James Augustine Aloysius Joyce
(2 February 1882 –
13 January 1941) was an Irish writer and poet, widely considered to
be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. Along
with Marcel Proust
, Virginia Woolf
, and William Faulkner
, Joyce is a key figure in
the development of the modernist
. He is best known for his landmark novel Ulysses
(1922). Other major works are
the short-story collection Dubliners
(1914), and the novels A Portrait of the Artist
as a Young Man
(1916) and Finnegans Wake
Although most of his adult life was spent outside the country,
Joyce's Irish experiences are essential to his writings and provide
all of the settings for his fiction and much of their subject
matter. In particular, his rocky early relationship with the Irish
Catholic Church is reflected by a similar conflict in his character
, who appears in two
of his novels. His fictional universe is firmly rooted in
Dublin and reflects his family life and the events and
friends (and enemies) from his school and college days;
Ulysses is set with precision in the real streets and
alleyways of the city.
As the result of the combination of
this attention to one place, and his lengthy travels throughout
Europe, notably in Paris, Joyce paradoxically became both one of
the most cosmopolitan yet most regionally focused of all the
English language writers of his time.
Life and writing
Augustine Aloysius Joyce was born on 2 February 1882 to John Stanislaus Joyce and Mary Jane Murray in the Dublin suburb of
He was the oldest of ten surviving
children; two of his siblings died of typhoid
. His father's family, originally from Fermoy in Cork, had once owned a small salt and lime works.
Joyce's father and paternal grandfather both married into wealthy
families. In 1887, his father was appointed rate (i.e.,
a local property tax) collector by Dublin Corporation; the family
subsequently moved to the fashionable adjacent small town of
Bray from Dublin.
Around this time Joyce was
attacked by a dog, which engendered in him a lifelong canine
. He also suffered from a fear of
thunderstorms, that his deeply religious aunt had described to him
as a sign of God's wrath.
In 1891, Joyce wrote a poem, "Et Tu Healy," on the death of
Charles Stewart Parnell
father was angry at the treatment of Parnell by the Catholic church
and at the resulting failure to secure Home Rule for Ireland.
Joyce had the poem printed and even sent a part to the Vatican Library.
In November of that same year, John Joyce
was entered in Stubbs
(an official register of bankruptcies) and
suspended from work. In 1893, John Joyce was dismissed with a
pension, beginning the family's slide into poverty due mainly to
John's drinking and general financial mismanagement.
Joyce began his education at Clongowes Wood College, a Jesuit boarding school
near Clane in County Kildare, which he entered in 1888 but had to leave in 1892
when his father could no longer pay the fees. Joyce then studied at
home and briefly at the Christian Brothers
school on North Richmond Street,
Dublin, before he was offered a place in the Jesuits', Dublin
College, in 1893.
The offer reflected, at least in
part, the hope that he would prove to have a vocation and join the
Order. Joyce, however, rejected Catholicism
by the age of 16, although the
philosophy of Thomas Aquinas
continued to influence him strongly throughout his life.
enrolled at the recently established University
College Dublin (UCD) in 1898, and studied modern languages,
specifically English, French and Italian.
He also became
active in theatrical and literary circles in the city. His review
of Ibsen's New Drama
first published work, was published in "Fortnightly Review" in 1900
and resulted in a letter of thanks from the Norwegian dramatist
himself. Joyce wrote a number of other articles and at least two
plays (since lost) during this period. Many of the friends he made
at University College Dublin would appear as characters in Joyce's
After graduating from UCD in 1903, Joyce left for Paris; ostensibly
to study medicine, but in reality he squandered money his family
could ill afford. He returned to Ireland after a few months, when
his mother was diagnosed with cancer. Fearing for her son's
"impiety", his mother tried unsuccessfully to get Joyce to make his
confession and to take communion. She finally passed into a coma
and died on 13 August, Joyce having refused to kneel with other
members of the family praying at her bedside. After her death he
continued to drink heavily, and conditions at home grew quite
appalling. He scraped a living reviewing books, teaching and
singing—he was an accomplished tenor
, and won
the bronze medal in the 1904 Feis
On 7 January 1904, he attempted to publish A Portrait of the
, an essay-story dealing with aesthetics
, in a day, only to have it rejected
from the free-thinking magazine Dana
. He decided, on his
twenty-second birthday, to revise the story and turn it into a
novel he planned to call Stephen Hero
, though he never
actually published the novel under this original name. The same
year he met Nora Barnacle
, a young
woman from Connemara
, County Galway who
was working as a chambermaid. On 16 June 1904, they went on their
first date, an event which would be commemorated by providing the
date for the action of Ulysses
Joyce remained in Dublin for some time longer, drinking heavily.
