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The Jat or Jatt people ( Jāṭ, , ) are an ethnic group native mainly to the Punjabmarker, Haryanamarker, Rajasthanmarker and Western Uttar Pradeshmarker belt of northern Indiamarker, including a large international immigrant diaspora. The Jat people have a cultural history that can be traced back to ancient times.

The people

A Jat Infantry Soldier

The Jat people are one of the most prosperous groups in India on a per-capita basis. Punjab marker, Haryanamarker and Gujaratmarker are the wealthiest of Indian states. In more recent years, Jats have been a dominant political class in Punjab.

The Jat people have been largely agriculturalists and members of the military. A considerable number of Jat people have served in the Indian Army, specifically in the Punjab Regiment, Jat Regiment, Sikh Regiment and the Grenadiers, where they have won many of the highest military awards for gallantry and bravery. The Jat Regiment is one of the longest serving and most decorated infantry regiments of the Indian Army having won 24 battle honours between 1839 and 1947, along with numerous decorations of individual members. Jat people in the Pakistan Army, especially in the Punjab Regiment, have also been highly decorated and won medals of the highest orders for bravery.Historically, there have been Kings of Jat origin as well as other leading figures, including several prominent political leaders in Pakistan and India.


In the early 20th century the Jat people constituted about 25 percent of the population of Punjab, nearly 15 percent of the population of Balochistan, Rajasthan, and Delhi, and from 2 to 5 percent of the populations of Sindh, Northwest Frontier, and Uttar Pradesh.

The 1931 census in India (the most comprehensive source of information about Jat people demographics) recorded population on the basis of ethnicity. Based on this number and on figures for population growth rates, the Jat population for 1988 has been estimated at 30 million. According to earlier censuses, Jat people accounted for approximately 25% of the entire Sindhi-Punjabi speaking area. A regional breakdown of the total Jat population is given in the following table. Demographically, A.H. Bingley noted, "The Jats have sent a very high percentage of their eligible men to the army".

Name of region Jat Population 1931 Jat Population 1988 Approx

Punjab Region* 6,068,302 22,709,755 73 %
Rajasthanmarker 1,043,153 3,651,036 12 %
Uttar Pradeshmarker 810,114 2,845,244 9.2 %
Jammu & Kashmirmarker 148,993 581,477 2 %
Balochistan 93,726 369,365 1.2 %
North-West Frontier Provincemarker 76,327 302,700 1 %
Bombay Presidency 54,362 216,139 0.7 %
Delhimarker 53,271 187,072 0.6 %
Central Provinces and Berar 28,135 98,473 0.3 %
Ajmermarker-Marwar 29,992 104,972 0.3 %
Total 8,406,375 31,066,253 100 %

*The Punjab Region includes Punjab marker, Punjab marker, Haryanamarker and Himachal Pradeshmarker.


The Hindu mythological account in Deva Samhita traces the origin of Jat people to Shiva's locks (see Origin of Jat people from Shiva's Locks).

The earliest attestation of the Jat people is in a Pali inscription dated to AD 541 (as Jit).

There are two main hypotheses, with general consensus amongst scholars on Indo-Scythian origin. The origin of the Jat people is discussed in terms of native Indo-Aryan ancestry and an intrusive Indo-Scythian admixture on the other.

Authors postulating Indo-Scythian ancestry include Alexander Cunningham, B.S. Dhillon, John Marshall , Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Duff, Arthur Edward Barstow, James Tod and Bhim Singh Dahiya.Authors emphasizing "indigenous" Indo-Aryan lineage include E. B. Havell, KR Qanungo, Herbert Risley, C.V.Vaidya and Thakur Deshraj.

A genetic study has been undertaken of the Jat people of the Indian States of Haryana and Punjab (Punjab region), where about 40% or more of the population are Jat people. The study involved a genealogical DNA test which examined single nucleotide polymorphism (mutations in a single DNA "letter") on the Y chromosome (which occurs only in males). Jat people share many common haplotypes with German, Slavic, Baltic, Iranian, and Central Asian groups. It found Jat people share only two haplotypes, one of which is also shared with the population of present-day Turkeymarker, and have few matches with neighbouring Pakistanimarker populations. This haplotype shared between the two Jat groups may be part of an Indo-Aryan (or Indo-European) genetic contribution to these populations, whereas the haplotypes shared with other Eurasian populations may be due to the contribution of Indo-European Scythian (Saka, Massagetae), and the Hephthalites (White Huns).

