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Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the capital and largest city of Indonesiamarker. It is the largest city by population in Indonesia and in Southeast Asia as a whole. It was formerly known as Sunda Kelapa (397–1527), Jayakarta (1527–1619), Batavia (1619–1942), and Djakarta (1942–1972). Located on the northwest coast of Javamarker, it has an area of and a population of 8,489,910. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political center. Jakarta is the twelfth-largest city in the world; the metropolitan area, called Jabodetabekmarker, is now the second largest in the world.

First established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. As Batavia, it grew greatly as the capital of the colonial Dutch East Indiesmarker. Renamed Jakarta in 1942 during Japan's occupation of Java, it was made the capital city of Indonesia when the country became independent after World War II.

Major landmarks in Jakarta include Indonesia Stock Exchange, the Bank of Indonesia, and the National Monumentmarker (Tugu Monas). The city is the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat. Jakarta is served by the Soekarno-Hatta International Airportmarker, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airportmarker, and Tanjung Priok harbour; it is connected by several intercity and commuter railways, and served by several bus lines running on reserved busway.

Geography

Jakarta is located on the northwestern coast of Javamarker, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Seamarker. The northern part of Jakarta is constituted on a plain land, approximately eight meters above the sea level. This contributes to the frequent flooding. The southern parts of the city are hilly. There are about thirteen rivers flowing through Jakarta, mostly flowing from the hilly southern parts of the city northwards towards the Java Sea. The most important river is the Ciliwung River, which divides the city into the western and eastern principalities. The city border is the province of West Javamarker on its east side and the province of Bantenmarker on its west side.

The Thousand Islandsmarker, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay north of the city.

Climate

Jakarta has a hot and humid equatorial/tropical climate (Af) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Located in the western-part of Indonesia, Jakarta's wet season rainfall peak is January with average monthly rainfall of , and its dry season low point is August with a monthly average of .The city is humid throughout the year with daily temperature range of 25° to 36°C (77°-97°F).

History



The old name of Jakarta was Sunda Kelapa. The earliest record mentioning this area as a capital city can be traced to the Indianized kingdom of Tarumanagara as early as the fourth century. In AD 39, King Purnawarman established Sunda Pura as a new capital city for the kingdom, located at the northern coast of Java.Purnawarman left seven memorial stones with inscriptions bearing his name spread across the area, including the present-day Bantenmarker and West Javamarker provinces. The Tugu Inscription is considered the oldest of all of them.

After the power of Tarumanagara declined, all of its many territories, including Sunda Pura, became part of the Kingdom of Sunda. The harbour area were renamed Sunda Kelapa as written in a Hindu monk's lontar manuscripts, which are now located at the Bodleian Librarymarker of Oxford Universitymarker in Englandmarker, and travel records by Prince Bujangga Manik. By the fourteenth century, Sunda Kelapa became a major trading port for the kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguesemarker ships from Malaccamarker, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices, especially black pepper.

The Kingdom of Sunda made a peace agreement with Portugal by allowing the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 in order to defend against the rising power of the Sultanate of Demak from central Java.In 1527, Fatahillah, a Sumatran Malay warrior from Demak attacked Kingdom of Sunda and succeeded in conquering the harbour on June 22 1527, after which Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta.



Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the British East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Acehmarker and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the center of British trade in Indonesia until 1682.

Apparently, Jayawikarta also made a trading connection with the English merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615. When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch later deteriorated, Jayawikarta's soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. But even with the help of fifteen British ships, Prince Jayakarta's army wasn't able to defeat the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen (J.P. Coen). The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced the English retreat on their ships. With this victory, Dutch power in the area was consolidated. In 1619 they renamed the city "Batavia."
Batavia c.1870


Commercial opportunities in the capital of the Dutch colony attracted Indonesian and especially Chinese immigrants, the increasing numbers creating burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. On 9 October 1740, 5,000 Chinese were massacred and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls. The city began to move further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 encouraged more people to move far south of the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng was started in 1913, and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area. By 1930 Batavia had more than 500,000 inhabitants, including 37,067 Europeans.

