Jat or Jatt people ( Jāṭ, , ) are an
ethnic group native mainly to the
Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Western Uttar Pradesh belt of northern India, including a
large international immigrant diaspora.
The Jat people have a cultural
history that can be traced back to ancient times.
A Jat Infantry Soldier
The Jat people are one of the most prosperous groups in India on a
per-capita basis. Punjab , Haryana and Gujarat are the
wealthiest of Indian states.
In more recent years, Jats have
been a dominant political class in Punjab.
The Jat people have been largely agriculturalists and members of
the military. A considerable number of Jat people have served in
the Indian Army
, specifically in the
, Jat Regiment
and the Grenadiers
where they have won many of the highest military awards for
gallantry and bravery
. The Jat Regiment is
one of the longest serving and most decorated infantry regiments of
the Indian Army
having won 24 battle
honours between 1839 and 1947, along with numerous decorations of
individual members. Jat people in the Pakistan Army
, especially in the Punjab Regiment
, have also been
highly decorated and won medals of the highest orders for
bravery.Historically, there have been Kings of Jat origin as well
as other leading figures, including several prominent political
leaders in Pakistan and India.
In the early 20th century the Jat people constituted about 25
percent of the population of Punjab, nearly 15 percent of the
population of Balochistan, Rajasthan, and Delhi, and from 2 to 5
percent of the populations of Sindh, Northwest Frontier, and Uttar
The 1931 census in India (the most comprehensive source of
information about Jat people demographics) recorded population on
the basis of ethnicity. Based on this number and on figures for
population growth rates, the Jat population for 1988 has been
estimated at 30 million. According to earlier censuses, Jat people
accounted for approximately 25% of the entire Sindhi-Punjabi
speaking area. A regional breakdown of the total Jat population is
given in the following table. Demographically, A.H. Bingley noted,
"The Jats have sent a very high percentage of their eligible
men to the army"
Punjab Region includes Punjab
, Haryana and Himachal
|Name of region
||Jat Population 1931
||Jat Population 1988
|Jammu & Kashmir
|North-West Frontier Province
|Central Provinces and
The Hindu mythological account in Deva Samhita
origin of Jat people to Shiva
's locks (see
Origin of Jat
people from Shiva's Locks
The earliest attestation of the Jat people is in a Pali
inscription dated to AD 541 (as
There are two main hypotheses, with general consensus amongst
scholars on Indo-Scythian
origin of the Jat people is discussed in terms of native Indo-Aryan
ancestry and an intrusive Indo-Scythian
admixture on the other.
Authors postulating Indo-Scythian ancestry include Alexander Cunningham
, B.S. Dhillon,
Elphinstone Grant Duff
, James Tod
and Bhim Singh Dahiya
"indigenous" Indo-Aryan lineage include E. B. Havell
, KR Qanungo, Herbert Risley
, C.V.Vaidya and Thakur Deshraj
A genetic study
has been undertaken of
the Jat people of the Indian States of Haryana and Punjab
, where about 40% or more of the population
are Jat people. The study involved a genealogical DNA test
which examined single nucleotide polymorphism
(mutations in a single
DNA "letter") on the Y chromosome
(which occurs only in males). Jat people share many common haplotypes
, and Central Asian
groups. It found Jat people
share only two haplotypes, one of which is also shared with the
population of present-day Turkey, and have
few matches with neighbouring Pakistani populations.
This haplotype shared between
the two Jat groups may be part of an Indo-Aryan
) genetic contribution to
these populations, whereas the haplotypes shared with other
populations may be due to the
contribution of Indo-European Scythian
and the Hephthalites
Connection with Romani people
There have been various speculative papers and books written
regarding the Jat and Romani people
(also known as Gypsies). There are serological similarities shared
with several populations that linked the two people in a 1992
In 2007 a limited medical survey of haplotypes frequently found in
the Jat Sikhs and Jats of Haryana, and the Romani populations
resulted in no matches. However, the recent discovery in 2009 of
the "Jat mutation" that causes a type of glaucoma
in Romani people. The press release
"An international collaboration led by Manir Ali of the Leeds
Institute of Molecular Medicine, first identified the ‘Jatt’
mutation in one of four Pakistani families.
