James Thomson Shotwell
, (born Aug. 6, 1874, Strathroy,
Ont., Can. died July 15, 1965, New York, N.Y., U.S.) was a Canada-born
American history professor.
He is perhaps best remembered for his instrumental role in the
creation of the International Labor
in 1919, as well as for his guiding influence
promoting inclusion of a declaration of human rights
in the UN
Strathroy, Ontario, he was
educated at the University of Toronto and then went to New York City where he obtained his doctorate from Columbia University in
Shotwell attended the Paris
as a member of "The
" - President Woodrow
's foreign policy advisory group. After the war he worked
tirelessly to counter US isolationism and to promote US entry into
the League of Nations
met with the French
Minister of Foreign Affairs Aristide
Briand in Paris and
suggested that a bilateral treaty be negotiated that would outlaw
war between the U.S. and France.
Their work led to the
on August 27, 1928.
In 1937, he was appointed Bryce Professor of the History of
International Relations at Columbia University. He served as the
Director of Economics and History (1942-49) then president of the
Endowment for International Peace
(1949-50). He attended the 1945
Francisco Conference that drafted the Charter of the United Nations
as a private consultant to the U.S. State Department.
In addition to his many books, Shotwell was also co-author of
several authoritative studies on international relations and was
the editor of a series of 150 volumes of the Social and
Economic History of the World
as well as a series of twenty-five studies on
Canadian-American relations, both sponsored by the Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace. He also contributed nearly 250
articles to the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
The "James T. Shotwell Professor of International Relations" at
Columbia University was named in his honor.
Shotwell was married to Margaret Harvey and had two daughters,
Helen and Margaret Grace. He maintained a home in Woodstock, New
York and was instrumental in getting American artist
Anita Miller Smith to become a
writer and to publish the service record of all Woodstock people
who had fought in the war as part of Smith's 1959 book on the
town's official history.
- The Diplomatic History of the Canadian Boundary,
1749-1763 with Max Savelle
- At the Paris Peace Conference (1937)
- An Introduction to the History of History (1922)
- Plans and Protocols to End War (1925)
- War as an Instrument of National Policy (1929)
- The Origins of the International Labor Organization
- On the Rim of the Abyss (1936)
- The Great Decision (1944)
- The Long Way to Freedom (1960).
- Korey, William, NGOs and the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights: A Curious Grapevine, New York: St Martin's Press,