wandered the walls and corridors of Peel Castlemarker.

The Isle of Man is also said to be home to fairies, known locally as 'the little folk' or 'themselves'. There is a famous Fairy Bridgemarker and it is said to be bad luck if one fails to wish the fairies good morning or afternoon when passing over it. It used to be a tradition to leave a coin on the bridge to ensure good luck. Other types of fairies are the and the .

An old Irish story tells how Lough Neaghmarker was formed when Ireland's legendary giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (sometimes known as Finn McCool) scooped up a portion of the land and tossed it at a Scottish rival. He missed, and the chunk of earth landed in the Irish Seamarker, thus creating the island.

Peel Castlemarker has been proposed as a possible location of the Arthurian Avalon.


Traditionally the national dish of the island is 'Spuds and Herrin', boiled potatoes and herring. This plain dish is chosen because of its role supporting the subsistence farmers of the island, who crofted the land and fished the sea for centuries. Another foodstuff long associated with the island is the kipper, a smoked herring.

A more recent claim for the title of national dish would be the ubiquitous chips, cheese and gravy. This analog of poutine is found in most of the island's fast-food outlets, and consists of thick cut chips, covered in shredded Manx cheddar cheese and topped with a thick gravy.

Seafood has traditionally accounted for a large proportion of the local diet. Although commercial fishing has declined in recent years, local delicacies include Manx kippers (smoked herring) which are produced by the smokeries in Peel on the west coast of the island, albeit mainly from North Seamarker herring these days. The smokeries also produce other specialities including smoked salmon and bacon.

Crab, lobster and scallops are commercially fished, and the Queen Scallop ('Queenies') is regarded as a particular delicacy, with a light, sweet flavour. Cod, ling and mackerel are often angled for the table, and freshwater trout and salmon can be taken from the local rivers and lakes, supported by the Government fish hatchery at Cornaa.

Cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry are all commercially farmed, Manx lamb from the hill-farms being a popular dish. The Loaghtan, the indigenous breed of Manx sheep, has a rich, dark meat that has found favour with chefs, featuring in dishes on the BBC's Masterchef series.

Milk and cheese are produced by IOM Creameries. Manx cheese has been a particular success, featuring smoked and herb-flavoured varieties and is stocked by many of the UK's supermarket chains. Manx cheese took bronze medals in the 2005 British Cheese Awards, and sold 578 tonnes over the year.

Beer is brewed on a commercial scale by Okells Brewery (established in 1850) and Bushy's Brewery.


The Isle of Man is represented as a nation in the Commonwealth Games and the Island Games and will be hosting the IV Commonwealth Youth Games in 2011. Manx sports people have won three golds at the games, the most recent being Mark Cavendish, a professional cyclist, in 2006 in the Scratch race. Cavendish has had great success in cycling, having won ten stages of the Tour de France to date. The island started the Island Games in 1985, and also hosted the Island Games in 2001.

Isle of Man teams and individuals participate in many sports both on and off the island including rugby union, football, gymnastics, hockey, netball, bowling and cricket. Being an island, many types of watersports are also popular with residents.

Motorbike racing

The main international motorcycle event associated with the island is the Isle of Man TT, which began in 1907 and takes place in late May and early June. It is now an international road racing event for motorbikes and used to be part of the World Championship. The Manx Grand Prix is a motorcycle event for amateurs and private entrants that uses the same Snaefell Mountain Coursemarker in late August and early September.


Cammag is the national sport of the Isle of Man. It is similar to the Irish hurling, and Scottish game of shinty. Once the most popular sport on the island, it ceased to be played by the start of the 20th century. It has more recently been revived with an annual match at St John'smarker.

Famous residents

Born or brought up on the island

Moved to the island

See also



  1. Ellan is Manx for island; Vannin is the genitive case of Mannin, and means of Mann.
  2. p8, Richard Bradley The prehistory of Britain and Ireland, Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 0521848113
  3. Manx Museum Mesolithic collections
  4. Manx Museum Neolithic collections
  5. Manx Museum Bronze Age collections
  6. Manx Museum Celtic Farmers (Iron Age) collections
  7. Diocese of Sodor and Mann - Manx Notebook site
  8. Sibley, Brian (1995), The Thomas the Tank Engine Man, Heinemann, ISBN 0 434 96909 5, p.154
  9. Manx Notebook website, Act of Revestment
  10. Manx National Heritage website
  11. Both the Icelandic parliament and the Faroe Islands' parliament are older, but were abolished from 1800 to 1845 and 1816 to 1852, respectively.
  12. Tynwald website
  15. Ian O'Leary Lecture
  16. Isle of Man Government website
  17. British Library page on the Chronicle of Mann
  18. Royal Commission on the Constitution 1969 - 1973, Volume I, Report (Cmnd 5460)
  19. Isle of Man Constabulary website
  20. Manx government explanation of Protocol 3
  21. MecVannin website
  22. Direct Tax - Isle of Man Government
  23. New Assessor of Income Tax - Isle of Man Government
  24. Forget Monaco: Isle of Man cuts tax to tempt super-rich - Tax, Money -
  25. Isle of Man - About the Island
  26. The Isle of Man. A Social, Cultural and Political History. by R.H. Kinvig pp18 (1975) (3rd Edition) Liverpool University Press ISBN 0-85323-391-8
  27. Kneale, Victor (2006). "Ellan Vannin (Isle of Man)" . "Britonia". In John T. Koch, Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, p. 676.
  28. Simple Names
  29. The Several Names of Man
  30. A Description of the Isle of Man
  31. The Isle of Man. A Social, Cultural and Political History. by R.H. Kinvig pp18-19 (1975) (3rd Edition) Liverpool University Press ISBN 0-85323-391-8
  32. Rivet A L F and Smith Colin. (1979:410-11) The Place Names of Roman Britain, Batsford, (Pp xviii + 526, pls, ills, + bib + index)
  33. Koch, John T. (2006:676) Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO Ltd. ISBN 1851094407. ISBN 978-1851094400
  34. Koch, John T. (2006:679) Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO Ltd. ISBN 1851094407. ISBN 978-1851094400
  35. Indogermanisches Etymologisches Woerterbuch: Record number 1277 (Root / lemma: men-1)
  36. Full details in A Moore's comprehensive history which is available on-line in full.
  37. A full list is given on the diocesan website.
  38. See official entry in the Anglican Communion directory.
  39. All churches on the island are listed on this website.
  42. Isle of Man - Factfile - Daily Life


  • Russel, G. 1988. Distribution and development of some Manx epiphyte populations. Helgolander Meeresunters. 42: 477 - 492.

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