Further study amongst Roma populations in Europe showed that the
same mutation accounted for nearly half of all cases of PCG
[Primary congenital glaucoma] in that community.
Manir Ali’s research also confirms the widely accepted view that
the Roma originated from the Jatt clan
of Northern India and Pakistan and not from Eastern Europe as
The etymology of the name Jat is from the Middle Indic term
and ultimately from the Sanskrit jartika
which was the name of a tribe."jat." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. 25 Jul. 2009.
/dictionary.reference.com/browse/jat>. Alexander Cunningham
noted that the
early Arab writers upon their arrival in India called the Jat
people Zaths. Archaeologists
writers have identified the Jat people with the ancient Getae
and Scythian Massagetae
. Alexander Cunningham
, former Director-General
of the Archeological Survey of India
connected the name of the Scythian
. He considered the Jat
people to be the Xanthi, who he also considered very likely to be
called the Zaths (Jats) by early Arab writers.
Mentions in ancient literature
Bhim Singh Dahiya
states that the
Jat people find a mention in Mahabharata
other ancient Indian literature. Mahendra Singh Arya etal. believe
that the shloka Jat Jhat
( ) in famous Sanskrit
refers to the Jat people as a
G. C. Dwivedi writes that the Persian Majmal-ut-Tawarikh mentions Jats and
Meds as the descendants of Ham , living in Sind on the banks
of the river Bahar.
S.M. Yunus Jaffery
believes that the Jat people have been mentioned in Shāhnāma
Ancient Jat kingdoms
K.R. Qanungo writes that when Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sindh, the
Kaikan region in Sindh was in
independent possession of the Jat people.
In addition to
frequent interaction with Jats (who for them represented Indians),
the first Arab invasions of Persia and Sindh were met by the Jat
to Thakur Deshraj and Cunningham, Jat
people of the Panwhar clan ruled Umerkot in Sindhprior to Mughal ruler Humayun.
also mentions that the
Susthan region in Sindh was ruled by Chandra Ram, a Jat of Hala
clan. Chandra Ram lost his kingdom (known as
Halakhandi) to the Muslim invaders sent by Muhammad bin Qasim
There is no information of any important Jat state in a period of
two centuries following Kushan
in the beginning of fifth century, there is evidence of the Jat
ruler Maharaja Shalinder ruling
from "Shalpur" (the present-day Sialkot); his territory extended from Punjab to Malwa and
Rajasthan. This is indicated by the Pali inscription
obtained by James Tod from village
Kanswa in Kota state in
year 1820 AD.
were several small Jat states in what is now Rajasthan. The Bikaner region (then known as Jangladesh) in the desert
region of western India was dominated by the Jat people.
At what period the Jat people established themselves in the Indian
desert is not known. By the 4th century they had spread up to
in India. The small Jat
population in the region were Jat clans ruled by their own chiefs
and largely governed by their own customary law.
There were several Jat rulers of small areas in North India.
included the Garhwals of Garhmukteshwar, Kaliramnas (who ruled near Mathura), Khirwars of Brij and Narsinghpur, Nauhwars (who ruled the
area surrounding the Noh lake area near Mathura), Koīls of
Kampilgarh (the area that is now Aligarh), Halas, Kuntals, Pachars, Thenuas, Toouts, and Thakureles.
The Jat people also dominated the Malwa
region, under rulers such asHarshavardhana
Rise of Jat power after 1699
Coat of arms of Bharatpur rulers
the Jat people of the Gokula region around
Mathura rebelled against the powerful Mughal rulers (see 1669 Jat uprising).