The city was renamed "Jakarta" by the Japanese during their World War II occupation of Indonesia. Following World War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from allied-occupied Jakarta during their fight for Indonesian independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta. In 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta was once again made the national capital. Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, envisaged Jakarta as a great international city. He instigated large government-funded projects undertaken with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture. Projects in Jakarta included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard (Jalan MH Thamrin-Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monumentmarker, major hotels, shopping centre, and a new parliament building.

In October 1965, Jakarta was the site of an abortive coup attempt which saw 6 top generals killed, and ultimately resulted in the downfall of Sukarno and the start of Suharto's "New Order. A propaganda monument stands at the place where the general's bodies were dumpedmarker. In 1966, Jakarta was declared a "special capital city district" (daerah khusus ibukota), thus gaining a status approximately equivalent to that of a state or province. Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as Governor from the mid-60's commencement of the "New Order" through to 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built several hospitals, and a large number of new schools. He also cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects—some for the benefit of the Suharto family—and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city in order to stem the overcrowding and poverty.Land redistribution, structural adjustment, and foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom which changed the face of the city. The boom ended with the 1997/98 East Asian Economic crisis putting Jakarta at the center of violence, protest, and political maneuvering. Long-time president, Suharto, began to lose his grip on power. Tensions reached a peak in the Jakarta riots of May 1998, when four students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces; four days of riots and violence ensued resulting in the loss of an estimated 1,200 lives and 6,000 buildings damaged or destroyed. The Jakarta riots targeted many Chinese Indonesians. Suharto resigned as president, and Jakarta has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia. A number of Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings have occurred in the city since 2000.

Administration

Officially, Jakarta is not a city, but rather a province with special status as the capital of Indonesiamarker. It is administered much like any other Indonesian province. For example: Jakarta has a governor (instead of a mayor), and is divided into several sub-regions with their own administrative systems. Jakarta, as a province, is divided into five cities (kota), formerly municipalities, each headed by a mayor, and one regency (kabupaten) headed by a regent. In August 2007, Jakarta held its first ever election to pick a governor; the election was won by Fauzi Bowo. The city's governors have previously been appointed by local parliament. The poll is part of a country-wide decentralization drive, allowing for direct local elections in several areas.

List of cities of Jakarta:

  • Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat: Pop. 889,448) is the most densely populated district and home to most of the city's skyscrapers. The district is the central government office, Bank Indonesia, the big mosque of Istiqlal, the big shopping center of Grand Indonesiamarker and numerous museums.
  • East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur: Pop. 2,391,166)
  • North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara: Pop. 1,445,623 )
  • South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan: Pop. 2,001,353 )
  • West Jakarta (Jakarta Barat: Pop. 2,093,013)


The only regency of Jakarta is:



Culture



As the economic and political capital of Indonesia, Jakarta attracts many foreign as well as domestic immigrants. Many of the immigrants come from other parts of Indonesia, bringing along a mixture of languages, dialects, traditional foods and customs.

A nickname for Jakarta is "The Big Durian".

The Betawi (Orang Betawi, or "people of Batavia") is a term used to describe the descendants of the people living in and around Batavia and recognized as an ethnic group from around the 18th-19th century. The Betawi people are mostly descended from various Southeast Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labor needs, and include people from parts of Indonesiamarker. The language and the culture of these immigrants is distinct from that of the Sundanese or Javanese. The language is more based on the East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Sundanese, Javanese, Chinese, and Arabic. Nowadays, the Jakarta-dialects used by people in Jakarta are loosely based on the Betawi language.

Ironically, the Betawi arts are rarely found in Jakarta due to their infamous low-profile and most Betawi have moved to the border of Jakarta, displaced by new immigrants. It is easier to find Java or Minang based wedding ceremonial instead of Betawi weddings in Jakarta. It is easier to find Javanese Gamelan instead of Gambang Kromong (a mixture between Betawi and Chinese music) or Tanjidor (a mixture between Betawi and Portuguese music) or Marawis (a mixture between Betawi and Yaman music). However, some festivals such as the Jalan Jaksa Festival or Kemang Festival include efforts to preserve Betawi arts by inviting artists to give performances.