Connection with Romani people

There have been various speculative papers and books written regarding the Jat and Romani people (also known as Gypsies). There are serological similarities shared with several populations that linked the two people in a 1992 study.

In 2007 a limited medical survey of haplotypes frequently found in the Jat Sikhs and Jats of Haryana, and the Romani populations resulted in no matches. However, the recent discovery in 2009 of the "Jat mutation" that causes a type of glaucoma in Romani people. The press release from Leeds Universitymarker states:

"An international collaboration led by Manir Ali of the Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, first identified the ‘Jatt’ mutation in one of four Pakistani families.

Further study amongst Roma populations in Europe showed that the same mutation accounted for nearly half of all cases of PCG [Primary congenital glaucoma] in that community.

Manir Ali’s research also confirms the widely accepted view that the Roma originated from the Jatt clan of Northern India and Pakistan and not from Eastern Europe as previously believed."


The etymology of the name Jat is from the Middle Indic term *jatta and ultimately from the Sanskrit jartika, which was the name of a tribe."jat." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. 25 Jul. 2009. />. Alexander Cunningham noted that the early Arab writers upon their arrival in India called the Jat people Zaths. Archaeologists and writers have identified the Jat people with the ancient Getae and Scythian Massagetae. Alexander Cunningham, former Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India, connected the name of the Scythian Xanthii. He considered the Jat people to be the Xanthi, who he also considered very likely to be called the Zaths (Jats) by early Arab writers.


Mentions in ancient literature

Bhim Singh Dahiya states that the Jat people find a mention in Mahabharata and other ancient Indian literature. Mahendra Singh Arya etal. believe that the shloka Jat Jhat Sanghate ( ) in famous Sanskrit scholar Panini's Astadhyayi refers to the Jat people as a federation.

G. C. Dwivedi writes that the Persian Majmal-ut-Tawarikh mentions Jats and Meds as the descendants of Ham , living in Sindmarker on the banks of the river Bahar. S.M. Yunus Jaffery believes that the Jat people have been mentioned in Shāhnāma, a well-known Persian epic.

Ancient Jat kingdoms

K.R. Qanungo writes that when Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sindhmarker, the Kaikan region in Sindhmarker was in independent possession of the Jat people. In addition to frequent interaction with Jats (who for them represented Indians), the first Arab invasions of Persia and Sindh were met by the Jat people.

According to Thakur Deshraj and Cunningham, Jat people of the Panwhar clan ruled Umerkotmarker in Sindhpriormarker to Mughal ruler Humayun.

Thakur Deshraj also mentions that the Susthan region in Sindh was ruled by Chandra Ram, a Jat of Hala clan. Chandra Ram lost his kingdom (known as Halakhandi) to the Muslim invaders sent by Muhammad bin Qasim.

There is no information of any important Jat state in a period of two centuries following Kushan rule. However, in the beginning of fifth century, there is evidence of the Jat ruler Maharaja Shalinder ruling from "Shalpur" (the present-day Sialkotmarker); his territory extended from Punjab to Malwa and Rajasthanmarker. This is indicated by the Pali inscription obtained by James Tod from village Kanswa in Kotamarker state in year 1820 AD.

Medieval period

There were several small Jat states in what is now Rajasthanmarker. The Bikanermarker region (then known as Jangladesh) in the desert region of western India was dominated by the Jat people. At what period the Jat people established themselves in the Indian desert is not known. By the 4th century they had spread up to Punjab in India. The small Jat population in the region were Jat clans ruled by their own chiefs and largely governed by their own customary law.

There were several Jat rulers of small areas in North India. These included the Garhwals of Garhmukteshwar, Kaliramnas (who ruled near Mathuramarker), Khirwars of Brij and Narsinghpurmarker, Nauhwars (who ruled the area surrounding the Noh lake area near Mathuramarker), Koīlsmarker of Kampilgarh (the area that is now Aligarhmarker), Halas, Kuntals, Pachars, Thenuas, Toouts, and Thakureles.