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
resulted from political provocation aggravated by the economic
discontent, and further aggravated by the religious persecution and
In the disorder following Aurangzeb
death in 1707, the Jat resistance resumed, organized under the
leadership of Churaman
Churaman's nephew, Badan Singh (1722–1756), established a kingdom
centered at Deeg, from which
he extended his rule over Agra and
Mathura. Badan Singh's
eldest son and successor, Maharaja
Suraj Mal (1707–1763), extended his kingdom to include Agra, Mathura, Dholpur, Mainpuri, Hathras, Aligarh, Etawah, Meerut, Rohtak (including
Bhiwani), Farrukhnagar, Mewat, Rewari and
He has been described as one of the
greatest Jat rulers. Suraj Mal moved the capital from Deeg to Bharatpur in 1733. Rustam
, a Jat
king of the Sogariya clan, had previously laid the foundation of
the modern city of Bharatpur. During the British Raj
, the princely state of Bharatpur
covered an area of 5,123 km2
, and its rulers
enjoyed a salute of 17 guns. The state acceded to the dominion of India
to Cunningham and William Cook, the city of Gohad was founded
in 1505 by the Jats of Bamraulia village, who had been forced to
leave Bamraulia by a satrap of Firuz Shah Tughluq.
developed into an important Jat state, and was later captured by
. The Jat people of
Gohad signed a treaty with the British and helped them capture
Gwalior and Gohad from the Marathas.
kept Gwalior and handed control of Gohad to Jat people in 1804.
Gohad was handed over to the Marathas under a revised treaty dated
22 November 1805 between the Marathas and the British. As a compensation for
Gohad, the Jat ruler Rana Kirat Singh
was given Dhaulpur, Badi and Rajakheda; Kirat Singh moved to Dhaulpur in December 1805.
10th century, the Jat people took control of Dholpur, which had earlier been ruled by the Rajputs and
Dholpur was taken by
in 1501, who
transferred it to a Muslim governor in 1504. In 1527, the Dholpur
fort fell to Babur
and continued to be ruled
by the Mughals
until 1707. After the
death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb
Raja Kalyan Singh Bhadauria obtained possession of Dholpur, and his
family retained it until 1761. After that, Dholpur was taken
successively by the Jat ruler Maharaja Suraj Mal
of Bharatpur; by Mirza
Najaf Khan in 1775; by the Scindia
Gwalior in 1782; and finally, by the British East India Company
1803. It was restored by the British to the Scindias under the
Treaty of Sarji Anjangaon, but in consequence of new arrangements,
was again occupied by the British. In 1806, Dholpur again came
under the Jat rulers, when it was handed over to Kirat Singh of
Gohad. Dholpur thus became a princely
, a vassal of the British during the Raj
Ballabhgarh was another important princely state established by
the Jat people of the Tewatia clan, who had
come from Janauli village.
Balram Singh, the brother-in-law
of Maharaja Suraj Mal
first powerful ruler of Ballabhgarh. Raja Nahar Singh
(1823–1858) was another
notable king of this princely state.
Patiala and Nabha were two
important Sikh states in Punjab, ruled
by the Jat-Sikh people of the Siddhu
clan. The Jind state in
present-day Haryana was founded
by the descendants of Phul Jat of Siddhu
These states were formed with the Military
assistance of the Sikh 6th Guru, known as Guru HarGobind.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
(1780–1839) of the Sandhawalia
clan of Punjab became the Sikh emperor
of the sovereign
country of Punjab
and the Sikh Empire
. He united the Sikh factions into
one state, and conquered vast tracts of territory on all sides of
his kingdom. From the capture of Lahore in 1799, he
rapidly annexed the rest of the Punjab. To secure his empire,
he invaded Afghanistan, and defeated the Pathan
militias and tribes.
Ranjit Singh took the title of
" on April 12, 1801 (to coincide
day). Lahore served as his
capital from 1799. In 1802 he took the city of Amritsar. In the year 1802, Ranjit Singh successfully
states of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries included Kuchesar (ruled by the Dalal Jat clan
of Mandoti, Haryana), and the
Mursan state (the
present-day Hathras district in Uttar Pradesh) ruled by the Thenua
people also briefly ruled at Gwalior and Agra.