There has also been a significant Chinese community in Jakarta for many centuries. Officially, they make up 6% of the Jakarta population, though this number may be under-reported.

Jakarta has several museums featuring general as well as specific themes of interest. The museums in Jakarta cluster around the Central Jakarta Merdeka Plain area, Jakarta Old Town, and Taman Mini Indonesia Indahmarker. The museums in Jakarta are: National Museum of Indonesiamarker, Jakarta Historical Museum, Wayang Museum, Ceramics and Fine Arts Museum, Maritime Museum, Bank Indonesia Museum, Bank Mandiri Museum, Textile Museum, Satria Mandala Military Museum, Indonesia Museum, Indonesian Fauna Museum, Asmat Museum, Insect Museum, Sport Museum, Tranportation Museum, Telecommunication Museum, Petrol and Gas Museum, Electricity and New Energy Museum, Pusaka (Heirloom) Museum, Stamp Museum, Bayt al-Qur’an and Istiqlal Islamic Museum, and Jakarta Cathedralmarker Museum.

A large shopping mall in Jakarta.
Jakarta has several performing art centers, such as the Taman Ismail Marzuki (TIM) art center in Cikini, Gedung Kesenian Jakarta near Pasar Baru, Balai Sarbini in Plaza Semanggi area, Bentara Budaya Jakarta in Palmerah area, Pasar Seni (Art Market) in Ancol, and traditional Indonesian art performances at the pavilions of some Provinces in Taman Mini Indonesia Indahmarker. Traditional music is often found at high-class hotels, including Wayang and Gamelan performances. Javanese Wayang Orang performance can be found at Wayang Orang Bharata theater near Senen bus terminal. As the nation's largest city and capital, Jakarta has lured much national and regional talent who hope to find a greater audience and more opportunities for success.

Jakarta is hosting several prestigious art and culture festivals as well as exhibitions, such as the annual Jakarta International Film Festival (JiFFest), Jakarta International Java Jazz Festival, Jakarta Fashion Week, Jakarta Fashion & Food Festival (JFFF), Flona Jakarta (Flora and Fauna exhibition, held annually on August in Lapangan Banteng park featuring flowers, plant nursery, and pets), also Indonesia Creative Products and Jakarta Arts and Crafts exhibition. The Jakarta Fair is held annually from mid June to mid July to celebrate the anniversary of the city. It is largely centered around a trade fair, however this month-long fair also has featured entertainments, arts and music performances by local bands and musicians.

Several foreign art and culture centers also established in Jakarta, mainly serve to promote culture and language through learning centers, libraries, and art galleries. Among these foreign art and cultural centers are Netherlandsmarker Erasmus Huis, UKmarker British Council, Francemarker Centre Culturel Français, Germanymarker Goethe-Institut, Japan Foundation, and Jawaharlal Nehru Indianmarker Cultural Center.

Economy

The economy depends heavily on financial service, trading, and manufacturing. Financial service constituted 23% of Jakarta's GDP in 1989. The manufacturing industry is well-diversified with significant electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing sectors. Jakarta is the most luxurious and busiest city in Indonesia. In 2009, 13% of the population had an income per capita in excess of US$ 10,000 (Rp 108,000,000).

Transportation

Jalan Thamrin, the main avenue in Central Jakarta


One of the most populous cities in the world, Jakarta is strained by transportation problems. In Indonesia most communal transport is provided by mikrolets, which are privately run minibuses although these normally stay off the main roads. A cheap way to travel around Jakarta is using either the Metro Mini or Kopakja which are 2,000Rp's a ride.

Road transport

Despite the presence of many wide roads, Jakarta suffers from congestion due to heavy traffic, especially in the central business district. To reduce traffic jams, some major roads in Jakarta have a 'three in one' rule during rush hours, first introduced in 1992, prohibiting fewer than three passengers per car on certain roads.