of these drinking binges, he got into a fight over a
misunderstanding with a man in Phoenix Park; he was picked up and dusted off by a minor
acquaintance of his father's, Alfred H.
Hunter, who brought
him into his home to tend to his injuries. Hunter was rumored to be
a Jew and to have an unfaithful wife, and would serve as one of the
models for Leopold Bloom
, the main
protagonist of Ulysses
. He took up with medical student
Oliver St John Gogarty
formed the basis for the character Buck
. After staying in Gogarty's
for six nights he left
in the middle of the night following an altercation which involved
Gogarty shooting a pistol at some pans hanging directly over
Joyce's bed. He walked all the way back to Dublin to stay with
relatives for the night, and sent a friend to the tower the next
day to pack his trunk. Shortly thereafter he eloped to the
continent with Nora.
1904–20: Trieste and Zürich
Nora went into self-imposed exile, moving first to Zürich, where he had supposedly acquired a post to teach
English at the Berlitz Language
School through an agent in England. It turned out that
the English agent had been swindled, but the director of the school
sent him on to Trieste, which was part of Austria-Hungary until World War I (today
part of Italy). Once again, he found there was no position
for him, but with the help of Almidano Artifoni, director of the
Trieste Berlitz school, he finally secured a teaching position in
Pola, then also part of Austria-Hungary (today part of
He stayed there, teaching English mainly
to Austro-Hungarian naval officers stationed at the Pola base, from
October 1904 until March 1905, when the Austrians—having discovered
ring in the city—expelled all
. With Artifoni's help, he moved
back to Trieste and began teaching English there. He would remain
in Trieste for most of the next ten years.
Later that year Nora gave birth to their first child, George. Joyce
then managed to talk his brother, Stanislaus
, into joining him in Trieste,
and secured him a position teaching at the school. James's
ostensible reasons were desire for Stanislaus's company and the
hope of offering him a more interesting life than that of his
simple clerking job in Dublin. In truth, though, James hoped to
augment his family's meagre income with his brother's earnings.
Stanislaus and James had strained relations throughout the time
they lived together in Trieste, with most arguments centering on
James's drinking habits and frivolity with money.
With the chronic wanderlust of James's early years, he became
frustrated with life in Trieste and moved to Rome in late 1906,
having secured employment in a bank. He intensely disliked Rome,
and moved back to Trieste in early 1907. His daughter Lucia
was born in the summer of the same
Joyce returned to Dublin in the summer of 1909 with George, in
order to visit his father and work on getting Dubliners
published. He visited Nora's family in Galway, meeting
them for the first time (a successful visit, to his relief).
While preparing to return to Trieste he decided to take one of his
sisters, Eva, back with him to help Nora run the home. He spent
only a month in Trieste before returning to Dublin, this time as a
representative of some cinema owners hoping to set up a regular
cinema in Dublin. The venture was successful (but quickly fell
apart in Joyce's absence), and he returned to Trieste in January
1910 with another sister, Eileen, in tow. Eva became very homesick
for Dublin and returned there a few years later, but Eileen spent
the rest of her life on the continent, eventually marrying Czech
bank cashier Frantisek Schaurek.