Jat rulers Maharaja Bhim Singh
(1707-1756) and Maharaja Chhatar
(1757-1782) occupied the Gwalior fort twice,
Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana from 1740 to 1756, and Maharaja Chhatra
Singh Rana from 1780 to 1783. Maharaja Suraj Mal captured Agra Fort
on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur
rulers till 1774. After Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharaja Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh (minor) under
resident ship of Maharaja Nawal
Singh ruled over Agra
Life and culture of Jat people
The life and culture of Jats is full of diversity
and approaches most closely to
that ascribed to the traditional Central
colonists of South Asia. The Jat lifestyle was designed
to foster a martial
spirit. Whenever they
lost their kingdoms, Jat people retired to the country-side and
became landed barons and the landlords with their swords girded
round their waists. They would draw the sword out of the scabbard
at the command of their panchayat
with the invaders. Jat people have a history of being brave and
ready fighters. They are fiercely independent in character and
value their self respect more than anything, which is why they
offered heavy resistance against any foreign force that treated
them unjustly. They are known for their pride, bravery and
readyness to sacrifice their lives in battle for their people and
kinsmen. In the government of their villages, they appear much more
democratic. They have less reverence for hereditary right and a
preference for elected headmen.
Social customs of Jat people
All Jats, irrespective of their official or financial positions in
life, have equal social status .
The only criterion of superiority is age. The Jat people are
ethnically and culturally required to marry within their community.
With the advancement of modern civilization
, as people are becoming less
dependent upon and more tolerant towards each other, the joint
family system is going out of vogue; it is still prevalent in the
less advanced areas.
Jat people are followers of many faiths. Today they mostly follow
, with a minority following Christianity
, especially Jats living in the in
In 1925, the population of the Jat people was around nine million
in South Asia, made up of followers of three major religions as
shown below as per Kalika Ranjan Qanungo:
Historically, the Jat people have sent
a very high percentage of their eligible men to the army.
Most Jat Gotras (which also have the most population) fall under
the Hindu Jat Gotra list according to various books on Jat
History.During the early 1900s four million Jats of present-day
Pakistan were mainly Muslim
by faith and the
nearly six million Jats of present-day India were mostly divided
into two large groups: Sikhs
, concentrated in
Punjab, and Hindu
; in accordance with the
system the Jats belong
varna.The alternate view is
Jats belonged to Sudra
Varna of the Hindu
caste system . Also because they tend to be mostly farmers in
Punjab and Haryana, they could be termed as Vaishya
.Some historians consider Jats, along with
Kayasthas and Gujars, out of purview of varna system.
It is speculated that Jats were Sakas
origin) or republic kshatriyas,
like the Khatris
these communities are closely (genetically) related to the Jat
Those of the Punjabi areas of India and Pakistan are more often
landlord farmers. Numerically, Jat people form the largest
percentage of the Sikh community.
The Jat Muslims in the western regions are organized in hundreds of
groups tracing their descent through paternal lines.
Most Sikh Jats were converted from Hindus so during the Mughal
eras they would have joined their Hindu
counterparts in times of battle.
Jat people usually speak Punjabi
and its dialects (Rajasthani
Jat people from
the Punjab mostly speak Punjabi
its various dialects (such as Maajhi
, and Jhangochi
Jat people clans
The Jat people have always organized themselves into hundreds of
system or Khap
clan was based on one small gotra
or a number
of related gotras under one elected leader whose word was law. The
big Jat clans now are so big that many individuals in them are only
related to each other by individuals that lived typically hundreds
of years ago. Mutual quarrels of any intensity could be settled by
orders of Jat elders. In times of danger, the whole clan rallied
under the banner of the leader. The Jat Khap or Panchayat system is
territorial and highly democratic. A number of Khaps form a
embracing a full province or state.