The Jat people also dominated the Malwa region, under rulers such asHarshavardhana, Shiladitya, Singhavarma, Vishnuvardhan and Yasodharman.

Rise of Jat power after 1699

Coat of arms of Bharatpur rulers

Maharaja Ranjit Singh


In 1699, the Jat people of the Gokula region around Mathuramarker rebelled against the powerful Mughal rulers (see 1669 Jat uprising). The rebellion resulted from political provocation aggravated by the economic discontent, and further aggravated by the religious persecution and discrimination.

In the disorder following Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the Jat resistance resumed, organized under the leadership of Churaman (1695–1721). Churaman's nephew, Badan Singh (1722–1756), established a kingdom centered at Deegmarker, from which he extended his rule over Agramarker and Mathura. Badan Singh's eldest son and successor, Maharaja Suraj Mal (1707–1763), extended his kingdom to include Agramarker, Mathuramarker, Dholpurmarker, Mainpurimarker, Hathrasmarker, Aligarhmarker, Etawahmarker, Meerutmarker, Rohtakmarker (including Bhiwanimarker), Farrukhnagarmarker, Mewat, Rewarimarker and Gurgaonmarker. He has been described as one of the greatest Jat rulers. Suraj Mal moved the capital from Deegmarker to Bharatpurmarker in 1733. Rustam, a Jat king of the Sogariya clan, had previously laid the foundation of the modern city of Bharatpur. During the British Raj, the princely state of Bharatpur covered an area of 5,123 km2, and its rulers enjoyed a salute of 17 guns. The state acceded to the dominion of India in 1947.

According to Cunningham and William Cook, the city of Gohadmarker was founded in 1505 by the Jats of Bamraulia village, who had been forced to leave Bamraulia by a satrap of Firuz Shah Tughluq. Gohad developed into an important Jat state, and was later captured by the Marathas. The Jat people of Gohad signed a treaty with the British and helped them capture Gwaliormarker and Gohad from the Marathas. The British kept Gwalior and handed control of Gohad to Jat people in 1804. Gohad was handed over to the Marathas under a revised treaty dated 22 November 1805 between the Marathas and the British. As a compensation for Gohad, the Jat ruler Rana Kirat Singh was given Dhaulpurmarker, Badi and Rajakheda; Kirat Singh moved to Dhaulpurmarker in December 1805.

In the 10th century, the Jat people took control of Dholpurmarker, which had earlier been ruled by the Rajputs and the Yadavs. Dholpur was taken by Sikandar Lodhi in 1501, who transferred it to a Muslim governor in 1504. In 1527, the Dholpur fort fell to Babur and continued to be ruled by the Mughals until 1707. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Raja Kalyan Singh Bhadauria obtained possession of Dholpur, and his family retained it until 1761. After that, Dholpur was taken successively by the Jat ruler Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur; by Mirza Najaf Khan in 1775; by the Scindia ruler of Gwalior in 1782; and finally, by the British East India Company in 1803. It was restored by the British to the Scindias under the Treaty of Sarji Anjangaon, but in consequence of new arrangements, was again occupied by the British. In 1806, Dholpur again came under the Jat rulers, when it was handed over to Kirat Singh of Gohad. Dholpur thus became a princely state, a vassal of the British during the Raj.

Ballabhgarhmarker was another important princely state established by the Jat people of the Tewatia clan, who had come from Janauli village. Balram Singh, the brother-in-law of Maharaja Suraj Mal was the first powerful ruler of Ballabhgarh. Raja Nahar Singh (1823–1858) was another notable king of this princely state.

