Jhelum District ( ) is in
the Punjab province of
According the 1998
had a population of 936,957,
of which 31.48% were urban. The district of Jhelum stretches from the
Jhelum almost to the Indus.
quarried at the Mayo mine in the Salt Range.
There are two coal-mines, the only ones
worked in the province, from which the North-Western railway
obtains part of its supply of coal. The chief centre of the salt
trade is Pind Dadan Khan. The district is crossed by the main line
of the North-Western railway, and also traversed along the south by
a branch line. It is located in the north of the Punjab
province, Jhelum district is bordered by Sargodha to its
south, Gujrat and the
River to its south and east, Chakwal to its west,
Mirpur to its east, and Rawalpindi to its north.
Location of jhelum
The district of Jhelum, which covers an area of
, is administratively divided into four
, Pind Dadan Khan
, - which are divided into 53 Union
Councils. It also contains the cities of Jhelum,
The population of Jhelum District according to the 1998 census of
Pakistan was 936,957 with a population density of 261 people per
square kilometre. According the Punjab Education Department’s
annual literacy statistics for 2006, Jhelum had a literacy rate of
74% which is the highest in the Punjab.
Tilla Jogian, the highest peak in
Inhabitants of Jhelum District speak Punjabi although the written
language is Urdu
.A sizeable population also
speaks Mirpuri Punjabi
The history of the district dates back to the semi-mythical period
of the Mahabharata
tradition represents the Salt Range as the
refuge of the five Pandava
the period of their exile, and every salient point in its scenery
is connected with some legend of the national heroes. Modern
research has fixed the site of the conflict between Alexander
as within Jhelum district, though the exact
spot at which the Macedonian king effected the passage of the
Jhelum (or Hydespes) has been hotly disputed. After this event, we
have little information with regard to the condition of the
district until the Muslim conquest brought back literature and
history to Upper India. The Janjuas
, who now hold the Salt Range and its
northern plateau respectively, appear to have been the earliest
, who appear to represent an
early wave of conquest from the west, and who still inhabit a large
tract in the east of the District; while the Awans,who now cluster
in the western plain, are apparently later invaders, the Gakhars
were the dominant race during the early
Muslim era and they long continued to retain theirindependence,
both in Jhelum itself and in the neighbouring District of
During the flourishing period of the Mughal dynasty,the Gakhar
chieftains were among the most prosperous and loyal vassals of the
house of Babar
. But after the collapse of the
Delhi empire, Jhelum fell, like its neighbours, under the sway of
In 1765 Gujar Singh defeated the last independent Gakhars
Chief, Muqarrrab Khan, and reduced the wild
mountaineers of the Salt Range and the Murree Hills
to subjection. His son succeeded
to his dominions until 1810, when it fell to Ranjit Singh
. Under the Lahore government the
dominant classes of Jhelum suffered much from fiscal actions; and
the Janjua, Gakhars
, and Awan families
gradually lost their landed estates, which passed into the hands of
their Jat dependants.
In 1849. Jhelum passed with the rest of the Sikh territories into
the power of the British. Ranjit Singh, however, had so thoroughly
subjected the wild mountain tribes who inhabited the District that
little difficulty was experienced in reducing it to working order.
In1857 the 14th Native Infantry stationed at Jhelum town mutinied,
and made a vigorous defence against a force sent from Rawalpindi to
disarm them, but decamped on the night following the action, the
main body. being subsequently arrested by the Kashmir authorities,
into whose territory they had escaped.
British rule Jhelum was a district of Rawalpindi
Division, and was larger than the current district of
On April 1, 1914, the tehsil of Talagang was
detached from the District and incorporated with the new District
Jhelum district (minus Talagang) covered an area of 2,813 square
miles (7285 km2) and included Chakwal tehsil - it
was bounded by Shahpur and Attock to the west,
and by Rawalpindi to the north - the Jhelum River separated it from Kashmir to the
north-east and from Gujrat and Shahpur
to the south-east and south.
Tribes and clans
The principal tribes of the district are the Janjua
The major clans of the Jats
are the Bhukar
, and Toor
The major clans of the Rajput are the Akra
, Janjua Rajput
, khokhar Rajputs, Jalap
Location of Jhelum District within
district capital, Jhelum
City, is situated on the right bank of the Jhelum River, crossed by a bridge.
Grand Trunk Road
passes through the
city. Jhelum city is near
the site of the famous Battle of
the Hydaspes between the armies of Alexander the Great and Raja Porus This battle took place a few miles
downstream from the city centre, along the river banks.
