Jaghori (also spelt
Jaghuri or Jaghoori) is a major
business center and one of the main districts of Ghazni province in Afghanistan.
It is situated in the highlands of the
central (Hazaristan) region. The population was estimated at 192,216 in
2002, making it one of the most populous districts in Afghanistan.
Sange-e-Masha is a small bazaar of mud and
dust. The rest of the district comprises villages of different
sizes all dependent on agriculture as the main source of income and
During the period of Dost Muhammed
in the 1830s the area operated as part of the
semi-autonomous area of Hazarajat
. In 1949
from it. During the Soviet Occupation Maoist resistance groups were
particularly active. After the government lost the area, most of
the Pashtoons were forced out. After Harakat lost in Qarabagh of
Ghazni in 1985 to Nasr, the Khomeinist organizations united to
force out Hizb-e Islami from the districts of Jaghori and Malistan.
However there were only sporadic clashes here and the central
government lacked interest in Jaghori. Around 1997, as the Taliban
began to take control of Hazarajat the area was put under food
blockade, leaving approximately 1 million Hazaras on the bring of
starvation, including those in Malistan. In 1997 the elders of
Jaghori avoided a Taliban attack by convening a shura in and
negotiating with Taliban leaders in Kandahar, Kabul and Ghazni in
order to arrange a peaceful surrender.
From 2002-2008 approximately 12,348 refugees repatriated through
the UNHCR system, although only 181 were listed as returning in
2008 and the vast majority of repatriation occurred in
Reported intimidation has taken place by some armed groups
associated with Hizb-i Wahdat which has led to some internal
displacement. Members from the Nasr faction were particularly
highlighted in this, and they have been accused of abductions,
extortion and other crimes. Taliban presence in Ghazni has become a
significant problem as well with some sources referring to the area
as Taliban controlled. Aside from this the major sources of
conflict are related to land and water, while debt and marriage
related conflict does occur Land conflicts increased greatly during
the period of drought.
In 2007 the general upsurge in violence in Afghanistan has spilled
into Jaghori. Taliban militiamen from neighbouring districts have
staged two attacks against district police posts and an attack on
the family of the local police commander and warlord Bashi Habibullah
. The Taliban has also
issued warning night-letters to villagers in the district.
The security situation in other parts of the province has greatly
affected the livelihood of the inhabitants, posing serious threats
to their life, security and freedom. The districts are inaccessible
except through Taliban territory, where the road has been
reportedly mine and in some areas vehicles have been banned.
According to some reports the road from Qarabagh District
to Jaghouri, passing
through Malestan is under particular threat, with kidnappings and
up to 150 cars having been stolen.There are also concerns that the
Taliban will use the Kuchi nomads to exert their influence in the
has in recent years produced the largest number of students to
qualify for a place in Kabul and other
universities in Afghanistan, which some estimate to be in
The new trend towards learning and education has
come as a reaction against what people went through during the
decades of factional, tribal, ethnic and religious conflicts.
Currently there are a number of High Schools, and hundreds of
smaller primary and middle schools in the district but there are
few signs of other infrastructure such as roads, electricity, water
or gas. As of 2008 there were no reports of closures of schools due
Economy, Agriculture and Development
According to information from the United Nations Food Program for
Afghanistan in 2003 and the Ministry for Rural Rehabilitation and
Development in 2007, the main crops in the area are rice, wheat,
corn, maize, peas, vetch, beans, almonds, walnuts, mulberries,
grapes, tobacco, sesame, cotton, sugar extract, oranges,
pomegranates, potatoes, onions, and herbs.
60 Community Development Committees were reportedly active in
Malistan in 2008.
In years following the fall of the Taliban
the area has been particularly affected by drought. In combination
with frequent attacks along the Kabul-Kandahar Ring Road this has
seriously effected aid and development in the system and
exacerbated local conflicts.
Important bazaars are Sange-e-Masha, Angory
Past and present major political parties include Muttahed-e
Inqelab-e Islami Afghanistan (formed 1981), Hizbullah, Harakat-i Islami
, Sazman-e Nasr-e
Afghanistan, Pasdaran-e Jihad-e Islami Afghanistan (formed 1983)
and Hezb-e Wahdat (Nasr faction), the later controlling the
district since 2001-2008, although as of 2009 the Taliban have
begun to exert their influence. Specifically Khalili’s faction is
known to be particularly strong.
The District Governor is Khudadad Irfani, a member of Hezb-I Wahdat
and a native of Jaghori. The Police Chief, Isehaq Ali, is a native
of Dashtee Barchi in Kabul and is also affiliated with Hezb-I
Wahdat. Neither are known to have links with criminal groups.
Jaghori is home to the Hazaras
ethnic group that constitutes 20%-25% of Afghanistan's population.
They speak Farsi (Persian) language|with Hazaragi accent], a rural
accent of Dari
. The literacy rate,
estimated at 30% for men and 10% for women, is among the highest in
the country, and there is a noteworthy library of around 5000 books
in the capital, Sange-e-Masha.
The average number of people per household
is 8. The entire district is primarily Hazara however Kuchi nomads
travel through the area in spring and autumn. This has caused
significant conflict in 2007-2008 as in other areas of Afghanistan
such as [[Behsud District. Transportation is a combination of
vehicles and animals. The well-off use modern transportation.
* UNHCR District Profile
, accessed 2006-04-24