Patialamarker and Nabhamarker were two important Sikh states in Punjab, ruled by the Jat-Sikh people of the Siddhu clan. The Jindmarker state in present-day Haryanamarker was founded by the descendants of Phul Jat of Siddhu ancestry. These states were formed with the Military assistance of the Sikh 6th Guru, known as Guru HarGobind.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) of the Sandhawalia Jat clan of Punjab became the Sikh emperor of the sovereign country of Punjab and the Sikh Empire. He united the Sikh factions into one state, and conquered vast tracts of territory on all sides of his kingdom. From the capture of Lahoremarker in 1799, he rapidly annexed the rest of the Punjab. To secure his empire, he invaded Afghanistanmarker, and defeated the Pathan militias and tribes. Ranjit Singh took the title of "Maharaja" on April 12, 1801 (to coincide with Baisakhi day). Lahore served as his capital from 1799. In 1802 he took the city of Amritsarmarker. In the year 1802, Ranjit Singh successfully invaded Kashmirmarker.

Other Jat states of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries included Kuchesarmarker (ruled by the Dalal Jat clan of Mandoti, Haryanamarker), and the Mursanmarker state (the present-day Hathrasmarker district in Uttar Pradeshmarker) ruled by the Thenua Jats.

The Jat people also briefly ruled at Gwaliormarker and Agramarker. The Jat rulers Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana (1707-1756) and Maharaja Chhatar Singh Rana (1757-1782) occupied the Gwalior fort twice, Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana from 1740 to 1756, and Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana from 1780 to 1783. Maharaja Suraj Mal captured Agra Fort on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774. After Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharaja Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh (minor) under resident ship of Maharaja Nawal Singh ruled over Agra Fortmarker.

Life and culture of Jat people

The life and culture of Jats is full of diversity and approaches most closely to that ascribed to the traditional Central Asian colonists of South Asia. The Jat lifestyle was designed to foster a martial spirit. Whenever they lost their kingdoms, Jat people retired to the country-side and became landed barons and the landlords with their swords girded round their waists. They would draw the sword out of the scabbard at the command of their panchayat to fight with the invaders. Jat people have a history of being brave and ready fighters. They are fiercely independent in character and value their self respect more than anything, which is why they offered heavy resistance against any foreign force that treated them unjustly. They are known for their pride, bravery and readyness to sacrifice their lives in battle for their people and kinsmen. In the government of their villages, they appear much more democratic. They have less reverence for hereditary right and a preference for elected headmen.

Social customs of Jat people

All Jats, irrespective of their official or financial positions in life, have equal social status .

The only criterion of superiority is age. The Jat people are ethnically and culturally required to marry within their community. With the advancement of modern civilization, as people are becoming less dependent upon and more tolerant towards each other, the joint family system is going out of vogue; it is still prevalent in the less advanced areas.


Jat people are followers of many faiths. Today they mostly follow Hinduism, Islam, or Sikhism, with a minority following Christianity, especially Jats living in the in UK.

In 1925, the population of the Jat people was around nine million in South Asia, made up of followers of three major religions as shown below as per Kalika Ranjan Qanungo:
Historically, the Jat people have sent a very high percentage of their eligible men to the army.
Religion Jat Population %
Hinduism 47%
Islam 33%
Sikhism 20%

Most Jat Gotras (which also have the most population) fall under the Hindu Jat Gotra list according to various books on Jat History.During the early 1900s four million Jats of present-day Pakistan were mainly Muslim by faith and the nearly six million Jats of present-day India were mostly divided into two large groups: Sikhs, concentrated in Punjab, and Hindu; in accordance with the Hindu varna system the Jats belong to Kshatriya varna.The alternate view is Jats belonged to Sudra Varna of the Hindu caste system . Also because they tend to be mostly farmers in Punjab and Haryana, they could be termed as Vaishya.Some historians consider Jats, along with Kayasthas and Gujars, out of purview of varna system.

It is speculated that Jats were Sakas (of Scythian origin) or republic kshatriyas, like the Khatris, Tarkhan people, Rajputs, Lohars, Gujjars and Kambojas, and these communities are closely (genetically) related to the Jat community.

Those of the Punjabi areas of India and Pakistan are more often landlord farmers. Numerically, Jat people form the largest percentage of the Sikh community.

The Jat Muslims in the western regions are organized in hundreds of groups tracing their descent through paternal lines.

Most Sikh Jats were converted from Hindus so during the Mughal eras they would have joined their Hindu counterparts in times of battle.


