Japanese Mahjong scoring
rules are used for Mahjong, a
game for four players common in Japan, which were
organized in Taishō to
Showa period as it became
popular.
The scoring system
The scoring system uses both criteria and meld as well as the way
the winning hand was made. A complex but systematic point system is
used but there are several scoring rules that may also be used.
Players start with 20,000 to 30,000 points. These are counted using
sticks of 10,000 points, 5,000 points, 1,000 points and 100 points.
A game ends when all the rounds are played, or, under an often used
optional rule, when a player loses all his points (the situation
called
hakoten, or
dobon, etc.).
Final points and place
After the game is finished, the number of points which each of
three players other than the winner has is rounded off to the
nearest 1,000. The winner's points are the difference between
120,000 (30,000 × 4) and the total of these three players' points.
The number of points is divided by 1,000, and 30 is finally
subtracted from it. The sum of these final points is always zero.
In most cases there are some additional points of awards or
penalties related to the players' final place. (For example: 1st
gets +20, 2nd gets +10, 3rd gets 10 and 4th gets 20)
Example: The initial points are 25,000 each. A (winner): 43,600, B:
14,500, C: 15,400, D: 26,500, and rounded off to B:15,000,
C:15,000, D:27,000. The number of the winner's points is calculated
as follows irrespective of initial points: 120,000 − (15,000 +
15,000 + 27,000) = 63,000 (There sometimes happens the case like
this. The result of the winner differs from 64,000 that was counted
rounding 43,600 off and adding 4 × 5,000 (difference between 30,000
and initial points)). The final points and place: A:+33 (1st), D:−3
(2nd), C:−15 (3rd), B:−15 (4th). The 1st place is also counted
like: (30 − 15) + (30 − 15) + (30 − 27) = +33.
Steps of calculation
The score is calculated by following order.
 I. Counting han (飜)
 II. If it is five han or more, it is mangan (満貫) or more and calculation of basic
points is omitted
 III. Counting fu (符)
 IV. If it is clear that those han and fu
yield more than mangan, the calculation of basic points is
omitted
 V. Calculating basic points by multiplying fu by
han
 VI. Adjusting the points when the winner is the dealer
 VII. Distributing the payment to all other players if won
drawing the tile
 VIII. Adjusting the score by the number of rounds continued
(See Honba)
 IX. Transferring the points of penalty when a round is a draw
(See Tenpai and nōten
bappu)
 X. (Adjusting the score by wareme (割目) rule)
Counting han
The total number of
han (飜) of all the kinds of
yaku (役; winning
hand) in the hand is summed up.If a hand has five
han or
more, it is always counted by
mangan (満貫) as a unit and it
is not necessary to calculate
fu (符) or basic points any
more.
Some
yaku are counted only if the hand is concealed, where
some
yaku have their
han value deducted by one if
the hand is not concealed.
If there are more than one way to arrange the winning hand, count
the way in which the
han is higher. For example, a hand
could be either
ryanpeikou (二盃口) or
chītoitsu
(七対子), but since
ryanpeikou is three
han where
chītoitsu is two
han,
ryanpeikou should
prevail.
Each
dora (ドラ) tile counts as one
han.
Dora is not regarded as
yaku and no
winning hand could be reached without any
yaku even if
there are some
dora tiles.
Counting fu
Fu (符) is counted by adding all points of the winning hand
and then rounded up to tens. It may also be rounded up by four or
six in some rules, while in some cases the
fu may be 20,
25, 30, 35 and so on.
[Three
han with 70
fu or more] and [four
han with 40
fu or more] yield more than
mangan and there is no need to calculate basic
points.
 A winning hand is automatically awarded 20 fu. This is
called fūtei (副底).
 If one wins by picking a discarded tile with a hand concealed,
10 fu is awarded. This is called menzenkafu
(門前加符).
 Add fu of the melds. (See the list below.)
 Add fu according to how the waiting was. (See the list
below.)
 Add two fu if one wins by selfdrawn. This way of
winning is called tsumo (自摸, or ツモ). However, if the
resulting hand includes pinfu (平和) when it is treated as a
possible winning hand, in most cases the two fu is not
awarded exceptionally and the hand is counted as a total of 20
fu.
 Winning by chītoitsu (七対子; Chinese 七對子 qi dui
zi) is counted as 25 fu altogether and two
han (with some more yaku available), or in Kansai 50
fu and one han.
 As an exception, if one wins by picking a discard with an open
hand with melds and waits to which no fu is awarded at
all, the hand is not 20 fu but counted as a total of 30
fu.
Fu of melds
The list for third step:

nonterminal or honor tiles 
terminal or honor tiles 
minkō (明刻),
or minkōtsu (明刻子)
(open same three tiles meld)