Joyce returned to Dublin briefly in the summer of 1912 during his
years-long fight with his Dublin publisher, George Roberts, over
the publication of Dubliners
. His trip was once again
fruitless, and on his return he wrote the poem "Gas from a Burner"
as an invective against Roberts. After this trip, he never again
came closer to Dublin than London, despite many pleas from his
father and invitations from fellow Irish writer William Butler Yeats
Joyce concocted a number of money-making schemes during this
period, including an attempt to become a cinema magnate
in Dublin. He also frequently
discussed but ultimately abandoned a plan to import Irish tweeds to
Trieste. His skill at borrowing money saved him from indigence.
What income he had came partially from his position at the Berlitz
school and partially from teaching private students. Many
acquaintances made through his private teaching proved invaluable
allies when he faced difficulty getting out of Austria-Hungary and
into Switzerland in 1915.
One of his students in Trieste was Ettore
, better known by the pseudonym Italo Svevo
. They met in 1907 and became lasting
friends and mutual critics. Schmitz was a Catholic of Jewish origin
and became the primary model for Leopold Bloom; most of the details
about the Jewish faith
came from Schmitz's responses to queries from Joyce. While living
in Trieste, Joyce was first beset with eye problems that ultimately
required over a dozen surgeries.
Joyce in Zürich,
In 1915 he moved to Zürich in order to avoid the complexities of
living in Austria-Hungary during World War I, where he met one of
his most enduring and important friends, Frank Budgen
, whose opinion Joyce constantly
sought through the writing of Ulysses
. It was also here where Ezra
brought him to the attention of English feminist and
publisher Harriet Shaw Weaver
who would become Joyce's patron, providing him thousands of pounds
over the next 25 years and relieving him of the burden of teaching
in order to focus on his writing. After the war he returned to
Trieste briefly, but found the city had changed, and his relations
with his brother (who had been interned in an Austrian prison camp
for most of the war due to his pro-Italian politics) were more
strained than ever. Joyce headed to Paris in 1920 at an invitation
from Ezra Pound, supposedly for a week, but he ended up living
there for the next twenty years.
1920–41: Paris and Zürich
During this era, Joyce traveled frequently to Switzerland for eye
surgeries and treatments for Lucia, who, according to the Joyces'
statement, suffered from schizophrenia
. Lucia was analyzed by Carl Jung
at the time, who was of the opinion that
her father had schizophrenia after reading Ulysses
noted that she and her father were two people heading to the bottom
of a river, except that he was diving and she was falling. In-depth
knowledge of Joyce's relationship with his schizophrenic daughter
is scant, because the current heir of the Joyce estate, Stephen Joyce
, burned thousands of letters
between Lucia and her father that he received upon Lucia's death in
1982. Stephen Joyce stated in a letter to the editor of
The New York Times
"Regarding the destroyed correspondence, these were all personal
letters from Lucia to us. They were written many years after both
Nonno and Nonna [i.e. Joyce and Nora Barnacle] died and did not
refer to them. Also destroyed were some postcards and one telegram
from Samuel Beckett
to Lucia. This
was done at Sam's written request."
In Paris, Maria
and Eugene Jolas
nursed Joyce during his long years
of writing Finnegans Wake.
Were it not for their
unwavering support (along with Harriet Shaw Weaver's constant
financial support), there is a good possibility that his books
might never have been finished or published. In their now legendary
literary magazine "Transition,
" the Jolases published
serially various sections of Joyce's novel under the title Work
He returned to Zürich in late 1940, fleeing the
. On 11 January 1941, he underwent surgery for a
perforated ulcer. While at first improved, he relapsed the
following day, and despite several transfusions, fell into a coma.