Population of the Jhelum city (proper) is about
172,073 (2009) and it is the 35th largest city of Pakistan with respect to population.
was built during the British rule,
which has grown up into a strong Garrison, with an Infantry
Division commanded by a Major General.
The River Jhelum below the bridge
beside Jhelum City
The river Jhelum is navigable throughout the district, which forms
the south-eastern portion of a rugged Himalayan spur, extending
between the Indus and Jhelum to the borders of the Sind Sagar Doab.
Its scenery is very picturesque, although not of so wild a
character as the mountain region of Rawalpindi to the north, and is
lighted up in places by smiling patches of cultivated valley. The
backbone of the district is formed by the Salt Range, a treble line
of parallel hills running in three long forks from east to west
throughout its whole breadth.
The range rises in bold precipices, broken by gorges, clothed with
brushwood and traversed by streams which are at first pure, but
soon become impregnated with the saline matter over which they
pass. Between the line of hills lies a picturesque table-land, in
which the beautiful little lake of Kallar Kahar nestles amongst the
minor ridges. North of the Salt Range, the country extends upwards
in an elevated plateau, diversified by countless ravines and
fissures, until it loses itself in tangled masses of Rawalpindi
mountains. In this rugged tract cultivation is rare and difficult,
the soil being choked with saline matter. At the foot of the Salt
Range, however, a small strip of level soil lies along the banks of
the Jhelum, and is thickly dotted with prosperous villages.
The drainage of the district is determined by a low central
watershed running north and south at right angles to the Salt
Range. The waters of the western portion find their way into the
Sohan, and finally into the Indus; those of the opposite slope
collect themselves into small torrents, and empty themselves into
Jhelum District has a total area of 8,58,767 acres, out of which
3,16,815 acres are cultivated. It has four tehsils viz; Jhelum, Pind Dadan
Khan, Dina and Sohawa.
area is located on the eastern part of Potohar upland along with
in the District Jhelum
depends mainly on rainfall. The average rainfall of the area varies
from 20 to 40 inches. About three fourth of this precipitation
is received in monsoon season and the remaining one fourth is
received during the rest of the year. The irrigated area at present
is limited but the emphasis on construction of small Dams and Mini
Dams is gradually increasing. Wheat remains the main crop.
In Tehsil P.D.Khan Salt is the predominant feature which is
spoiling the rich agricultural land day by day. There is a long
strip of very rich and virgin soil along the river which could be
made a paradise of citrus plantation by drip irrigation if the
local people are motivated and the Government of Punjab expressed
some interest in it.
Flora and fauna
Vegetation of the forests of Jhelum Forest Division is dry
deciduous scrub type, Phulai, Kau and sanatha are the main species.
The stocking on the whole is poorand the forests are open.
Vegetation is poor on sandstone and redmarl. The southern slopes
are often devoid of vegetation while north western slopes carry
good forests. The forests of Jhelum Forests Divisions are burdened
with right of grazing browsing and firewood. Under settlement out
of total area 93,566 acres only 5,468 acres about (45%) are right
free. Remaining 55% are open to grazing.
The fauna of the District is mostly indigenous restricted, like the
vegetation, but similarly varied and interesting. The rugged and
rough terrain, low rainfall, the scantly cover of vegetation and
the burning passions of the increasing number of hunters, all have
their share in limiting the animal kingdom in the District. The
riverine offers a better environment than elsewhere though the
hills support a more interesting wildlife. Urial and Chinckara are
spot aids while wild bores are found in the Salt Range. Wolves,
Foxes and Wild Cats are also found. Hare is fairly common. Chikor
grey and black Partridge are also found in the parts of the
district. Migratory ducks like Teal Pintail and Mallard and some
geese visit during winter.
The climate of the tract is extreme. In winter it is very cold and
summer is very hot. The average rainfall varies from 48 to 69 m.m
per annum which is much below the required quantity but in the
rainy season the water torrents flow from North to the river Jhelum
with a very fast speed and cause damages to the crops, bridges,
roads and are responsible for the soil erosion in the District. The
detailed data is as under:
Society Human and Institutional Development Program
working in Sohawa Tehsil
with its field office in the area CHIP has successfully mobilized
community people to get organize into Community Based
Organizations, Community Citizen Boards and Women Organizations.
Further, CHIP has duly built the capacity of these local entities
to take new initiatives. These community level organizations, in
collaborative partnerships with CHIP, are working on several
development projects. The main focus of these projects is to
eliminate illiteracy from villages of Sohawa especially those where
government education structure does not exist, make clean drinking
water available, provide technical support to the local farmers,
raise skill development opportunities for women and sensitize
communities to include women in decision making. The local
community level organizations developed by CHIP are making
successful efforts in implementing development projects by deriving
funds from local government bodies.