Auto rickshaws, called bajaj, provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city. From the early 1940s to 1991 they were a common form of local transportation in the city. In 1966, an estimated 160,000 rickshaws were operating in the city; as much as fifteen percent of Jakarta's total workforce was engaged in rickshaw driving. In 1971, rickshaws were banned from major roads, and shortly thereafter the government attempted a total ban, which substantially reduced their numbers but did not eliminate them. An especially aggressive campaign to eliminate them finally succeeded in 1990 and 1991, but during the economic crisis of 1998, some returned amid less effective government attempts to control them.



The TransJakarta bus rapid transit service operates on seven reserved busway corridors in the city; connected seven main points of Jakarta, such as Blok M, Jakarta Kota, Pulo Gadung, Kali Deres, Lebak Bulusmarker, Ragunan, and Kampung Rambutan. The first TransJakarta line, from Blok M to Jakarta Kotamarker opened in January 2004.

An outer ring road is now being constructed and is partly operational from Cilincingmarker-Cakungmarker-Pasar Rebo-Pondok Pinang-Daan Mogot-Cengkareng. A toll road connects Jakarta to Soekarno-Hatta International Airportmarker in the northwest of Jakarta. Connected via toll road is the port of Merakmarker and Tangerangmarker to the west, connected Bogormarker, Puncakmarker to the south, and connected Bekasimarker, Cikarang, Karawangmarker, Cikampek, Purwakartamarker, and Bandungmarker to the east.

Rail and Waterway



Numerous railways serve Jakarta, connecting the city to its neighboring regions: Depokmarker and Bogormarker to the south, Tangerangmarker and Serpong to the west, and Bekasimarker, Karawangmarker, and Cikampek to the east. The major rail stations are Gambirmarker, Jakarta Kotamarker, Jatinegaramarker, Pasar Senen, Manggarai, and Tanah Abang. During peak hours, the number of passengers greatly exceeds the system's capacity, and crowding is common.

Two lines of the Jakarta Monorail are under construction: the green line serving Semanggi-Casablanca Road-Kuningan-Semanggi and the blue line serving Kampung Melayu-Casablanca Road-Tanah Abang-Roxy. In addition, there are plans for a two-line metro system, with a north-south line between Kota and Lebak Bulus, with connections to both monorail lines; and an east-west line, which will connect with the north-south line at the Sawah Besar station. The current project, which began in 2005, has been delayed due to a lack of funds, and the project has been abandoned by the developer PT Jakarta Monorail in March 2008. The government is now looking for new investors.

On 30 November 2007, KRL(Commuter Train) Ciliwung Blue Line began operation. It serves Jakarta's circle line, which was used in the 80s. The fare price is Rp3500,00. It serves Manggarai, Sudirman, Karet, Tanah Abang, Duri, Angke, Kampung Bandan, Rajawali, Kemayoran, Pasar Senen, Gang Sentiong, Kramat, Pondok Jati, and Jatinegaramarker. The train can carry 400 passengers.

On 6 June 2007, the city administration started to introduce the Waterway, a new river boat service along the Ciliwung River.

Air

Soekarno-Hatta International Airportmarker (CGK) is Jakarta's major airport and Indonesia's primary international gateway. It is used by both private and commercial carriers connecting Jakarta with other Indonesian cities and international destinations, and is Indonesia's busiest airport handling more than 30 million passengers annually. A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airportmarker (HLP) serves mostly private and VVIP/presidential flights.

Education

Jakarta is home to many universities. The biggest is University of Indonesia who has two location in Salemba and Depokmarker. Beside UI, three others of government universities are Jakarta State University, Jakarta State Polytechnic, and Jakarta Islamic State University. Nowadays, the oldest of which is the privately-owned Universitas Nasional (UNAS). There are also many other private universities in Jakarta, such as Trisakti University , Atma Jaya University, and Tarumanagara University, which are three of the few largest private universities in Indonesia. STOVIA was the first high school in Jakarta, established since 1851. As the largest city and the capital, Jakarta houses a large number of students from various parts of Indonesia, many of whom reside in dormitories or home-stay residences. Similar to other large cities in developing Asian countries, there are many professional schools. For basic education, there are a variety of primary and secondary schools, tagged with public (national), private (national and bi-lingual national plus) and international schools. Two of the major international schools located in Jakarta are the Jakarta International School and the British International School .