Jat people usually speak Punjabi Urdu, Gojri, Dogri, Sindhi, Hindi and its dialects (Rajasthani, Haryanvi, Malvi). Sikh and Muslim Jat people from the Punjab mostly speak Punjabi and its various dialects (such as Maajhi, Malwi, Doabi, Saraiki, Pothohari, and Jhangochi).

Jat people clans

The Jat people have always organized themselves into hundreds of patrilineage clans, Panchayat system or Khap. A clan was based on one small gotra or a number of related gotras under one elected leader whose word was law. The big Jat clans now are so big that many individuals in them are only related to each other by individuals that lived typically hundreds of years ago. Mutual quarrels of any intensity could be settled by orders of Jat elders. In times of danger, the whole clan rallied under the banner of the leader. The Jat Khap or Panchayat system is territorial and highly democratic. A number of Khaps form a Sarva Khap embracing a full province or state. Negotiations were done at Sarva Khap level.

In addition to the conventional Sarva Khap Panchayat, there are regional Jat Mahasabhas affiliated to the All India Jat Mahasabha to organize and safeguard the interests of the community, which held its meeting at regional and national levels to take stock of their activities and devise practical ways and means for the amelioration of the community.

The Jat people clan names are unique in South Asia. However, some of their clan names do overlap with the Rajputs and Gujjars.List of Jat Clans have been compiled by many Jat historians like Ompal Singh Tugania, Bhaleram Beniwal.Mahendra Singh Arya and others,Thakur Deshraj,Dilip Singh Ahlawat, Ram Swarup Joon etc. The above lists have more than 2700 Jat gotras. Thakur Deshraj, Ram Swarup Joon and Dilip Singh Ahlawat have mentioned history of some of Jat gotras. Some websites of Jats have also prepared list of Jat Gotras with details of history and distriburion.

Jat people today

Today, the largest population centre is located in the Punjab region,Hariyana, Rajasthan and there are smaller distributions across the world, due to the large immigrant diaspora. In the immigrant diaspora major populations centres include the U.K.marker, U.S.marker, Canadamarker, Singaporemarker, Indonesiamarker, Russiamarker and BelgiumAustralia.

Jat people in Pakistan

A large number of the Jat people live in Pakistan and occupy dominant roles in public life in Pakistan Punjabmarker and Pakistanmarker in general.

In addition to the Punjab, Jat communities are also found in Pakistani administered Kashmirmarker, in Sindhmarker, particularly the Indus delta and among Seraiki speaking communities in southern Punjab, the Kachhi region of Baluchistanmarker and the Dera Ismail Khan Districtmarker of the North West Frontier Provincemarker.

Jat people immigrant diaspora

A large number of the Jat people emigrated from South Asia in search of opportunities abroad starting from the early 1960s. Large immigration took place to the U.K. and U.S. during the post World War 2 labour demand. Recent immigration has taken place to Australia and Canada, with Canada being a major destination point in recent years.

Jat people in India

Jat people are considered a forward class in all the states of india with those of Punjabi or Haryana origin.Some specific clans of Jat people are classified as OBC in some states, e.g. Jat Muslim in Gujaratmarker and Mirdha Jat people (except Jat Muslims) in Madhya Pradeshmarker. Land reforms, particularly the abolition of Jagirdari and Zamindari systems, Panchayati Raj and Green revolution, to which Jat people have been major contributors, have immensely contributed to the economic betterment of the Jat people.

Adult franchise has created enormous social and political awakening among Jat people. Consolidation of economic gains and participation in the electoral process are two visible outcomes of the post-independence situation. Through this participation they have been able to significantly influence the politics of north India. However since demise of Charan Singh and Devi Lal and rise of OBC and Bahujan Samaj Party their influence is on decline. Economic differentiation, migration and mobility could be clearly noticed amongst the Jat people.

Jat people organizations

The Association of Jats of America is the main Jat people organization of North America. It serves as the main body, forum and lobby for Jat people issues in North America.

The North American Jat Charities is one of the main Jat people Charities of North America. It serves as a charity for the welfare Jat people in North America.

Notable Jats

* Chaudhary Imdad Ali Mallhi of Shahkot MA. LLB a Prominant Political and Shia leader in Pakistan; He struggeled for the rights of Shias of Pakistan. He is banned by the Govt of pakistan to enter Pakistan.

