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The Reverend James Caldwell (April 1734 – November 24, 1781) was a clergyman who played a prominent part in the American Revolution.

He was born in Cub Creek in Charlotte County, Virginiamarker, the seventh son of John and Margaret Caldwell, who were Scots-Irish settlers. He graduated from the College of New Jersey (which later became Princeton Universitymarker) in 1759 and, though he inherited in Cub Creek, became pastor of the Presbyterian church in Elizabethtown, New Jerseymarker. He was an active partisan on the side of the Patriot, and was known as the "soldier parson." His church and his housemarker were burned by Loyalist in 1780.

While Caldwell was stationed with the army in Morristownmarker, his wife Hannah was killed by British gunfire under disputed circumstances during the Battle of Connecticut Farms in what is now Union Townshipmarker. His wife had been at home with their baby and a 3 year old toddler. As the British moved into Connecticut Farms, Hannah Caldwell was shot through a window or wall as she sat with her children on a bed.

Caldwell, who fought in the Battle of Springfield, was killed by an American sentry in Elizabethtown, New Jerseymarker when he refused to have a package inspected. The sentry, James Morgan, was hanged for murder on January 29, 1782 in Westfield, New Jerseymarker, amid rumors that he had been bribed to kill the chaplain. There were nine orphaned children of Hannah and James Caldwell, all of whom were raised by friends of the family.

A monument to him in Elizabeth, New Jerseymarker was dedicated in 1846.

Three towns, known collectively as The Caldwells are named for James Caldwell: Caldwellmarker, North Caldwellmarker, and West Caldwellmarker. James Caldwell High Schoolmarker in West Caldwell also carries his name, as does James Caldwell Elementary School in Springfield, New Jersey.

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