Sports



Since Soekarno's era, Jakarta has often been chosen as the venue for international sport events, such as being the host of Asian Games in 1962, host of Asian Cup 2007 and several times hosting the regional-scale Sea Games. Jakarta is also home of several professional soccer clubs. The most popular of them is Persija, which regularly plays its matches in the Lebak Bulusmarker Stadium. Another premiere division team is Persitara. The champions of Galatama competition, Warna Agung and Jayakarta soccer club, also homebase in Jakarta. The biggest stadium in Jakarta is the Bung Karno Stadiummarker with a capacity of 100,000 seats. For basketball, the Kelapa Gading Sport Mallmarker in Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta, with a capacity of 7,000 seats, is the home arena of the Indonesian national basketball team. Many international basketball matches are played in this stadium. The Senayan sports complex comprises several sport venues, which include the Bung Karno soccer stadium, Madya Stadium, Istora Senayan, a shooting range, a tennis court and a golf driving range. The Senayan complex was built in 1959 to accommodate the Asian Games in 1962. In 2011, Jakarta, together with Bandung, will once again host the Southeast Asian Games. Preparations to host the event have started since the conclusion of the 2007 Thailand Southeast Asian Games. The Indonesian Polo Association, as the governing body of polo in Indonesia, have stated its commitment to host the SEA Games polo tournament in Indonesia after polo is confirmed to be absent in the 2009 Laos Southeast Asian Games. The Indonesian Polo Team were placed last in the 2007 Southeast Asian Games.

Media

Newspapers

Jakarta has several daily newspapers such as Bisnis Indonesia, Investor Daily, Jakarta Globe, The Jakarta Post, Indo Pos, Seputar Indonesia, Kompas, Media Indonesia, Republika, Pos Kota, Warta Kota, Lampu Merah and Suara Pembaruan.

Television



Radio

Landmarks and Tourist Attractions



Jakarta's most recognizable landmark is National Monumentmarker, standing right in the center of Merdeka Square, the central park of the city. While other landmarks are religious buildings, such as Istiqlal Mosque and Jakarta Cathedralmarker. The Wisma 46marker building in Central Jakarta is currently the highest building in Jakarta and Indonesia. Jakarta has many museums, such as National Museum of Indonesiamarker, Fatahillah Museum, Wayang (Puppet) Museum, Satria Mandala Museum, and Maritime Museum.

Some tourist attractions are Taman Mini Indonesia Indahmarker, Ragunan Zoo, Jakarta Old Town, and Ancol Dreamland complex on Jakarta Bay, include Dunia Fantasi theme park, Sea World, Atlantis Water Adventure, and Gelanggang Samudra.

Jakarta is one of most attractive shopping places in Southeast Asia apart from Singaporemarker. There are also many shopping malls with the big area (more than 100,000 metres square), including Grand Indonesiamarker, Plaza Indonesia, Senayan Citymarker, Plaza Senayanmarker, Pondok Indah Mallmarker, Mal Taman Anggrek, Mal Kelapa Gading, Mal Artha Gading, Mall of Indonesia, and Pacific Place. Beside traditional market likes Blok M, Tanah Abang, Senen, Glodok, Mangga Dua, Cempaka Mas, and Jatinegaramarker. As a shopping city, every June-July Jakarta conducts annual Jakarta Great Sale. It takes place in the malls and department stores across the city with many offering special discounts and deals.

Jakarta is also famous for its nightlife, with a very cosmopolitan atmosphere in the city's southern clubs (Blowfish, Dragonfly, Red Square) and more local clubs in the north (Stadium, Millenium, Golden Crown).