In the US

Minnesota State Senator Satveer Chaudhary, (the first South Asian senator in American history)

In Canada

In the UK

Jats in popular culture

  • The "Jat Lancer" is a mercenary Indian cavalry unit in the Age of Empires.

  • Maula Jat is one of the most popular films in the history of Pakistani cinema. It has been described as a kind of Pakistani/Western style movie, the story mostly revolves around the clashes between Maula Jat.

  • Jagga Daku a crimelord of early 19th century British India.

  • Many Punjabi songs are written around every day life of the Sikh-Jat people.

  • The 1975 Hindi film Pratigya had a popular song Main Jat Yamla Pagla shot on Dharmendra a Jat himself and acted as a Jat person role in the film.

  • Ghulami (1985), Indian Hindi movie by Dharmendra, focuses on the caste and feudal system in Rajasthan and a rebellion started by Dharmendra, as a Jat youth, against the Jagirdars.

  • Veer Tejaji is a Rajasthani language movie, based on the life of Tejaji, made in the 1980’s. It shows the life of Jat people and their position in the society in eleventh century.

  • Heer Ranjha is one of the four popular tragic romances of the Punjab. It tells the story of the love of Heer and her lover Ranjha.

Photo gallery

Image:Devilal.jpg|Jat people: Former Deputy Prime Minister of India Chaudhari Devi Lal.Image:Dhanna Bhagat.JPG|Jat people: Dhanna Bhagat.Image:GurdasMaanLiveInConcertWembleyArena2007.jpg|Jat people: Gurdas Maan.Image:PRMaderna.jpg|Jat people: Parasram Maderna.Image:Maharaja Kisan Singh.jpg|Jat people: Maharaja Kishan Singh.Image:Raja Ram.JPG|Jat people: Raja Ram Jat.Image:Drgssirohi.JPG|Jat people: Giri Raj Singh Sirohi.Image:K Natwar Singh.jpg|Jat people: former Indian Foreign Minister K. Natwar Singh.Image:Daulatram Saran.jpg|Jat people: Daulatram Saran.Image:Kumbharam Arya1.jpg|Jat people: Chaudhari Kumbharam Arya.Image:Natthan Singh.jpg|Jat people: Natthan Singh.Image:Maharaja Jawahar Singh.jpg|Jat people: Jawahar Singh.Image:Gugera War of independence.jpg|Jat people: Rae Ahmed Nawaz Khan Kharal.Image:Raja Mahendra Pratap.jpg|Jat people: Raja Mahendra Pratap.Image:The Jat Regiment Chrome Insigna.JPG|Jat people: Jat Regiment.