Negotiations were done at Sarva Khap
In addition to the conventional Sarva
, there are regional
affiliated to the All
India Jat Mahasabha to organize and safeguard the interests of the
community, which held its meeting at regional and national levels
to take stock of their activities and devise practical ways and
means for the amelioration of the community.
The Jat people clan names are unique in South Asia. However, some
of their clan names do overlap with the Rajputs and Gujjars
.List of Jat
have been compiled by many Jat historians like Ompal
Singh Tugania, Bhaleram Beniwal.Mahendra Singh Arya and
others,Thakur Deshraj,Dilip Singh Ahlawat, Ram Swarup Joon etc. The
above lists have more than 2700 Jat gotras. Thakur Deshraj
, Ram Swarup Joon
and Dilip Singh Ahlawat have
mentioned history of some of Jat gotras. Some websites of Jats have
also prepared list of Jat Gotras with details of history and
Jat people today
Today, the largest population centre is located in the Punjab region
,Hariyana, Rajasthan and there
are smaller distributions across the world, due to the large
. In the immigrant
diaspora major populations centres include the U.K., U.S., Canada, Singapore, Indonesia, Russia and
Jat people in Pakistan
number of the Jat people live in Pakistan and occupy dominant roles
in public life in Pakistan
Punjab and Pakistan in general.
addition to the Punjab, Jat communities are also found in Pakistani
administered Kashmir, in Sindh,
particularly the Indus delta and
among Seraiki speaking communities
in southern Punjab, the Kachhi region of
Baluchistan and the Dera Ismail Khan District of the North West Frontier Province.
Jat people immigrant diaspora
A large number of the Jat people emigrated from South Asia in
search of opportunities abroad starting from the early 1960s. Large
immigration took place to the U.K. and U.S. during the post World
War 2 labour demand. Recent immigration has taken place to
Australia and Canada, with Canada being a major destination point
in recent years.
Jat people in India
Jat people are considered a forward
in all the states of india with those of Punjabi or
Haryana origin.Some specific clans of Jat people are classified as
OBC in some states, e.g. Jat Muslim in Gujarat and Mirdha
Jat people (except Jat Muslims) in Madhya Pradesh.
Land reforms, particularly the abolition of
systems, Panchayati Raj
and Green revolution
, to which Jat people have
been major contributors, have immensely contributed to the economic
betterment of the Jat people.
Adult franchise has created enormous social and political awakening
among Jat people. Consolidation of economic gains and participation
in the electoral process are two visible outcomes of the
post-independence situation. Through this participation they have
been able to significantly influence the politics of north India.
However since demise of Charan Singh
and Devi Lal
and rise of OBC
and Bahujan Samaj
their influence is on decline. Economic differentiation,
migration and mobility could be clearly noticed amongst the Jat
Jat people organizations
of Jats of America
is the main Jat people organization of
. It serves as the main
body, forum and lobby for Jat people issues in North America
The North American
is one of the main Jat people Charities of
. It serves as a charity
for the welfare Jat people in North America.
Chaudhary Imdad Ali Mallhi of Shahkot MA.
LLB a Prominant Political and Shia leader in Pakistan; He
struggeled for the rights of Shias of Pakistan.
He is banned by the Govt of pakistan to enter
- Chaudhry Shujaat
Hussain, was the 20th Prime Minister of Pakistan.
- Muhammad Rafiq Tarar, was a
President of Pakistan.
- Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi,
was the Chief Minister of Pakistan's most populous province,
Punjab, from 2002 to 2007.
- Choudhary Charan Singh,
was the seventh Prime Minister of the Republic of India.
- Bhagat Singh, a Jat-Sikh Indian
- Aitzaz Ahsan, was a President of
Court Bar Association of Pakistan, he is also a writer, human
rights activist, politician, former Federal Minister for Law and
Justice, Interior, Narcotics Control (1988-1990) and
- Tariq Aziz , the former
secretary of the National Security Council
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the
Jat/Sansi-Sikh Emperor of the Punjab Region,
Jammu And Kashmir, Delhi, North West Frontier Province and parts of
- Nirmaljeet Singh Sekhon,
a Sekhon Jat-Sikh (The only Airforce Personnel to receive the
highest Gallantry Award in India)
- Nawab Kapur Singh, the
Jat-Sikh leader of Singhpur Misl.