2 fu 
4 fu 
ankō (暗刻),
or ankōtsu (暗刻子)
(concealed same three tiles meld)

4 fu 
8 fu 
minkan (明槓),
or minkantsu (明槓子)
(open same four tiles meld)

8 fu 
16 fu 
ankan (暗槓),
or ankantsu (暗槓子)
(concealed same four tiles meld)

16 fu 
32 fu 
shuntsu (順子)
(sequential meld)

0 fu 
toitsu (対子)
(two pieces meld, or eyes)

2 fu for player's wind tiles, prevailing
wind tiles or dragon tiles. 4 fu when player's and
prevailing wind match. 0 fu for other tiles 

Fu of waits
The list for fourth step:
ryanmenmachi (両門待ち)
(sequential tile waits for both sides)

0 fu 
kanchanmachi (嵌張待ち)
(sequential single tile waits for a middle tile)

2 fu (waiting for one kind of tile) 
penchanmachi (辺張待ち)
(sequential single tile waits for a right or left side (number 3 or
7))

tankimachi (単騎待ち)
(single tile waits for two pieces meld)

shanponmachi (双碰待ち)
(waits for either of melds of same three tiles)

0 fu
However, a meld of same three tiles would be made after winning, so
2, 4, or 8 fu is added


Calculating basic point
The basic point of a hand is calculated as follows:
 [ basic point = fu × 2^{(2+han)}
]
The actual point given has to be rounded up to the nearest
100.
 When a nondealer (ko, 子: child) goes out by
selfdrawn, the dealer (oya, 親: parent) pays him 2 × basic
point, and the other two nondealers pay him 1 × basic point.
 When a nondealer goes out by discard, the discarding player
pays him 4 × basic point.
 When the dealer goes out by selfdrawn, all the three
nondealers pay him 2 × basic point.
 When the dealer goes out by discard, the discarding nondealer
pays him 6 × basic point.
Even if the number of
han and
fu is the same, the
points received by selfdrawn often slightly deviate from those
received by discard because of rounding.
Example calculations
Example 1: The player on the right of the dealer goes out by
selfdrawn. (The dealer's wind is always East in Japanese rules.)
He got an
ankō of Souths, and his hand is concealed. He
also uses two Whites as the
toitsu and the winning tile is
that White. The winning hands are
menzenchintsumohō
(門前清自摸和) and
yakuhai (役牌), and they yield a total of two
han. The sum of
fu is 20 (
fūtei) + 8
(South
ankō) + 2 (White
toitsu) + 2
(
tankimachi) + 2 (
tsumo) = 34
fu,
rounded up to 40
fu.
The basic point is thus 40 × 2
^{(2+2)} = 640.The dealer
pays him 640 × 2 = 1,280, rounded up to 1,300 points.The other 2
nondealers pay him 640, rounded up to 700 points.
Example 2: The same player goes out by the same hand, except this
time the winning tile was a discard by the player on his right.
There is only one
han of
yakuhai, since it is not
a
tsumo at all. The number of
fu is 20
(
fūtei) + 10 (
menzenkafu) + 8 (South
ankō) + 2 (White
toitsu) + 2
(
tankimachi) = 42
fu, rounded up to 50
fu.
The basic point is thus 50 × 2
^{(2+1)} = 400.The discarder
pays him 400 × 4 = 1,600 points.The other two players pay him
nothing.
Scoring tables
Since the method of calculating a winning hand's score in mahjong
is quite tedious, many players refer to a scoring table to look up
the final score of a hand. Expert and professional players have
this table memorized and can thus tell the value of a hand at a
glance.
Dealer 
Han/Fu 
Nondealer 
4 han 
3 han 
2 han 
1 han 
1 han 
2 han 
3 han 
4 han 
7700
(2600)

3900
(1300)

2000
(700)

N/A 
20 fu 
N/A 
1300
(400/700)

2600
(700/1300)

5200
(1300/2600)

11600
(3900)

5800
(2000)

2900
(1000)

1500
(500)

30 fu 
1000
(300/500)

2000
(500/1000)

3900
(1000/2000)

7700
(2000/3900)

Mangan 
7700
(2600)

3900
(1300)

2000
(700)

40 fu 
1300
(400/700)

2600
(700/1300)

5200
(1300/2600)

Mangan 
Mangan 
9600
(3200)

4800
(1600)

2400
(800)

50 fu 
1600
(400/800)

3200
(800/1600)

6400
(1600/3200)

Mangan 
Mangan 
11600
(3900)

