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The Jewish Theological Seminary of America (JTS) is the academic and spiritual center of Conservative Judaism.

The Jewish Theological Seminary operates five schools: Albert A. List College of Jewish Studies, which is affiliated with Columbia University and offers joint/double bachelors degree programs with both Columbia and Barnard Collegemarker, The Graduate School, The William Davidson Graduate School of Jewish Education, H. L. Miller Cantorial School and College of Jewish Music, and the Rabbinical School.


Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau

Rabbi Zecharias Frankel (1801-1875) at one time was in the traditional wing of the nascent Reform Judaism movement. After the second Reform rabbinic conference (1845, Frankfurt, Germanymarker) he resigned after coming to believe that their positions were excessively radical. In 1854 he became the head of a new rabbinical school, the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau. In his magnum opus Darkhei HaMishnah (Ways of the Mishnah) Rabbi Frankel amassed scholarly support which showed that Jewish law was not static, but rather had always developed in response to changing conditions. He called his approach towards Judaism 'Positive-Historical', which meant that one should accept Jewish law and tradition as normative, yet one must be open to changing and developing the law in the same historical fashion that Judaism has always historically developed.

Positive-Historical Judaism in America

About this time in America, Rabbi Sabato Morais championed the reaction to American Reform. At one time Rabbi Morais had been a voice for moderation within the coalition of Reformers. He had opposed the more radical changes, but was open to moderate changes that would not offend traditional sensibilities. After the Reform movement published the Pittsburgh Platform, Rabbi Morais recognized the futility of his efforts and began the creation of a new rabbinical school in New York Citymarker. He was soon joined by Rabbi Alexander Kohut and Rabbi Bernard Drachman, both of whom had received semicha (rabbinic ordination) at Rabbi Frankel's Breslau seminary. They shaped the curriculum and philosophy of the new school after Rabbi Frankel's seminary. The first graduate to be ordained was Rabbi Morris Mandel who went to lead Adas Israel congregation marker.

In 1902, Professor Solomon Schechter assumed presidency of JTS. In a series of papers he articulated an ideology for the nascent movement. In 1913 he presided over the creation of the United Synagogue of America. (The name was changed in 1991 to the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism.)

Prominent professors at the Seminary at the time included such luminaries as Saul Lieberman, Alexander Marx, Louis Ginzberg and Louis Finkelstein and many others.

In 1930 the organization commissioned a new headquarters for 122nd Street and Broadway in a neo-colonial style, with a tower at the corner. The architects were Gehron, Ross and Alley.

Between 1940 and 1985, The Jewish Theological Seminary produced a radio and television show called The Eternal Light. The show aired on Sunday afternoons, featuring well-known Jewish personalities like Chaim Potok and Elie Wiesel. Broadcasts did not involve preaching or prayer, but drew on history, literature and social issues to explore Judaism and Jewish holidays in a manner that was accessible to persons of any faith.

Admission of LGBT students

Since March 2007, the Jewish Theological Seminary accepts openly gay students into their rabbinical and cantorial programs (the Seminary's other three schools upheld such non-discrimination policies prior to this date). An announcement in the press, first posted on the school's website and reported by the press. has been made about the admission of and ordination of homosexual students for the rabbinate and the cantorate.

A Conservative Jewish seminary in New York has agreed to admit gays and lesbians who want to become rabbis and cantors, but declined to take a stand on whether rabbis should officiate at same-sex unions.

The Jewish Theological Seminary announced its decision yesterday, more than three months after the Rabbinical Assembly's Committee on Jewish Law and Standards authorized the ordination of gays and lesbians.

In March 2008 JTS held a day long program titled Hazak Hazak V'Nithazek: Celebrating Strength Through Inclusion, marking the one year anniversary of Chancellor Eisen's decision to admit gay and lesbian students into the rabbinical and cantorial schools. A survey conducted prior to Chancellor Eisen's decision indicated that 58% of the rabbinical student body supported a change in admission policy. Some students who opposed the change in admission policy said they felt excluded from the day's program because it did not sufficiently recognize the pluralism in the student body.

Notable Faculty

Notable alumni

JTS entrance

See also


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