- Baba Deep Singh, martyr and
saint in Sikhism.
- Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon, a
Jat-Sikh Indian freedom fighter.
- Jarnail Singh
Bhindranwale (Brar Jat), leader of the Khalistan movement in Punjab
- Dharmendra Singh Deol, a Deol Jat-Sikh is a award-winning Indian Bollywood film
star who has appeared in more than 200 Bollywood films.
- Chaudhary Bansi Lal, was an
Indian freedom fighter, senior Congress leader, former Chief
Minister of Haryana
- Chaudhari Devi Lal, was an
Indian politician, freedom fighter, Chief Minister of the state of
Haryana and Deputy Prime Minister of India.
- Satpal Singh Sehrawat, wrestler,
sixteen times national champion, Commonwealth gold medal, Asian Games gold medal, Arjun Award, Padma
Shri, Dronacharya Award
- Sushil Kumar, (Hindu Jat) Wrestler,
Bronze medal in 2008 Beijing Olympics.
- Vijender Kumar, (Hindu Jat)
Boxer, Bronze medal in 2008 Beijing Olympics.
- Geetika Jakhar First women to get
Arjun Award in wrestling and silver medal in Doha Asian Games.
- Chandgi Ram (Kaliraman), gold medal
Asian Games, Arjun Award.
- Dara Singh (Randhawa), Wrestler and
- Jyoti Randhawa, is one of the
pioneers of golf in India. He is presently ranked amongst the top
100 golfers in the world.
- Amir Iftikhar Warraich, Chairman of the Pakistan-Norway
Friendship Association (PANA), Islamabad-Oslo
In the US
Minnesota State Senator Satveer
, (the first South Asian senator in American
In the UK
Jats in popular culture
- The "Jat Lancer" is a mercenary Indian cavalry unit in the
Age of Empires.
- Maula Jat is one of the most popular
films in the history of Pakistani cinema. It has been described as
a kind of Pakistani/Western style movie, the story mostly revolves
around the clashes between Maula Jat.
- Jagga Daku a crimelord of early 19th
century British India.
- Many Punjabi songs are written
around every day life of the Sikh-Jat people.
- The 1975 Hindi film Pratigya had a
popular song Main Jat Yamla Pagla shot on Dharmendra a Jat himself and acted as a Jat
person role in the film.
- Ghulami (1985), Indian Hindi movie by
Dharmendra, focuses on the caste and
feudal system in Rajasthan and a rebellion started by Dharmendra,
as a Jat youth, against the Jagirdars.
- Heer Ranjha is one of the four
popular tragic romances of the Punjab. It tells the story of the
love of Heer and her lover Ranjha.
Image:Devilal.jpg|Jat people: Former Deputy Prime Minister of
India Chaudhari Devi
Lal.Image:Dhanna Bhagat.JPG|Jat people: Dhanna
Maan.Image:PRMaderna.jpg|Jat people: Parasram Maderna.Image:Maharaja Kisan
Singh.jpg|Jat people: Maharaja Kishan Singh.Image:Raja
Ram.JPG|Jat people: Raja Ram
Jat.Image:Drgssirohi.JPG|Jat people: Giri Raj Singh Sirohi.Image:K Natwar
Singh.jpg|Jat people: former Indian Foreign Minister K. Natwar
Singh.Image:Daulatram Saran.jpg|Jat people: Daulatram Saran.Image:Kumbharam
Arya1.jpg|Jat people: Chaudhari Kumbharam
Arya.Image:Natthan Singh.jpg|Jat people: Natthan Singh.Image:Maharaja Jawahar
Singh.jpg|Jat people: Jawahar
Singh.Image:Gugera War of independence.jpg|Jat people:
Rae Ahmed Nawaz Khan
Kharal.Image:Raja Mahendra Pratap.jpg|Jat people:
Raja Mahendra Pratap.Image:The
Jat Regiment Chrome Insigna.JPG|Jat people: Jat Regiment.