He awoke at 2 a.m. on 13 January 1941, and asked for a nurse
to call his wife and son before losing consciousness again. They
were still on their way, when he died, 15 minutes later.
buried in the Fluntern
Cemetery within earshot of the lions in the Zürich
Although two senior Irish diplomats were in Switzerland
at the time, neither attended Joyce's funeral, and the Irish
government subsequently declined Nora's offer to permit the
repatriation of Joyce's remains. Nora, whom Joyce had finally
married in London in 1931, survived him by 10 years. She is buried
now by his side, as is their son George, who died in 1976. Ellmann
reports that when the arrangements for Joyce's burial were being
made, a Catholic priest tried to convince Nora that there should be
a funeral Mass. She replied, "I couldn't do that to him." Swiss
tenor Max Meili
sang Addio terra,
at the funeral
The title page of the first edition of Dubliners
Joyce's Irish experiences constitute an essential element of his
writings, and provide all of the settings for his fiction and much
of its subject matter. His early volume of short stories,
, is a penetrating analysis of the stagnation and
paralysis of Dublin society. The stories incorporate epiphanies
, a word used particularly by
Joyce, by which he meant a sudden consciousness of the "soul" of a
thing. The final and most famous story in the collection, "The Dead
", was directed by John Huston
as his last feature film in
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
is a nearly
complete rewrite of the abandoned novel Stephen Hero
Joyce partially destroyed the original manuscript in a fit of rage
during an argument with Nora, who asserted that it would never be
published. A Künstlerroman
, or story of the
personal development of an artist, Portrait
is a heavily
biographical coming-of-age novel
which Joyce depicts a gifted young man's gradual attainment of
maturity and self-consciousness. The main character, Stephen Dedalus
, is in many ways based upon
Joyce himself. Some hints of the techniques Joyce frequently
employed in later works—such as the use of interior monologue
and references to a character's psychic reality rather than his
external surroundings—are evident in this novel. Joseph Strick
directed a film of the book in
1977 starring Luke Johnston, Bosco
, T.P. McKenna
Exiles and poetry
Despite early interest in the theatre, Joyce published only one
, begun shortly
after the outbreak of World War I in 1914 and published in 1918. A
study of a husband and wife relationship, the play looks back to
(the final story in Dubliners
forward to Ulysses
, which Joyce began around the time of
the play's composition.
Joyce also published a number of books of poetry. His first mature
published work was the satirical broadside "The Holy Office"
(1904), in which he proclaimed himself to be the superior of many
prominent members of the Celtic
. His first full-length poetry collection Chamber
(referring, Joyce explained, to the sound of urine
hitting the side of a chamber pot) consisted of 36 short lyrics.
This publication led to his inclusion in the Imagist Anthology
, edited by Ezra Pound
, who was a champion of Joyce's work.
Other poetry Joyce published in his lifetime includes "Gas From A
Burner" (1912), Pomes Penyeach
(1927) and "Ecce Puer"
(written in 1932 to mark the birth of his grandson and the recent
death of his father). It was published in Collected Poems
Announcement of the initial
publication of Ulysses
As he was completing work on Dubliners
in 1906, Joyce
considered adding another story featuring a Jewish advertising
canvasser called Leopold Bloom
the title Ulysses
. Although he did not pursue the idea
further at the time, he eventually commenced work on a novel using
both the title and basic premise in 1914. The writing was completed
in October, 1921. Three more months were devoted to working on the
proofs of the book before Joyce halted work shortly before his
self-imposed deadline, his 40th birthday (2 February 1922).
Thanks to Ezra Pound, serial publication of the novel in the
magazine The Little
began in 1918. This magazine was edited by Margaret Anderson
and Jane Heap
, with the backing of John Quinn
, a New York attorney with
an interest in contemporary experimental art and literature.
Unfortunately, this publication encountered censorship problems in
the United States; serialization was halted in 1920 when the
editors were convicted of publishing obscenity. The novel was not
published in the United States until 1933.
partly because of this controversy, Joyce found it difficult to get
a publisher to accept the book, but it was published in 1922 by
Sylvia Beach from her well-known
Rive Gauche bookshop, Shakespeare
An English edition published the same
year by Joyce's patron, Harriet Shaw
, ran into further difficulties with the United States
authorities, and 500 copies that were shipped to the States were
seized and possibly destroyed. The following year, John Rodker produced a print run of 500 more
intended to replace the missing copies, but these were burned by
English customs at Folkestone.