5800
(2000)

2900
(1000)

60 fu 
2000
(500/1000)

3900
(1000/2000)

7700
(2000/3900)

Mangan 
Mangan 
Mangan 
6800
(2300)

3400
(1200)

70 fu 
2300
(600/1200)

4500
(1200/2300)

Mangan 
Mangan 
To use the table, simply look up the table that corresponds
fu and
han
counts of the hand. The top numbers in each cell indicate the
payout from a player who discards a winning tile. The numbers in
brackets indicate the payout for each player in the event the
winning tile is selfdrawn. If the winner is the dealer, each
player pays the same amount. If the winner is a nondealer, then
the other two nondealers pay the smaller number, while the dealer
pays the larger number.
The reason why there are no scores in the 1 han/20 fu cell is that
such a hand is impossible. The only 20point hands are the
nopoints, or
pinfu hand
where the winning tile is selfdrawn. In such cases, the fucount
is exactly 20; however, since a nopoints hand must be closed,
making the win via a
self pick tile off the wall
automatically adds 1 han value to the hand. Therefore, a 20fu,
1han hand cannot possibly exist.
Sevenpairs scoring table
As stated above, a
seven pairs hand is worth
25 fu. As such, it requires its own scoring table.
Han 
2 han 
3 han 
4 han 
Dealer 
2400
(800)

4800
(1600)

9600
(3200)

Nondealer 
1600
(400/800)

3200
(800/1600)

6400
(1600/3200)

Mangan
When it is clear that a hand reaches basic points of more than
2,000, it is limited to full basic points of 2,000 and called
mangan (満貫). A hand of five
han or more is always
counted as multiple of
mangan. In those cases there is no
need to calculate basic points.
One
han cannot reach
mangan because 110
fu × 2
^{(2+1)} = 880 2,000. (See
One han with 110 fu
hand.)
Two
han cannot reach
mangan because 110
fu × 2
^{(2+2)} = 1,760 2,000.
It is known that when a hand has 120
fu or more, it cannot
avoid having some
yaku of three
han or
more.
 [Three han with 70 fu or more] is
mangan as 70 × 2^{(2+3)} = 2,240 > 2,000. The
basic points become 2,000. The dealer (when he wins, ditto) gets
12,000 and nondealer gets 8,000.
 [Four han with 40 fu or more] is
mangan as 40 × 2^{(2+4)} = 2,560 > 2,000. (In
some cases [four han with 30 fu] is regarded as
mangan because 30 × 2^{(2+4)} = 1,920 is close to
2,000. [Three han with 60 fu] is the same.)
 Five han is automatically mangan irrespective
of fu since 20 fu × 2^{(2+5)} = 2,560
> 2,000.
 Haneman (6 − 7 han) (1.5 ×
mangan)
 A 6 − 7 han hand is considered haneman (跳満,
or hanemangan 跳満貫) and the basic point is 3,000. Dealer
gets 18,000 and nondealer gets 12,000.
 Baiman (8 − 10 han) (2 ×
mangan)
 An 8 − 10 han hand is considered baiman (倍満,
or baimangan 倍満貫) and the basic point is 4,000. Dealer
gets 24,000 and nondealer gets 16,000.
 Sanbaiman (11 − 12 han) (3 ×
mangan)
 An 11 − 12 han hand is considered sanbaiman
(三倍満, or sanbaimangan 三倍満貫) and the basic point is 6,000.
Dealer gets 36,000 and nondealer gets 24,000.
 Kazoeyakuman (13 han or more) (4 ×
mangan)
 In most rules, a hand with 13 han or above is
considered kazoeyakuman (数え役満; counted yakuman).
It has the same scoring as yakuman (役満) (see below).
 Yakuman (4 × mangan) and Multiple
Yakuman
 See below.
Yakuman (yakumangan)
A
yakuman (役満, or
yakumangan 役満貫) is awarded to some rare hands which are
particularly hard to achieve, like
kokushimusō (国士無双;
thirteen orphans) or
sūankō (四暗刻; four concealed melds of
same three tiles). The basic point is 8,000 (4 ×
mangan).
The winning dealer gets 48,000, and a winning nondealer gets
32,000. If the winning hand can be interpreted as different forms
of rare hands, multiple
yakuman points are awarded (for
example, all hands are concealed, contain only four triplets of
direction tiles plus a pair of dragon tiles as eyes).
Dora
Dora (ドラ) is a bonus tile that adds
han value to a hand. Every kind of tile
can become a
dora tile.
A
dora tile adds the same number of
han value as
the number of its corresponding "
dora indicator"
tiles.
At the start of a round, the third tile from the back end of the
dead wall on the upper layer is flipped and becomes a
dora
indicator, and its succeeding tile is recognized as
dora.
For example, if an indicator is a Green dragon (
), Red dragons (
) are counted as
dora tiles
(take notice of the Japanese order of dragons).
The succeeding order of
dora is as follows:


































