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Jackson is a city located along Interstate 94 in the south central area of the U.S. state of Michiganmarker, about west of Ann Arbor. It is the county seat of Jackson Countymarker. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 36,316. It is the principal city of the Jackson Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Jackson County.

It was founded in 1829, and named after Democratic President Andrew Jackson.

Geography



History

Jackson County Tower, Jackson's tallest building.


On July 3, 1829, Horace Blackman, accompanied by Alexander Laverty, a land surveyor, and an Indian guide forded the Grand River and made camp for the night at what is now Trail and S. Jackson Street. They arrived in Jackson on a well-traveled Indian trail leading west from Ann Arbor. Blackman hired Laverty and Pewytum to guide him west. Blackman returned to Ann Arbor and then Monroe and registered his claim for at two dollars an acre. Blackman returned to Jackson in August, 1829, with his brother Russell. Together they cleared land and built a cabin, built on the corner of what would become Ingham and Trail streets. The town was first called Jacksonopolis. Later, it was renamed Jacksonburgh. Finally, in 1838 the town's name was changed to simply Jackson.

Birthplace of the Republican Party - "Under the Oaks"

Jackson is the birthplace of the Republican Party. Undisputed is the fact that the first official meeting of the group that actually called itself "Republican" was held in Jackson under the Oaks on July 6, 1854. Earlier meetings of groups that later formed the Republican Party were held in Ripon, Wisconsinmarker, Exeter, New Hampshiremarker and Crawfordsville, Iowamarker, and all four cities bill themselves as the "Birthplace of the Republican Party." [2201].

Since the convention day was hot and the huge crowd could not be accommodated in the hall, the meeting adjourned to an oak grove on "Morgan's Forty" on the outskirts of town, where a slate of candidates was selected for state elections. The spot is now the north west corner of Second and Franklin streets in Jackson, and is commonly called

Economy

CMS Energy headquarters in downtown Jackson


Three major private employers in the city are CMS Energy, which provides natural gas and electrical services to much of Michigan and has its international headquarters in the city, as well as Allegiance Healthmarker and the Eaton Corporation.

Michigan Automotive Compressor, Inc. (MACI) is the largest manufacturer in the County. Jackson is also home to a state prison complex, which includes a building once known as the largest walled prison in the world. Portions of the prison complex closed in 2007, including the Annex of the Charles Egeler Reception and Guidance Center Annex (RGC) and the Southern Michigan Correctional Facility (JMF). However, the five other facilities in the complex, including two in the old walled building, remain open: the G. Robert Cotton Correctional Facility (JCF), the Cooper Street Correctional Facility (JCS), the Charles Egeler Reception & Guidance Center (RGC), the Parnall Correctional Facility (SMT).

Income tax

The City of Jackson currently assesses a 1% income tax to residents and businesses located within the city, and 0.5% for non-residents working within the city limits. The income tax provides $7,000,000 of revenue, or 32% of the city's annual budget.

Motorsports

Jackson is from Michigan International Speedwaymarker. Each year the facility hosts several NASCAR sanctioned races including two Sprint Cup races held in June and August, in addition to a NASCAR Camping World Truck series race and one Nationwide Series race.

The Jackson area was the home of Indy 500-winning car owner U. E. Patrick ("Pat" Patrick) and NASCAR team owner Harry Melling. Patrick Racing was formed in 1978 concurrent with the formation of Championship Auto Racing Teams (CART). For many years CART was sponsored by PPG. Patrick Racing won three Indianapolis 500smarker and two CART PPG championships with Gordon Johncock and Emerson Fittipaldi before the team folded in 1991. The team was revived in 1994 to test Firestone Indy car tires, and won the 1995 Michigan 500. Patrick Racing jumped to the IRL in 2004 and folded at the end of the season. Jackson area residents gave early financial support to Bill Elliott, then a promising young driver who joined the new Melling Racing team in 1982. Melling Racing with Elliott driving the Coors sponsored number 9 Ford Thunderbird won the NASCAR Winston Cup series title in 1988.

Grass Lake is also the home of the Community Racing Challenge. The Community Racing Challenge Series of Events will be held every Saturday Night from April 28 through September 16 at Springport Motor Speedway in Springport, Mi. Springport Motor Speedway is a state-of-the-art facility constructed of old wooden planks and old buildings in the early 80's with a total capacity approaching 7500.

Education

The Jackson urbanized area is home to approximately 16 different elementary public schools, as well as about 16 private or parochial schools. It also has a large public middle school (The Middle School at Parkside), as well as Jackson Catholic Middle School. Finally, it also boasts eight high schools: Jackson High School (Public), East Jackson High School (Public), Jackson County Western High School (Public), Northwest High School (Public), The daVinci Institute (Charter), Jackson Christian School (Private, Non-Denom), Tomlinson Education Center, and Lumen Christi High Schoolmarker (Private, Catholic).