CHIP has announced Sohawa as its main development area and the
organization is assessing further development interventions in
villages of Sohawa, presently the main focus of organization is to
introduce an 'Inclusive Development Model' which suggest active
involvement of people with disabilities in the development
Education Welfare Society (EWS)a registered NGO, founded in 1995 by
Syed Waqar Azeem; a well known social personality awarded by
(Proud of Jhelum) in 1998
demonstrated pivotal role in educational development in the city
and represented the jhelum on international level and its
educational welfare and developments' needs on major plateforms and
devoted himself for the welfare of the masses.TOOR WELFARE TRUST
Colleges and schools
the famous and important colleges of Jhelum City
- Army Public School and College Jhelum Cantt.
Intermediat College Jhelum Cantt.
- Fauji Foundation Model School & College,Jhelum Cantt.
- Govt. Degree College, Jhelum.
- Govt. College. G.T. Road, Jhelum.
- Govt. College for Women, Jhelum.
- Govt. College of Commerce, Bilal Town, Jhelum.
- Research Girls College Kala Gujran Jhelum
- Jinnah Law College Near Kutcheri, Jhelum.
College of Commerce & Computer Science, Jhelum.
- SLS College,
- PICS, Bilal town Jhelum.
- Presentation convent high school for girls
- Jhelum Homeopathic Medical College,GT Road Jada, Jhelum
- General Asif Nawaz
Janjua (Former Commander-in-chief of Pakistan
- General Afzal Janjua (Former Director General ISI of Pakistan
- Major Muhammad Akram
- Col Haq Nawaz kayani Saheed (Double Sitara-e-Jurat)
- Lieutenant General Muhammad Masood Aslam, Sitara-e-Jurat
- Admiral (R)
Tariq Kamal Khan
former Chief of Naval
Staff Pakistan Navy
- Squadron leader Abida Anwar (first lady psychologist in
Pakistan arm forces)
- Syed Manzoor-ul-Hassan Hashmi (Late, buried in the cemetery of
Village Raiya Chak Maddu located near C.M.H. Jhelum
Cantonment)(Ex-Wing Commander Pakistan Airforce,
- Lt. Col. Shamim Ahmed Janjua (5 Sindh Regiment)
- Lt. Col. Umar Janjua (8FF) Sitara-e-Basalat(Operation
- Maj. Subah Sadiq Shaheed
- Inspector Nusrat Ullah Khan Janjua Punjab Police
- Capt Retd Muzammil Tanveer Janjua(Manager Operation Bahria
Town)Wagh Pind Dadan Khan Jhelum
- Sub Inspector Raja Ansar ( Present Banni Thana Islamabad)Chakri
- Lt Col Muhammad Afzal Janjua Retd from ASC (Wagh Jhelum)
- Brig (Late) Muhammad Aslam Janjua(Punjab)Wagh P D Khan
- Lt Col Muhammad Ehsan (Punjab)Wagh Jhelum
- Col abid Janjua (Artillery)Wagh Jhelum
Subedar (Late)Muhammad Khan (Mil Police)Wagh Jhelum
- Nawabzada Iqbal Mehdi Khan,(ex, MNA and minister for PML )
- Raja Muhammad Afzal Khan, (ex. MNA for PML
- Ch. Khadim Hussain, (ex. MPA
and advisor to CM)
- Raja Muhammad Khalid Khan (ex MPA and Minister)
- Raja Muhammad Asad Khan, MNA PML N
- Raja Muhammd Safdar Khan, MNA PML N
- Chaudhry Farrukh Altaf
Nazim of Jhelum District
- Dr Ghulam Hussain (Gen. Sec.
PPP(S.B), Ex Federal Minister)
- Adnan Khalil Butt (Chief Executive Security & Planning,
Parliament House ISLAMABAD)
- Ch Abid Ashrif Jotana
(Tehsil Nazam)P.D khan.
- Hafiz Ejaz Mehmood(S/O Maj Late Nawab Khan)
- Punjab Population (1988 Census) - Urban Resource
- Jhelum District Overview - Punjab Police
- Administrative Units of Pakistan
- Tehsils & Unions in the District of Jhelum
-Government of Pakistan
- 1998 Census of Pakistan
- Punjab Education Department’s annual literacy
statistics for 2006 Daily Times
- Literacy rate figures still not updated - Daily
- Jhelum District Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14,
- Population of Jhelum City
- Civil Society
Human and Institutional Development Program
- Col Haq Nawaz
- Raja Muhammad Asad
- Raja Muhammd Safdar