(October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was
an American philosopher
, and educational reformer
whose ideas have been
very influential. Dewey, along with Charles Sanders Peirce
and William James
, is recognized as one of the
founders of the philosophy of pragmatism
and of functional psychology
He was a major representative of the progressive
and progressive populist
philosophies of schooling during the first
half of the 20th century in the USA.
Although Dewey is known best for his publications concerning
education, he also wrote about many other topics, including
experience and nature
and experience, logic
and inquiry, democracy
, and ethics
In his advocacy of democracy, Dewey considered two fundamental
elements—schools and civil society
being major topics needing attention and reconstruction to
encourage experimental intelligence and plurality. Dewey asserted
that complete democracy was to be obtained not just by extending
but also by ensuring
that there exists a fully-formed public
, accomplished by effective communication among
citizens, experts, and politicians, with the latter being
accountable for the policies they adopt.
Life and works
born in Burlington, Vermont of modest
family origins. Like his older brother, Davis Rich Dewey, he attended the University of
Vermont, from which he graduated (Phi Beta Kappa) in 1879.
years as a high school teacher in Oil City, Pennsylvania, Dewey
decided that he was unsuited for employment in primary or secondary
education. After studying one year under G. Stanley
, working in the first American laboratory of psychology,
Dewey received his Ph.D.
the School of Arts & Sciences at Johns Hopkins University
he accepted a faculty position at the University of
Michigan (1884-1888 and 1889-1894) with the help of George Sylvester Morris.
unpublished and now lost dissertation was titled "The Psychology of
Dewey joined the newly founded University of Chicago (1894-1904) where he developed his belief in an
empirically based theory of knowledge, becoming associated with the
newly emerging Pragmatic philosophy.
His time at the
University of Chicago resulted in four essays collectively entitled
Thought and its Subject-Matter
which was published with
collected works from his colleagues at Chicago under the collective
title Studies in Logical Theory
(1903). During this time Dewey
also initiated the University of
Chicago Laboratory Schools where he was able to actualize his pedagogical
beliefs which provided material for his first major work on
education, The School and Society (1899).
Disagreements with the administration ultimately caused his
resignation from the University, and soon thereafter he relocated
near the East Coast. In 1899, John Dewey was elected president of
. From 1904 until his death he was
professor of philosophy at both Columbia University
University's Teachers College
1905 he became president of the American Philosophical
. He was a long-time member of the American Federation of
Along with the historian Charles
, economists Thorstein
and James Harvey
, Dewey is one of the founders of The New School for Social
. Dewey's most significant writings were "The Reflex
Arc Concept in Psychology" (1896), a critique of a standard
psychological concept and the basis of all his further work;
Democracy and Education
(1916), his celebrated work on
progressive education; Human Nature and Conduct
study of the function of habit in human behavior; The Public and its Problems
(1927), a defense of democracy written in response to Walter Lippmann
's The Phantom Public
Experience and Nature
(1925), Dewey's most "metaphysical"
statement; Art as Experience
(1934), Dewey's major work on
aesthetics; A Common Faith
(1934), a humanistic study of
religion, which was originally delivered as the Dwight H. Terry Lectureship
Logic: The Theory of Inquiry
(1938), an examination of
Dewey's unusual conception of logic; Freedom and Culture
(1939), a political work examining the roots of fascism; and
Knowing and the Known
(1949), a book written in conjunction with Arthur F. Bentley that
systematically outlines the concept of trans-action which is
central to his other works. While each of these works focuses on
one particular philosophical theme, Dewey included his major themes
in most of what he published. His professional life was extremely
productive and included more than 700 articles in 140 journals, and
approximately 40 books.
Dewey married twice, first with Alice Chipman. They had six
children. His second wife was Roberta Lowitz Grant.
Dewey and functional psychology
At University of Michigan, Dewey published his first two books,
(1887), and Leibniz's New Essays Concerning
the Human Understanding
(1888), both of which expressed
Dewey's early commitment to Hegelian idealism. Psychology
explored the synthesis between this idealism and experimental
science that Dewey was then attempting to effect.