A further consequence of the novel's
ambiguous legal status as a banned book was that a number of
"bootleg" versions appeared, most notably a number of pirate
versions from the publisher Samuel Roth
In 1928, a court injunction against Roth was obtained and he ceased
With the appearance of both Ulysses
and T. S. Eliot
's poem, The
, 1922 was a key year in the history of
English-language literary modernism. In Ulysses
employs stream of consciousness, parody, jokes, and virtually every
other literary technique to present his characters. The action of
the novel, which takes place in a single day, 16 June 1904, sets
the characters and incidents of the Odyssey
in modern Dublin and represents
in the characters of Leopold Bloom, his wife Molly Bloom
and Stephen Dedalus, parodically
contrasted with their lofty models. The book explores various areas
of Dublin life, dwelling on its squalor and monotony. Nevertheless,
the book is also an affectionately detailed study of the city, and
Joyce claimed that if Dublin were to be destroyed in some
catastrophe it could be rebuilt, brick by brick, using his work as
a model. In order to achieve this level of accuracy, Joyce used the
1904 edition of Thom's Directory
work that listed the owners and/or tenants of every residential and
commercial property in the city. He also bombarded friends still
living there with requests for information and clarification.
The book consists of 18 chapters, each covering roughly one hour of
the day, beginning around about 8 a.m. and ending sometime
after 2 a.m. the following morning. Each of the 18 chapters of
the novel employs its own literary style. Each chapter also refers
to a specific episode in Homer's Odyssey and has a specific colour,
art or science and bodily organ associated with it. This
combination of kaleidoscopic writing with an extreme formal,
schematic structure represents one of the book's major
contributions to the development of 20th century modernist
literature. The use of classical
as a framework for his book and the near-obsessive
focus on external detail in a book in which much of the significant
action is happening inside the minds of the characters are others.
Nevertheless, Joyce complained that, "I may have oversystematised
," and played down the mythic correspondences by
eliminating the chapter titles that had been taken from
Having completed work on Ulysses
, Joyce was so exhausted
that he did not write a line of prose for a year. On 10 March 1923
he informed a patron, Harriet Weaver: "Yesterday I wrote two
pages—the first I have since the final Yes
. Having found a pen, with some difficulty I copied
them out in a large handwriting on a double sheet of foolscap so
that I could read them. Il lupo perde il pelo ma non il
, the Italians say. The wolf may lose his skin but not
his vice or the leopard cannot change his spots". Thus was born a
text that became known, first, as Work in Progress
later Finnegans Wake
By 1926 Joyce had completed the first two parts of the book. In
that year, he met Eugene and Maria Jolas who offered to serialise
the book in their magazine transition
. For the next
few years, Joyce worked rapidly on the new book, but in the 1930s,
progress slowed considerably. This was due to a number of factors,
including the death of his father in 1931, concern over the mental
health of his daughter Lucia
and his own
health problems, including failing eyesight. Much of the work was
done with the assistance of younger admirers, including Samuel Beckett
. For some years, Joyce nursed
the eccentric plan of turning over the book to his friend James Stephens
to complete, on the
grounds that Stephens was born in the same hospital as Joyce
exactly one week later, and shared the first name of both Joyce and
of Joyce's fictional alter-ego (this is one example of Joyce's
Reaction to the work was mixed, including negative comment from
early supporters of Joyce's work, such as Pound and the author's
brother Stanislaus Joyce
. In order
to counteract this hostile reception, a book of essays by
supporters of the new work, including Beckett, William Carlos Williams
was organised and published in 1929 under the title
Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of Work
. At his 47th birthday party at the Jolases'
home, Joyce revealed the final title of the work and Finnegans
was published in book form on 4 May 1939.
