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This article is about the German religious leader. For the video game character, see List of Final Fantasy VII characters.


Johannes Bugenhagen (24 June 148520 April 1558), also called Doctor Pomeranus by Martin Luther, introduced the Protestant Reformation in Pomerania and Denmarkmarker in the 16th century.

He is also commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod as a pastor on 20 April.

Biography

Bugenhagen was born in Wollinmarker, Pomerania. After his studies at the University of Greifswaldmarker and his ordination as a priest, he held several posts as a religious preacher.

In 1517, Duke Bogislav X of Pomerania ordered Bugenhagen, who was a lecturer in a monastery at the time, to write down the history of Pomerania in Latin. The year 1518 is the beginning of historical writing of the combined territory Pomerania.

Bugenhagen first encountered the theology of Luther in the reformer's Prelude on the Babylonian Captivity of the Church in 1520. At first he did not like Luther's thoughts at all. However, once he had studied it more, Bugenhagen became a supporter of the Reformation and moved to Wittenbergmarker.

Bugenhagen soon became one of the most effective reformers. Besides his job as the parish pastor in Wittenberg (after 1523), and personal counsellor of Luther, he also lectured in theology at the university in Wittenberg (today Martin Luther Universitymarker).

Other than for his theological opinions, Bugenhagen also became well-known because of his organising ability. He was almost predetermined for the Reformation in Northern Germany and Scandinavia. He took an active lead in creating new church regularities (Kirchenordnungen) for Hildesheimmarker, Hamburgmarker, Lübeckmarker, Pomerania, Schleswig-Holsteinmarker, Braunschweigmarker, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and Denmark. This earned him later the epithet second Apostle of the North.Cf. Johann Heinrich Zietz, Johannes Bugenhagen – zweiter Apostel des Nordens, nach seinen Lebensschicksalen und seiner Wirksamkeit für die Gestaltung der evangelischen Kirche: Ein biographischer Versuch (11829), Leipzig: Sühring, 21834, passim and Hans-Otto Schneider, "Der späte Bugenhagen – Wittenberger Bürger, Kirchenpolitiker, Theologe und Stadtpfarrer", VIII. Frühjahrstagung zur Wittenberger Reformation veranstaltet vom Institut für Europäische Geschichte (IEG) Mainz und der Stiftung Luthergedenkstätten in Sachsen-Anhalt in Verbindung mit dem Institut für Kirchengeschichte der Universität Leipzig und der Evangelischen Stadtkirchengemeinde Wittenberg, Lutherstadt Wittenberg, Bugenhagenhaus, 19. bis 21. April 2008, in: AHF-Information (Arbeitsgemeinschaft historischer Forschungseinrichtungen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland e.V.); Nr. 105 (6 June 2008), pp. 1-4, here p. 4. Not only did he create the new rules, he also established them and convinced people to follow them. Bugenhagen produced rules and regulations for religious service, for schooling, and for social issues of the church. In 1539, he became superintendent of the Lutheran Church in Saxony.

After the death of Luther, Bugenhagen took care of Luther's widow and children. Bugenhagen died in Wittenberg in 1558.

Works about Bugenhagen

  • Ruccius, Walter M, John Bugenhagen Pomeranus; a biographical sketch. Philadelphia: United Lutheran Publication House.
  • Zietz, Johann Heinrich, Johannes Bugenhagen – zweiter Apostel des Nordens, nach seinen Lebensschicksalen und seiner Wirksamkeit für die Gestaltung der evangelischen Kirche: Ein biographischer Versuch (11829), Leipzig: Sühring, 21834. No ISBN.


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