See also


  1. Hukum Singh Pawar (Pauria):The Jatts - Their Origin, Antiquity and Migration. 1993, ISBN 81-85253-22-8
  2. Surjit Mansingh, Historical Dictionary of India, Vision Books, 1998, pp. 203-204. ISBN 8170943094.
  3. Herbert Risley: The People of India
  4. Herbert Risley: The People of India
  5. History of Medieval India - Vaidya
  6. Horace Arthur Rose, Denzil Ibbetson et al.: A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Provence, p57.
  7. The Jat Regiment.
  8. History of the Jatt Clans - H.S. Duleh.
  9. Census of India 1931, Vol.I, Pt.2; Delhi:1933.Encly. Brit. Vol.12, 1968 Jats, p.969
  10. The People of Asia by Gordon T. Bowles. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London. 1977, p. 158.
  11. The Jats - Their Origin, Antiquity and Migration. 1993, ISBN 81-85253-22-8
  12. Bingley, A.H. (Captain), Handbooks for the Indian Army: Printed at the Government Central Printing Office, Simla, India, 1899, pp. 11-12, 93.
  13. Ram Swarup Joon, History of the Jats (Eng), 1967, p.14-15
  14. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, 1934, p. 85-86
  15. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. I, inscription No. I,, pp. 88, 622
  16. P.S. Gill, Heritage of Sikh Culture, New Academic Publishing Co., Jullundur, Punjab, 1975, pp. 12-13.
  17. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, Dahinam Publishers, Sonepat, Haryana.
  18. Alexander Cunningham, The Ancient Geography of India: The Buddhist Period, Including the Campaigns of Alexander, and the Travels of Hwen-Thsang (1871), pp. 290-291.
  19. Tod, J., (Lt. Col.), Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1972 (reprint), first published in 1829, pp. 623.
  20. E.B.Havell: The history of Aryan rule in India, page 32
  21. Qanungo: History of the Jats
  22. C.V.Vaidya: History of Medieval Hindu India
  23. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihasa
  24. Mangal Sen Jindal: History of Origin of Some Clans in India
  25. Willuweit S., Roewer L. (2007), 'Y chromosome haplotype reference database (YHRD): Update', Forensic Science International: Genetics 1(2), 83-7.
  26. Hancock, Ian. Ame Sam e Rromane Džene/We are the Romani people. p. 13. ISBN 1902806190
  28. Leeds University Press Release
  29. Alexander Cunningham, Coins of the Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans, Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971, first published in 1888, pp. 33.
  30. Ibn Hauqal, Kitab Masalik Wa al-Mamalik, in Elliot and Dowson, p.40
  31. Muhammad Tahir al-Patani, Mujma bihar al-Anwar (Kanpur:1283), II, S.V.Zutti.
  32. Cf. Gabriel Ferrand, S.V. Zutt, Urdu Daira-i-Ma’arif-i-Islamiya, X, p. 459
  33. John Marshall , A Guide to Taxila, Cambridge University Press, London, 1960, pp. 24.
  34. Hewitt, J.F., The Ruling Races of Prehistoric Times in India, South-Western Asia and Southern Europe, Archibald Constable & Co., London, 1894, pp. 481-487.
  35. Latif, S.M., History of the Panjab, Reprinted by Progressive Books, Lahore, Pakistan, 1984, first published in 1891, pp. 56.
  36. Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, Page-1
  37. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Vir Singh, 2003, p. 7
  38. K.R.Qanungo, History of the Jat people, Ed Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 16
  39. S.M. Yunus Jaffery:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol.I, 2004. Page 36-37, Ed. by Vir Singh, Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052
  40. K.R.Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Vir Singh, 2003, p.17
  41. Memoirs of Humayun, p. 45
  42. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.705
  43. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 702.
  44. Sindh Ka itihas, p.30
  45. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.208-211
  46. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, 1934, p. 616-624
  47. Dashrath Sharma, Rajasthan through the ages, Jodhpur, 1966, Vol.I, p. 287-288
  48. Girish Chandra Dwivedi, The Jats – Their role in the Mughal empire, Ed. by Vir Singh. Delhi, 2003, p. 15
  49. Girish Chandra Dwivedi, The Jats – Their role in the Mughal empire, Ed. by Vir Singh. Delhi, 2003, p. 25
  50. Siyar IV, p. 28
  51. K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 97
  52. Ajay Kumar Agnihotri (1985) : "Gohad ke Jaton ka Itihas" (Hindi), p.63-71
  53. SINGH,BHAGAT A History of Sikh Misals Patiala,India, Punjabi University. 1993, First Edition
  54. SINGH,BHAGAT A History of Sikh Misals Patiala,India, Punjabi University. 1993, First Edition page 130
  55. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Pages 197-200
  56. Mangal sen Jindal (1992): History of Origin of Some Clans in India (with special Reference to Jats), Sarup & Sons, 4378/4B, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110002 ISBN 81-85431-08-6, Page-17, 36.
  57. Glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and NWFP, H A Rose
  58. Kalika Ranjan Qanungo: History of the Jats, Delhi 2003. Edited and annotated by Vir Singh
  61. Tod.II.256
  62. Historical Evidence Chapter 1:Scythic Origin of the Rajput Race by Mulchand Chauhan
  64. Dr Mohan Lal Gupta:Rajasthan Jñānkosh, Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, 2008, ISBN 81-86103-05-8, p.244
  65. Maheswari Prasad:The Jats - Their role & contribution to the socio-economic life and polity of North & North-West India, Vol.I Ed. Vir Singh, ISBN 81-88629-17-0, p.27
  66. B.K. Nagla, "Jats of Haryana: A sociplogical Analysis", The Jats, Vol. II, Ed. Vir Singh, p.308
  67. Marshall, J., (Sir, Hon. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge University, and formerly Director-General of Archaeology in India), A Guide to Taxila, Cambridge University Press, London, 1960, pp. 24.
  68. Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat samudāy ke pramukh Ādhār bindu, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2004
  69. Bhaleram Beniwal: Jāton kā Ādikālīn Itihāsa, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2005.
  70. Bhaleram Beniwal: Jāt Yodhaon ke Balidān, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2005
  71. Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998
  72. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihasa (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd
  73. Dilip Singh Ahlawat: Jat viron ka Itihasa
  74. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats, Rohtak, India (1938, 1967)
  75. List of Jat Gotras on Jatland In Pakistan the head of Pakistan Muslim League(Q) and former prime Minister Ch. Shujaat Hussain is a jat also. His Cousin Ch. Pervaiz Ilahi who was the Chief Minister of Punjab (Pakistani) is also a jat.
  76. K.R.Qanungo, History of the Jat people, Ed Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003
  77. K L Sharma:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol.I, 2004. Ed. by Vir Singh,p.14
  78. [(NJAC) North American Jat Charities]