Problems



Like many big cities in developing countries, Jakarta suffers from major urbanization challenges. The population has risen sharply from 1.2 million in 1960 to 8.8 million in 2004, counting only its legal residents. The population of greater Jakarta is estimated at 23 million, making it the second largest urban area in the world.

The rapid population growth has outgrown the government's ability to provide basic needs for its residents. As the third biggest economy in Indonesia, Jakarta has attracted a large number of visitors. The population during weekdays is almost double that of weekends, due to the influx of residents residing in other areas of Jabodetabekmarker. Because of government's inability to provide adequate transportation for its large population, Jakarta also suffers from severe traffic jams that occur almost every day. Air pollution and waste management are also severe problems. By 2025 the population of Jakarta may reach 24.9 million, not counting millions more in surrounding areas.

Bombings

On 17 July 2009, two bombs were detonated in the Marriott and Ritz-Carlton hotels in central Jakarta, killing at least nine people and injuring more than 40. Jakarta was attacked by suicide bombers on 2000 in Indonesia Stock Exchange building, on 2003 in the J.W Marriott Hotel, and on 2004 Australian Embassy.

Sanitation

Surveys show that "less than a quarter of the population is fully served by improved water sources. The rest rely on a variety of sources, including rivers, lakes and private water vendors. Some 7.2 million people are [without clean water]."

Flooding

During the wet season, Jakarta suffers from flooding due to clogged sewage pipes and waterways, deforestation near rapidly urbanizing Bogormarker and Depokmarker, and the fact that 40% of it is below sea level . Major floods occurred in 1996 when 5,000 hectares of land were flooded and 2007. Losses from infrastructure damage and state revenue were at least 5.2 trillion rupiah (572 million US dollars) and at least 85 people were killed and about 350,000 people forced from their homes.. Approximately 70% of Jakarta's total area was flooded with water up to four meters deep in parts of the city.

The informal sector

In September 2007, a new law was brought into effect which attempted to regulate aspects of public order. It forbids the giving of money to beggars, buskers and hawkers, bans squatter settlements on river banks and highways, and prohibits spitting and smoking on public transportation. Unauthorized people cleaning car windscreens and managing traffic at busy intersections will also be penalized. Critics of the new legislation claim that such laws will be difficult to enforce and it tends to ignore the desperate poverty of many of the capital's inhabitants.

Sister relationships

Jakarta has sister relationships with a number of towns and regions worldwide:


800 px


See also



References

  1. [1]
  2. Colonial Economy and Society, 1870-1940. Source: U.S. Library of Congress.
  3. Governance Failure: Rethinking the Institutional Dimensions of Urban Water Supply to Poor Households. ScienceDirect.
  4. Wages of Hatred. Michael Shari. Business Week.
  5. The Betawi - due to their diverse origins - play a major role concerning ethnic and national identity in contemporary Jakarta; see Knörr, Jacqueline: Kreolität und postkoloniale Gesellschaft. Integration und Differenzierung in Jakarta, Campus Verlag: Frankfurt a.M. & New York, 2007, ISBN 978-3-593-38344-6
  6. [2]
  7. Azuma, Yoshifumi (2003). Urban peasants: beca drivers in Jakarta. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan.
  8. Web Universitas Nasional 1949
  9. [3]
  10. Football stadiums of the world - Stadiums in Indonesia
  11. Jakarta "Great Sale" Digelar Lagi. Kompas.com
  12. http://jakarta100bars.blogspot.com/2009/06/jakarta-nightlife-tips-summary-of.html
  13. Far Eastern Economic Review, Asia 1998 Yearbook, p. 63.
  14. [4]
  15. United Nations Human Development Report 2006, p. 39
  16. Asiaviews - Asian News
  17. Bloomberg.com: Asia
  18. Three killed, 90,000 evacuated in Jakarta floods: officials - Yahoo! News
  19. Disease fears as floods ravage Jakarta
  20. Jakarta Flood Feb 2007 « (Geo) Information for All
  21. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~floods/Archives/2007sum.htm
  22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/6989211.stm; "Condemned Communities: Forced Evictions in Jakarta" Human Rights Watch Sep 2006.


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