Each time a
quad
is made, the adjacent tile of the
dora indicator(s) is
opened and becomes another
dora indicator, namely, the
fourth tile from the back end is flipped immediately after a player
declares the first quad (i.e., before that player draws a
supplemental tile from the back end of the dead wall), and the
number increases in this direction in the same way. The number of
dora indicators becomes five in case a single player made
four quads and this is the largest amount (see
Four quads).
In addition, when a player goes out with declaration of
rīchi
(ready hand), the tiles underneath the
dora indicators are
opened after the winning and become the other
dora
indicators, making their succeeding tiles also counted as
dora which are called
uradora (裏ドラ, underneath
dora).
It is said that the name
dora stands for "dragon,"
although it has nothing to do with dragon tiles in contemporary
Japanese mahjong.
Honba
Honba (本場) is a unit of numbers of continuing
kyoku (局; round). To be exact,
hon (本) is a unit
of numbers of some bars and so on, and
ba (場) means a
scene or a situation.
A winner of a round gets additional points calculated multiplying
300 by the number of
honba.
The dealer offers the same number of bars of 100 points as the
number of
honba as mere marks (not for payment) on some
part of the table (usually the right side of the dealer).
In a state of
n honba (suppose
n is a
number), when a player wins a round by
tsumo (selfdrawn),
he gets additional
n × 100 points from each of other three
players as a total of
n × 300, and when he wins by
ron (栄; picking a discard), he gets additional
n
× 300 from the discarder.
The initial number of
honba is zero. The number of
honba increases by one when (1) the dealer won a round,
(2) a round was a
ryūkyoku (流局; draw) or (3) an abortive
draw happened in a round. In case of (1) or (3), a round continues.
In case of (2), when the dealer cannot declare
tenpai (聴牌), a round
goes to next. In other cases the number of
honba is reset
to zero (namely when a nondealer wins).
There is a possible rule in which players must win by hands with
two
han or more in a round of five
honba or more,
which is called
ryanhanshibari (二飜縛り; literally
"two
han binding").
There may be some variation of rules.
Example: The round of a game is Eastern 4th round 0
honba
(東4局0本場). The dealer (East) wins and the next round is Eastern 4th
round 1
honba (東4局1本場). The dealer remains the dealer and
puts one bar of 100 points as a mark on the table. In this round
the North wins by
ron (picking a discard) getting
additional 300 points from the discarder. The next round becomes
Southern 1st round 0
honba (南1局0本場). The dealer changes
and the former dealer takes the bar of 100 points back to
himself.
Tenpai and nōten bappu
Tenpai (聴牌) means one tile short of winning hands. To be
tenpai a hand needs no
yaku partly because winning by
the last discard is
yaku itself. When a hand is not
tenpai, the situation is called
nōten (ノー聴:
nō is English "no" and
ten for
tenpai).
In case a round is a draw, players ended with
nōten pay
points of penalty to other players whose hands are
tenpai.
The points are called
nōten bappu (ノー聴罰符;
fu of
penalty for
nōten).
When a round ended in a draw, in case the hand(s) of (1) one player
is in a state of
tenpai, he gets 1,000 points from each of
other three players and gets total of 3,000, (2) two players are
tenpai, they get 1,500 each and other two players pay
1,500 each, (3) three players are
tenpai, they get 1,000
each and the other player pays 3,000, (4) all the players are or
are not
tenpai, no payment is made.
A player ending with
tenpai must show his whole hand when
a round is a draw. In some cases a player doesn't always have to
declare
tenpai and can keep his hand concealed.
One han with 110 fu hand
It is possible for a hand to have one
han with 102
fu (rounded up to 110
fu) if rules allow a pair
to have four
fu when it is made by a kind of wind tiles
that is both the prevailing wind and the player's wind. Some rules
consider that such a pair is still worth two
fu, making
the hand have exactly 100
fu.
(An example of a hand which has one
han with 110
fu)
, closed
, closed
, winning by a discard
.
The hand has
yakuhai of one
han with 20
fu of
fūtei, 10
fu
of
menzenkafu, 32
fu of
ankan, 32
fu of
ankan, four
fu of
minkō,
and four
fu of
toitsu. East is both the
prevailing wind and the player's wind in this case. This is the
largest amount of
fu that a hand with one
han can
have.
Notes
See also