While still professor of philosophy at Michigan, Dewey and his
junior colleagues, James Hayden
and George Herbert
, together with his student James Rowland Angell
, all influenced
strongly by the recent publication of William James
' Principles of Psychology
(1890), began to reformulate psychology, emphasizing the social
environment and on the activity of mind and behaviour rather than
the physiological psychology of Wundt
Dewey had joined Tufts, with whom he would later write
Ethics (1908), at the newly-founded University of
Chicago and invited Mead and Angell to follow him, the four
men forming the basis of the so-called "Chicago group" of
Their new style of psychology, later dubbed functional psychology
, had a practical
emphasis on action and application. In Dewey's article "The Reflex
Arc Concept in Psychology" which appeared in Psychological Review
in 1896, he
reasons against the traditional stimulus-response
understanding of the
in favor of a "circular"
account in which what serves as "stimulus" and what as "response"
depends on how one considers the situation, and defends the unitary
nature of the sensory motor circuit. While he does not deny the
existence of stimulus, sensation, and response, he disagreed that
they were separate, juxtaposed events happening like links in a
chain. He developed the idea that there is a coordination by which
the stimulation is enriched by the results of previous experiences.
The response is modulated by sensorial experience.
Dewey, not without polemic, was elected president of the American
Psychological Association in 1899.
John Dewey's USA Stamp
In 1984, the American Psychological Association announced that
Lillian Moller Gilbreth
(1878-1972) had become the first psychologist to be commemorated on
a United States postage stamp. However, psychologists Gary Brucato
Jr. and John D. Hogan
later made the case that this
distinction actually belonged to John Dewey, who had been
celebrated on an American stamp 17 years earlier. While some
psychology historians consider Dewey more of a philosopher than a
bona fide psychologist, the authors noted that Dewey was a founding
member of the A.P.A., served as the A.P.A.'s eighth President in
1899, and was the author of an 1896 article on the reflex arc
which is now considered a basis of
American functional psychology.
Dewey also expressed interest in work in the psychology of visual perception
performed by Dartmouth
research professor Adelbert Ames,
He had great trouble with listening, however, because it is
known Dewey could not distinguish musical pitches - in other words
was tone deaf
Pragmatism and instrumentalism
Although Dewey did not identify himself as a pragmatist per se, but
instead referred to his philosophy as "instrumentalism
", he is considered one of
the three major figures in American pragmatism
, along with Charles Sanders Peirce
, who invented
the term, and William James
popularized it. Dewey worked from strongly Hegelian influences, unlike James, whose intellectual
lineage was primarily British, drawing particularly on empiricist and utilitarian ideas.
Neither was Dewey
as James. He stated that value
was a function not of
whim nor purely of social construction, but a quality situated in
events ("nature itself is wistful and pathetic, turbulent and
passionate" (Experience and Nature
He also stated that experimentation
(social, cultural, technological, philosophical) could be used as
an approximate arbiter of truth
. For example,
James felt that for many people who lacked "over-belief
" of religious
concepts, human life was superficial and rather uninteresting, and
that while no one religious belief could be demonstrated as the
correct one, we are all responsible for making a gamble on one or
, etc. Dewey,
in contrast, while honoring the important function that religious
institutions and practices played in human life, rejected belief
in any static ideal, such as a theistic
. Dewey felt that only scientific method
could reliably increase human good.
Of the idea of God, Dewey said, "it denotes the unity of all ideal
ends arousing us to desire and actions."
As with the reemergence of progressive philosophy of education,
Dewey's contributions to philosophy as such (he was, after all,
much more a professional philosopher than an educator) have also
reemerged with the reassessment of pragmatism, beginning in the
late 1970s, by philosophers like Richard
, Richard J. Bernstein
Because of his process-oriented and sociologically conscious
opinion of the world and knowledge
ideology is considered sometimes as a useful alternative to both
ideology. Dewey's non-foundational
method pre-dates postmodernism by more than half a century. Recent
exponents (like Rorty) have not always remained faithful to Dewey's
original ideas, though this itself is completely consistent with
Dewey's own usage of other writers and with his own philosophy— for
Dewey, past doctrines always require reconstruction in order to
remain useful for the present time.
Dewey's philosophy has had other names than "pragmatism". He has
been called an instrumentalist, an experimentalist
, an empiricist
, a functionalist
, and a naturalist
. The term "transactional"
may better describe his views, a term emphasized by Dewey in his
later years to describe his theories of knowledge and
The terminology problem in the fields of epistemology and logic is
partially due, according to Dewey and Bentley, to inefficient and
imprecise use of words and concepts that reflect three historic
levels of organization and presentation. In the order of
chronological appearance, these are:
- Self-Action: Prescientific concepts regarded humans, animals,
and things as possessing powers of their own which initiated or
caused their actions.
- Interaction: as described by Newton, where things, living and
inorganic, are balanced against something in a system of
interaction, for example, the third law of motion states that for
every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
- Transaction: where modern systems of descriptions and naming
are employed to deal with multiple aspects and phases of action
without any attribution to ultimate, final, or independent
entities, essences, or realities.
A series of characterizations of Transactions indicate the wide
range of considerations involved.