Joyce's method of stream of consciousness, literary allusions and
free dream associations was pushed to the limit in Finnegans Wake
, which abandoned all
conventions of plot and character construction and is written in a
peculiar and obscure language, based mainly on complex multi-level
puns. This approach is similar to, but far more extensive than that
used by Lewis Carroll
. If Ulysses
is a day
in the life of a city, the Wake
is a night and partakes of
the logic of dreams. This has led many readers and critics to apply
Joyce's oft-quoted description in the Wake
as his "usylessly unreadable Blue Book of Eccles"
to the Wake
itself. However, readers have been able to
reach a consensus about the central cast of characters and general
Much of the wordplay in the book stems from the use of multilingual
puns which draw on a wide range of languages. The role played by
Beckett and other assistants included collating words from these
languages on cards for Joyce to use and, as Joyce's eyesight
worsened, of writing the text from the author's dictation..
of history propounded in this text is very strongly influenced by
Giambattista Vico, and the
metaphysics of Giordano Bruno of
Nola are important to the interplay of the
Vico propounded a cyclical view of history, in
which civilisation rose from chaos, passed through theocratic,
aristocratic, and democratic phases, and then lapsed back into
chaos. The most obvious example of the influence of Vico's cyclical
theory of history is to be found in the opening and closing words
of the book. Finnegans Wake
opens with the words
"riverrun, past Eve and Adam's, from swerve of shore to bend of
bay, brings us by a commodius vicus of recirculation back to Howth
Castle and Environs." ("vicus" is a pun on Vico) and ends "A way a
lone a last a loved a long the". In other words, the book ends with
the beginning of a sentence and begins with the end of the same
sentence, turning the book into one great cycle. Indeed, Joyce said
that the ideal reader of the Wake
would suffer from "ideal
insomnia" and, on completing the book, would turn to page one and
start again, and so on in an endless cycle of reading.
Statue of James Joyce on North Earl
Joyce's work has been subject to intense scrutiny by scholars of
all types. He has also been an important influence on writers and
scholars as diverse as Samuel
, Jorge Luis Borges
, Máirtín Ó Cadhain
, Salman Rushdie
, Robert Anton Wilson
, and Joseph Campbell
called "a demonstration and summation of the entire [Modernist]
Some scholars, most notably Vladimir
, have mixed feelings on his work, often championing
some of his fiction while condemning other works. In Nabokov's
was brilliant, Finnegans Wake
horrible—an attitude Jorge Luis
shared. In recent years, literary theory
has embraced Joyce's
innovation and ambition.
Joyce's influence is also evident in fields other than literature.
The phrase "Three Quarks for Muster Mark" in Joyce's Finnegans
is often called the source of the physicists' word
", the name of one of the main kinds of
by the physicist Murray Gell-Mann
The French philosopher Jacques
has written a book on the use of language in
, and the American philosopher Donald Davidson
similarly on Finnegans Wake
in comparison with Lewis Carroll
. Psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan
used Joyce's writings to explain
his concept of the sinthome
According to Lacan, Joyce's writing is the supplementary cord which
kept Joyce from psychosis
The life of Joyce is celebrated annually on 16 June, Bloomsday
, in Dublin and in an increasing number
of cities worldwide.
Massachusetts, USA literary-minded runners hold the James Joyce
Ramble, a 10K Road Race with each mile dedicated to a different
work by Joyce.
With professional actors in period garb
lining the streets and reading from his books as the athletes run
by, it is billed as the only theatrical performance where the
performers stand still and the audience does the moving.
- McCourt 2001
- "'Why are you so afraid of thunder?' asked [Arthur] Power,
'your children don't mind it.' 'Ah,' said Joyce contemptuously,
'they have no religion.' Joyce's fears were part of his identity,
and he had no wish, even if he had had the power, to slough any of
them off." (Ellman, p. 514, citing Power, From an Old Waterford
House (London, n.d.), p. 67, and 1953 interview with Power.)
- Ellmann, p. 132.
- Ellmann, pp. 30, 55.
- She was originally diagnosed with cirrhosis
of the liver, but this proved incorrect, and she was diagnosed
with cancer in April 1903 (Ellman, pp. 128–129).
- Ellmann, pp. 129, 136.
- History of the Feis Ceoil Association. Siemens
Feis Ceoil Association. 1 April 2007 version retrieved from the
Internet archive on 9 November 2009.