Education continues for adults who can take advantage of programs offered at three institutions of higher learning: Jackson Community Collegemarker (JCC), Baker College, and Spring Arbor University. There are an additional 15 institutions all within one hour of Jackson County.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 36,316 people, 14,210 households, and 8,668 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,274.9 per square mile (1,264.4/km²). There were 15,241 housing units at an average density of 1,374.4/sq mi (530.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 73.87% White, 19.70% Black or African American, 0.56% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.65% from other races, and 3.67% from two or more races. 4.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 14,210 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.8% were married couples living together, 19.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.0% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.12.

In the city the population was spread out with 29.7% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, and 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,294, and the median income for a family was $39,072. Males had a median income of $31,957 versus $23,817 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,230. About 15.2% of families and 19.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.9% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over.

Religion

Jackson has a number of notable historic churches, several of which were established prior to the American Civil War. The First Baptist Church was established in 1839; the present building, a Romanesque Revival structure, was dedicated in March 1872. The First Congregational Church is housed in a monumental Romanesque Revival building constructed in 1859. Its congregation has actively participated in local social reform efforts, participating in the antislavery movement in the 1840s and later supporting the temperance and civil rights movements. St. Paul's Episcopal Church was also founded in 1839. The congregation's first church building, constructed in 1840, was replaced by a Romanesque Revival building in 1853; it is one of the oldest Episcopal Church structures in southern Michigan.

Constructed in 1857, St. John's the Evangelist Church is the oldest Roman Catholic church in the city. It was established as a mission in 1836 to serve a congregation that was originally predominately Irish but has since diversified to include people of many ethnic backgrounds. St. Mary Star of the Sea was established in 1881 as Jackson's second Catholic church. The present building, a limestone Romanesque structure built between 1923-26, incorporates elements of the parish's first church as well as stained glass windows, marble altars and communion rails imported from Italy and Austria.

Jackson is also home to Temple Beth Israelmarker, a Reform synagogue founded in 1862 by German Jews.

Transportation

Jackson was originally a major railway hub, and for over a century has been known as the crossroads of Michigan.

Major highways

Jackson is at the junction of Interstate Highway I-94 and US-127.

I-94
I-94 Business Loop
US-127 is a north-south highway providing access northerly toward Lansingmarker and Claremarker and southerly into Ohiomarker. In the Jackson area, US-127 runs concurrently with I-94 for approximately four miles. It is freeway from Jackson northerly past Lansing, while the freeway south of Jackson quickly transitions to a two-lane, uncontrolled access highway.


Business US-127 is a loop route running through downtown, connecting with US-127 at either end.
M-50 enters Jackson from the northwest, and exits southeast of town.
M-60 approaches Jackson from the southwest, ending at I-94 west of the city.
M-106 enters Jackson from the northeast and ends downtown.


Airport

Reynolds Field at Jackson County Airportmarker is the main airport for the city. It hosted commercial service, primarily under the North Central Airlines banner, until 1984. With the "Blue Goose" aircraft now gone, the airport today operates as a general aviation facility. The Jackson Jazz Festival is held there annually.

Michigan Flyer operates bus service between Jackson and Detroit Metro Airportmarker running eight times daily.

Rail

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Jackson, operating its Wolverine three times daily in each direction between Chicagomarker and Pontiacmarker, Michiganmarker via Detroitmarker. Baggage cannot be checked at this location; however, up to two suitcases in addition to any "personal items" such as briefcases, purses, laptop bags, and infant equipment are allowed on board as carry-ons.

Public Transportation

Jackson Transit Authority operates 8 routes Monday through Saturday out of a central station located downtown. Greyhound Lines provides service from the JTA station. In addition to the publicly funded JTA, there are four private taxicab companies operating in town.

Notable people from Jackson



Sister cities





References

  1. "Charles Egeler Reception and Guidance Center Annex (RGC) Closed November 2, 2007"
  2. Michigan Department of Corrections 2008 Statistical Report, pg. F-18
  3. "Southern Michigan Correctional Facility (JMF) Closed November 17, 2007"
  4. "G. Robert Cotton Correctional Facility (JCF)"
  5. "Cooper Street Correctional Facility (JCS)"
  6. "Charles Egeler Reception & Guidance Center (RGC)"
  7. "Parnall Correctional Facility (SMT)"
  8. Ashlee, Laura R. Traveling through time: a guide to Michigan's historical markers, pp. 202-205. University of Michigan Press, 2005. ISBN 0472030663
  9. Greater Jackson Chamber of Commerce 5 June 2002. Retrieved on 11 September 2009.
  10. [1] 9 May 2006.


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