Logic and method
Dewey sees paradox in contemporary logical theory. Proximate
subject matter garners general agreement and advance, while the
ultimate subject matter of logic generates unremitting controversy.
In other words, he challenges confident logicians to answer the
question of the truth of logical operators. Do they function merely
as abstractions (e.g., pure mathematics) or do they connect in some
essential way with their objects, and therefore alter or bring them
to light? ("The Problem of Logical Subject Matter", in Logic:
The Theory of Inquiry
in Dewey's thought. About the movement he wrote that it "eschews
the use of 'propositions' and 'terms', substituting 'sentences' and
'words'." ("General Theory of Propositions", in Logic: The
Theory of Inquiry
) He welcomes this changing of referents “in
as far as it fixes attention upon the symbolic structure and
content of propositions.” However, he registers a small complaint
against the use of “sentences” and “words” in that without careful
interpretation the act or process of transposition “narrows unduly
the scope of symbols and language, since it is not customary to
treat gestures and diagrams (maps, blueprints, etc.) as words or
sentences.”In other words, sentences and words, considered in
isolation, do not disclose intent, which may be inferred or
“adjudged only by means of context.” (Ibid.)
Yet Dewey was not entirely opposed to modern logical trends.
Concerning traditional logic, he states: “Aristotelian logic, which
still passes current nominally, is a logic based upon the idea that
qualitative objects are existential in the fullest sense. To retain
logical principles based on this conception along with the
acceptance of theories of existence and knowledge based on an
opposite conception is not, to say the least, conductive to
clearness – a consideration that has a good deal to do with
existing dualism between traditional and the newer relational
logics.” (Qualitative Thought
argues in The
had been critical of Dewey's emphasis on antagonism in
the context of a discussion of the Pullman strike
of 1894. In a later letter to
his wife, Dewey confessed that Addams' argument was "the most
magnificent exhibition of intellectual & moral faith I ever
saw. She converted me internally, but not really, I fear.... When
you think that Miss Addams does not think this as a philosophy, but
believes it in all her senses & muscles-- Great God... I guess
I'll have to give it [all] up & start over again." He went on
to add, "I can see that I have always been interpreting dialectic
wrong end up, the unity as the reconciliation of opposites, instead
of the opposites as the unity in its growth, and thus translated
the physical tension into a moral thing... I don't know as I give
the reality of this at all,... it seems so natural &
commonplace now, but I never had anything take hold of me
In a letter to Addams herself, Dewey wrote, clearly influenced by
his conversation with her: "Not only is actual antagonizing bad,
but the assumption that there is or may be antagonism is bad-- in
fact, the real first antagonism always comes back to the
Art as Experience
(1934) is Dewey's major writing on
aesthetics.It is, according to his place in the Pragmatist
tradition that emphasizes community, a study of the individual art
object as embedded in (and inextricable from) the experiences of a
local culture. See his Experience and Nature
extended discussion of 'Experience' in Dewey's philosophy.
The overriding theme of Dewey's works was his profound belief in
democracy, be it in politics, education or communication and
journalism. As Dewey himself stated in 1888, while still at the
University of Michigan, "Democracy and the one, ultimate, ethical
ideal of humanity are to my mind synonymous."
With respect to technological developments in a democracy: "Persons
do not become a society by living in physical proximity any more
than a man ceases to be socially influenced by being so many feet
or miles removed from others" -John Dewey from Andrew Feenberg's
"Community in the Digital Age"
Dewey's educational theories were presented in "My Pedagogic Creed"
(1897), The School and Society
(1900), The Child and
(1902), Democracy and Education
Experience and Education
His recurrent and intertwining themes of education, democracy and
communication are effectively summed up in the following excerpt
from the first chapter, "Education as a Necessity of Life", of his
1916 book, Democracy and
Education: an introduction to the philosophy of education
"What nutrition and reproduction are to physiological life,
education is to social life. This education consists primarily in
transmission through communication. Communication is a process of
sharing experience till it becomes a common possession."
As well as
his very active and direct involvement in setting up educational
institutions such as the University of
Chicago Laboratory Schools (1896) and The New School for Social
Research (1919), many of Dewey's ideas influenced the founding
of Bennington College in Vermont,
where he served on the Board of Trustees.
Dewey was a relentless campaigner for reform of education, pointing
out that the authoritarian
pre-ordained knowledge approach of modern traditional education was
too concerned with delivering knowledge, and not enough with
understanding students' actual experiences.