- Ellmann, p. 162.
- Ellmann, p. 230.
- Ellmann, p. 175.
- According to Ellmann, Stanislaus allowed James to collect his
pay, "to simplify matters" (p. 213).
- The worst of the conflicts were in July, 1910 (Ellmann, pp.
- Williams, Bob. Joycean Chronology. The Modern World, 6 November 2002,
Retrieved on 9 November 2009.
- Ellmann, p. 272.
- Shloss, p. 278
- Pepper, Tara
- Shloss p. 297
- Stanley, Alessandra. " Poet Told All; Therapist Provides the Record,"
The New York Times, July 15, 1991.
Retrieved 9 July 2007.
- Bulson, p. 16
- MacBride, p. 14.
- Deming, p. 749.
- Gillers, pp. 251–62.
- The fear of prosecution for publication ended with the court
decision of United States v.
One Book Called Ulysses, 5 F.Supp. 182 . Ellman, pp. 666–67.
- Examined at length in Vladimir Nabokov's Lectures on Ulysses.
A Facsimile of the Manuscript. Bloomfield Hills/Columbia:
Bruccoli Clark, 1980.
- Adams, David. Colonial Odysseys: Empire and Epic in the
Modernist Novel. Cornell University Press, 2003, p. 84.
- Sherry, Vincent B. James Joyce: Ulysses. Cambridge
University Press, 2004, p. 102.
- Dettmar, Kevin J. H. Rereading the New: A Backward Glance
at Modernism. University of Michigan Press, 1992, p. 285.
- Bulson, Eric. The Cambridge Introduction to James
Joyce. Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 14.
- Joyce, James. Ulysses: The 1922 Text. Oxford
University Press, 1998, p. xlvii.
- Ellmann, pp. 591–592
- Ellmann, pp. 577–585, 603.
- Finnegans Wake, 179.26–27.
- Gluck, p. 27.
- Finnegans Wake, 120.9–16.
- Friedman, Melvin J. A review of Barbara Reich Gluck's Beckett and
Joyce: friendship and fiction, Bucknell University Press (June
1979), ISBN 0-8387-2060-9. Retrieved 3 December 2006.
- Williamson, pp. 123–124, 179, 218.
- For example, Hopper, p. 75, says "In all of O'Brien's work the
figure of Joyce hovers on the horizon ...".
- Interview of Salman Rushdie, by Margot
Dijkgraaf for the Dutch newspaper NRC Handelsblad, translated by K.
Gwan Go. Retrieved 3 December 2006.
- Edited transcript of an 23 April 1988 interview of Robert
Anton Wilson by David A. Banton, broadcast on HFJC, 89.7 FM,
Los Altos Hills, California. Retrieved 3 December 2006.
- "About Joseph Campbell", Joseph Campbell
Foundation. 1 January 2007 version retrieved from the Internet
archive on 9 November 2009.
- Beebe, p. 176.
- "When I want good reading I reread Proust's A la Recherche
du Temps Perdu or Joyce's Ulysses" (Nabokov, letter
to Elena Sikorski, 3 August 1950, in Nabokov's Butterflies:
Unpublished and Uncollected Writings [Boston: Beacon, 2000],
pp. 464–465). Nabokov put Ulysses at the head of his list
of the "greatest twentieth century masterpieces" (Nabokov,
Strong Opinions [New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974] excerpt).
- "Of course, it would have been unseemly for a monarch to appear
in the robes of learning at a university lectern and present to
rosy youths Finnigan's Wake [sic] as a monstrous extension
of Angus MacDiarmid's
"incoherent transactions" and of Southey's Lingo-Grande. . ." (Nabokov,
Pale Fire [New York: Random House, 1962], p. 76). The
comparison is made by an unreliable narrator, but Nabokov in an
unpublished note had compared "the worst parts of James Joyce" to
McDiarmid and to Swift's letters to Stella (quoted by
"Notes" in Nabokov's Novels 1955–1962: Lolita / Pnin / Pale
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