Further reading

  • Historical Evidence Chapter 1:Scythic Origin of the Rajput Race by Mulchand Chauhan
  • Rattan Singh Bhangoo. Prachin Panth Parkash, Punjabi, Published in 1841.
  • Bal Kishan Dabas. Political and Social History of the Jats". Sanjay Prakashan, 2001. ISBN 81-7453-045-2
  • Dharampal Singh Dudee. Indian Army History: France to Kargil. 2001.
  • Dharampal Singh Dudee. Navin Jat History. Shaheed Dham Trust, Bhiwani, Haryana, India.
  • Kanungo. History of the Jats.
  • Natthan Singh. Jat-Itihas. Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, Gwalior, 2004.
  • Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria). The Jats: Their Origin, Antiquity & Migrations. Manthan Publications, Rohtak, Haryana. ISBN 81-85235-22-8
  • K. Natwar Singh. Maharaja Suraj Mal.
  • Prakash Chandra Chandawat. Maharaja Suraj Mal Aur Unka Yug (1745-1763). Jaypal Agencies, Agra. 1982. (in Hindi)
  • Raj Pal Singh. Rise of the Jat Power. Harman Pub. House. ISBN 81-85151-05-9
  • Aadhunik Jat Itihas. Dharmpal Singh Dudee & Mahinder Singh Arya. Jaypal Agency, Agra. 1998.
  • Ram Swaroop Joon. History of the Jats.
  • Shashi Prabha Gupta. Demographic Differentials Among the Rajputs and the Jats: A Socio-Biological Study of Rural Haryana. Classical Pub. House. ISBN 81-7054-180-8
  • Thakur Deshraj Jat Itihasa Maharaja Suraj Mal. Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi. 1936. (in Hindi)
  • Girish Chandra Dwivedi The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire. Surajmal Educational Society, New Delhi, India. ISBN- 81-7031-150-0.
  • Atal Singh Khokkar. Jaton ki Utpati evam Vistar. Jaipal Agencies, 31-1 Subashpuram, Agra, UP, India 282007. 2002.
  • Chaudhary Kabul Singh. Sarv Khap Itihasa (History of the Jat Republic). Shoram, Muzzafarnagar, U.P. India. 1976.
  • Nihal Singh Arya. Sarv Khap Panchayat ka Rastriya Parakram (The National Role of the Jat Republic of Haryana). Arya mandal, B 11 Om Mandal, Nangloi, New Delhi, India. 1991
  • Mangal sen Jindal. History of Origin of Some Clans in India (with special Reference to Jats). Sarup & Sons, 4378/4B, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110002. ISBN 81-85431-08-6
  • Vir Singh. The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Surajmal Educational Society, D K Publishers, New Delhi, India. 2004. ISBN 81-88629-16-2
  • B. S. Dhillon History and study of the Jats, Beta Publishers. 1994. ISBN 1895603021
  • Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology By Melvin Ember, Page 777,,M1

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