Dewey was the most famous proponent of hands-on learning or
is related to, but not synonymous with experiential learning
. Dewey went on
to influence many other influential experiential models and
advocates.Many researchers credit him with the influence of Project
Based Learning (PBL) which places students in the active role of
Dewey's theories influenced many Chinese scholars including Hu
Shih, Zhang Boling and Tao Xingzhi while they studied under him in
Columbia University. His opposition regarding traditional education
also had an impact on Mao Zedong.
Since the mid-1980s, Deweyan ideas have experienced revival as a
major source of inspiration for the public journalism movement.
Dewey's definition of "public," as described in The Public and its
, has profound implications for the significance
of journalism in society. As suggested by the title of the book,
his concern was of the transactional relationship between publics
and problems. Also implicit in its name, public journalism seeks to
orient communication away from elite, corporate hegemony toward a
civic public sphere. "The 'public' of public journalists is Dewey's
Dewey gives a concrete definition to the formation of a public.
Publics are spontaneous groups of citizens who share the indirect
effects of a particular action. Anyone affected by the indirect
consequences of a specific action will automatically share a common
interest in controlling those consequences, i.e., solving a common
Since every action generates unintended consequences
continuously emerge, overlap, and disintegrate.
In The Public and its Problems
, Dewey presents a rebuttal
to Walter Lippmann’s treatise on the role of journalism in
democracy. Lippmann’s model was a basic transmission model in which
journalists took information given them by experts and elites,
repackaged that information in simple terms, and transmitted the
information to the public, whose role was to react emotionally to
the news. In his model, Lippmann supposed that the public was
incapable of thought or action, and that all thought and action
should be left to the experts and elites.
Dewey refutes this model by assuming that politics is the work and
duty of each individual in the course of his daily routine. The
knowledge needed to be involved in politics, in this model, was to
be generated by the interaction of citizens, elites, experts,
through the mediation and facilitation of journalism. In this
model, not just the government is accountable, but the citizens,
experts, and other actors as well.
Dewey also said that journalism should conform to this ideal by
changing its emphasis from actions or happenings (choosing a winner
of a given situation) to alternatives, choices, consequences, and
conditions, in order to foster conversation and improve the
generation of knowledge. Journalism would not just produce a static
product that told what had already happened, but the news would be
in a constant state of evolution as the public added value by
generating knowledge. The "audience" would end, to be replaced by
citizens and collaborators who would essentially be users, doing
more with the news than simply reading it. Concerning his effort to
change journalism, he wrote in The Public and its
: “Till the Great Society is converted in to a Great
Community, the Public will remain in eclipse. Communication can
alone create a great community” (Dewey, pg. 144).
Dewey believed that communication creates a great community, and
citizens who participate actively with public life contribute to
that community. "The clear consciousness of a communal life, in all
its implications, constitutes the idea of democracy." (The
Public and its Problems
, p. 149). This Great Community
can only occur with "free and full intercommunication."
(p. 211) Communication can be understood as journalism.
Dewey participated with a variety of humanist activities from the
1930s into the 1950s, which included sitting on the advisory board
of Charles Francis Potter
Society of New York
(1929); being one of the original 34
signees of the first Humanist
(1933) and being elected an honorary member of
the Humanist Press Association (1936).
His opinion of humanism are best summed in his own words from an
article titled "What Humanism Means to Me", published in the June
1930 edition of Thinker 2
"What Humanism means to me is an expansion, not a
contraction, of human life, an expansion in which nature and
the science of nature are made the willing servants of human
good."— John Dewey, "What Humanism Means to Me"
Social and political activism
As a major advocate for academic freedom, in 1935 Dewey, together
with Albert Einstein and Alvin Johnson, became a member of the United
States section of the International League for Academic Freedom,
and in 1940, together with Horace M
Kallen, edited a series of articles related to the infamous
As well as being active in defending the independence of teachers,
and opposing a communist takeover of the New York Teacher's Union,
Dewey was involved in the organization that eventually became the
Association for the Advancement of Colored People
He directed the famous Dewey
Commission held in Mexico in 1937, and which cleared Trotsky of the charges made against him by Stalin, and marched for women's rights, among many
In 1950, Dewey, together with Bertrand
Russell, Benedetto Croce,
Karl Jaspers, and Jacques Maritain agreed to act as honorary
chairman of the Congress
for Cultural Freedom.
Dewey's interests and writings included many topics, and according
to the Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "a substantial part of his
published output consisted of commentary on current domestic and
international politics, and public statements on behalf of many
causes. (He is probably the only philosopher in this encyclopedia
to have published both on the Treaty of Versailles and on the value
of displaying art in post offices.)"
In 1917, Dewey met F. M. Alexander in New York City and later
wrote introductions to Alexander's Man's Supreme
Inheritance (1918), Constructive Conscious Control of the
Inidividual (1923) and The Use of the Self (1932).