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and Migration. 1993, ISBN 81-85253-22-8
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Nicolson, London. 1977, p. 158.
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at the Government Central Printing Office, Simla, India, 1899, pp.
Swarup Joon, History of the Jats (Eng), 1967, p.14-15
Deshraj, Jat Itihas, 1934, p. 85-86
- James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. I,
inscription No. I,, pp. 88, 622
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Co., Jullundur, Punjab, 1975, pp. 12-13.
Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, Dahinam Publishers,
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Geography of India: The Buddhist Period, Including the Campaigns of
Alexander, and the Travels of Hwen-Thsang (1871), pp.
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Vol.1, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1972 (reprint),
first published in 1829, pp. 623.
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reference database (YHRD): Update', Forensic Science International:
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p. 13. ISBN 1902806190
Leeds University Press Release
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Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans, Indological Book House,
Varanasi, India, 1971, first published in 1888, pp. 33.
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- John Marshall , A Guide to
Taxila, Cambridge University Press, London, 1960, pp. 24.
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India, South-Western Asia and Southern Europe, Archibald
Constable & Co., London, 1894, pp. 481-487.
- Latif, S.M., History of the Panjab, Reprinted by
Progressive Books, Lahore, Pakistan, 1984, first published in 1891,
- Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar
& Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern
history of Jats), Agra 1998, Page-1
- G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi,
Ed Vir Singh, 2003,
- K.R.Qanungo, History of the Jat people, Ed Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.
- S.M. Yunus Jaffery:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to
the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India,
Vol.I, 2004. Page 36-37, Ed. by Vir Singh, Publisher - M/S
Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri
commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052
- K.R.Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Vir Singh, 2003,
- Memoirs of Humayun, p. 45
Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.705
- Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak
Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 702.
- Sindh Ka itihas, p.30
- Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.208-211
Deshraj, Jat Itihas, 1934, p. 616-624
- Dashrath Sharma, Rajasthan through the ages, Jodhpur, 1966,
Vol.I, p. 287-288
- Girish Chandra Dwivedi, The Jats – Their role in the Mughal
empire, Ed. by Vir Singh. Delhi, 2003, p. 15
- Girish Chandra Dwivedi, The Jats – Their role in the Mughal
empire, Ed. by Vir Singh. Delhi, 2003, p. 25
- Siyar IV, p. 28
- K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003,
- Ajay Kumar Agnihotri (1985) : "Gohad ke Jaton ka Itihas"
- SINGH,BHAGAT A History of Sikh Misals Patiala,India, Punjabi
University. 1993, First Edition
- SINGH,BHAGAT A History of Sikh Misals Patiala,India, Punjabi
University. 1993, First Edition page 130
- Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug,
Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Pages 197-200
- Mangal sen Jindal (1992): History of Origin of Some Clans in
India (with special Reference to Jats), Sarup & Sons, 4378/4B,
Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110002 ISBN 81-85431-08-6,
- Glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and NWFP, H A
- Kalika Ranjan Qanungo: History of the Jats, Delhi 2003. Edited
and annotated by Vir
- Historical Evidence Chapter 1:Scythic Origin of the
Rajput Race by Mulchand Chauhan
- Dr Mohan Lal Gupta:Rajasthan Jñānkosh, Rajasthani Granthagar,
Jodhpur, 2008, ISBN 81-86103-05-8, p.244
- Maheswari Prasad:The Jats - Their role & contribution to
the socio-economic life and polity of North & North-West India,
Vol.I Ed. Vir Singh,
ISBN 81-88629-17-0, p.27
- B.K. Nagla, "Jats of Haryana: A sociplogical Analysis", The
Jats, Vol. II, Ed. Vir Singh, p.308
- Marshall, J., (Sir, Hon. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge
University, and formerly Director-General of Archaeology in India),
A Guide to Taxila, Cambridge University Press, London, 1960, pp.
- Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat samudāy ke pramukh Ādhār bindu, Jaypal
Agencies, Agra 2004
- Bhaleram Beniwal: Jāton kā Ādikālīn Itihāsa, Jaypal Agencies,
- Bhaleram Beniwal: Jāt Yodhaon ke Balidān, Jaypal Agencies, Agra
- Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar
& Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern
history of Jats), Agra 1998
- Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihasa (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak
Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd
- Dilip Singh Ahlawat: Jat viron ka Itihasa
- Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats, Rohtak, India (1938,
- List of Jat Gotras on Jatland In Pakistan the head of
Pakistan Muslim League(Q) and former prime Minister Ch. Shujaat
Hussain is a jat also. His Cousin Ch. Pervaiz Ilahi who was the
Chief Minister of Punjab (Pakistani) is also a jat.
- K.R.Qanungo, History of the Jat people, Ed
Vir Singh, Delhi,
- K L Sharma:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the
Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India,
Vol.I, 2004. Ed. by Vir
- [(NJAC) North American Jat Charities
- Historical Evidence Chapter 1:Scythic Origin of the Rajput
Race by Mulchand Chauhan
- Rattan Singh Bhangoo. Prachin Panth Parkash, Punjabi,
Published in 1841.
- Bal Kishan Dabas. Political and Social History of the
Jats". Sanjay Prakashan, 2001. ISBN
- Dharampal Singh Dudee. Indian Army History: France to
- Dharampal Singh Dudee. Navin Jat History. Shaheed Dham
Trust, Bhiwani, Haryana, India.
- Kanungo. History of the Jats.
- Natthan Singh. Jat-Itihas. Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad,
- Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria). The Jats: Their Origin,
Antiquity & Migrations. Manthan Publications, Rohtak,
Haryana. ISBN 81-85235-22-8
- K. Natwar Singh. Maharaja Suraj Mal.
- Prakash Chandra Chandawat. Maharaja Suraj Mal Aur Unka Yug
(1745-1763). Jaypal Agencies, Agra. 1982. (in Hindi)
- Raj Pal Singh. Rise of the Jat Power. Harman Pub.
House. ISBN 81-85151-05-9
- Aadhunik Jat Itihas. Dharmpal Singh Dudee & Mahinder
Singh Arya. Jaypal Agency, Agra. 1998.
- Ram Swaroop Joon. History of the Jats.
- Shashi Prabha Gupta. Demographic Differentials Among the
Rajputs and the Jats: A Socio-Biological Study of Rural
Haryana. Classical Pub. House. ISBN 81-7054-180-8
- Thakur Deshraj Jat Itihasa Maharaja Suraj
Mal. Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi. 1936. (in Hindi)
- Girish Chandra Dwivedi The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal
Empire. Surajmal Educational Society, New Delhi, India. ISBN-
- Atal Singh Khokkar. Jaton ki Utpati evam Vistar.
Jaipal Agencies, 31-1 Subashpuram, Agra, UP, India 282007.
- Chaudhary Kabul Singh. Sarv Khap
Itihasa (History of the Jat Republic).
Shoram, Muzzafarnagar, U.P. India. 1976.
- Nihal Singh Arya. Sarv Khap Panchayat ka Rastriya Parakram
(The National Role of the Jat Republic of Haryana). Arya
mandal, B 11 Om Mandal, Nangloi, New Delhi, India. 1991
- Mangal sen Jindal. History of Origin of Some Clans in India
(with special Reference to Jats). Sarup & Sons, 4378/4B,
Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110002. ISBN 81-85431-08-6
- Vir Singh. The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the
Socio Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India.
Surajmal Educational Society, D K Publishers, New Delhi, India.
2004. ISBN 81-88629-16-2
- B. S. Dhillon History and study of the Jats, Beta
Publishers. 1994. ISBN 1895603021
- Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology By Melvin Ember, Page