Alexander's influence is referenced in "Human Nature and Conduct"
and "Experience and Nature."
As well as his contacts with people mentioned elsewhere in the
article, he also maintained correspondence with Henri Bergson, William M. Brown, Martin
Buber, George S. Counts, William Rainey Harper, Sidney Hook, and George Santayana.
During his lifetime Dewey was subject to criticism, notably by
Randolph Bourne, a former student of
his, and Walter Lippmann, among
others. He is often criticized nowadays for "what he did to our
schools," though it is not apparent that he really did anything
directly to the schools, nor even that he approved completely of
much of what passed for progressivism.
Dewey is considered the epitome of liberalism by many conservative
pundits today (see The Closing of the American
Mind), even being "portrayed as dangerously radical" during the era of McCarthyism. However, quite a few liberals find
him too conservative by today's standards. Meanwhile, Dewey was
critiqued strongly by American communists because he argued against
Stalinism and had philosophical
differences with Marx.
Other criticisms of him include his opinions of both the First and
the Second World Wars, as well as, despite having been involved
with the initiation of the NAACP, not having written more directly
Another, albeit minor, source of criticism has been religion. While
one biographer, Steven C.
Rockefeller, traced Dewey's
democratic convictions to his childhood attendance at the Congregational Church, with its strong
proclamation of social ideals, another, Edward A. White, a Stanford
University professor of history, suggested in Science and Religion in
American Thought (1952) that Dewey's work had led to the
20th century rift between religion and
science. However, in reviewing the
book in The
Quarterly Review of Biology (1954), noted geneticist H.
Bentley Glass openly wondered if
the controversy between religion and science would have been much
the same, even if there had not been a John Dewey.
Besides publishing prolifically himself, Dewey also sat on the
boards of scientific publications such as Sociometry (advisory board, 1942) and
Journal of Social
Psychology (editorial board, 1942), as well as having
posts at other publications such as New
Leader (contributing editor, 1949).
The following publications by John Dewey are referenced or
mentioned in this article. A more complete list of his publications
may be found at List
of publications by John Dewey.
Dewey's Complete Writings is available in 3
multi-volume sets (37 volumes in all) from Southern Illinois
- The Early Works: 1892-1898 (5 volumes)
- The Middle Works: 1899-1924 (15 volumes)
- The Later Works: 1925-1953 (17 volumes)
- Posthumous Works: 1956-2009
The Correspondence of John Dewey is available on
CD-ROM in 3 volumes.
Works about Dewey
- Alexander, Thomas. John Dewey's Theory of Art, Experience,
and Nature (1987)  SUNY
- Boisvert, Raymond. John Dewey: Rethinking Our Time.
(1997)  SUNY Press
- Campbell, James. John Dewey: Nature and Cooperative Intelligence.
(1995) Open Court Publishing Company
- Caspary, William R. Dewey on Democracy (2000). Cornell University
- Hickman, Larry A. John Dewey's Pragmatic Technology.
(1992) Indiana University Press.
- Hook, S. John Dewey: An Intellectual Portrait
- Kannegiesser, H. J. "Knowledge and Science" (1977) The
Macmillan Company of Australia PTY Ltd
- Martin, Jay. The Education of John Dewey. (2003)
 Columbia University Press
- Rockefeller, Stephen. John Dewey: Religious Faith and
Democratic Humanism. (1994)  Columbia University Press
- Rogers, Melvin. The Undiscovered Dewey: Religion, Morality,
and the Ethos of Democracy (2008). Columbia University Press.
- Roth, Robert J. John Dewey and Self-Realization.
(1962). Prentice Hall
- Ryan, Alan. John Dewey and the High Tide of American
Liberalism. (1995)  W.W. Norton.
- Seigfried, Charlene Haddock, (ed.). Feminist
Interpretations of John Dewey (2001)  Pennsylvania State
- Shook, John. Dewey's Empirical Theory of Knowledge and
Reality. (2000)  The Vanderbilt Library of American
- Sleeper, R.W. The Necessity of Pragmatism: John Dewey's
Conception of Philosophy. Introduction by Tom Burke. (2001)
 University of Illinois
- Westbrook, Robert B. John Dewey and American
Democracy. (1991)  Cornell University Press.
- White, Morton. The Origin of Dewey's Instrumentalism.
(1943). Columbia University Press.
- «Although Dewey was not in the Marxist sense an enthusiast for
class warfare, he had the old populist inclination to divide the
world into the privileged and the people… the upholders of the
partial interests of particular social groups and the upholders of
the interests of ‘the people.’ He did not espouse a
backward-looking populism or hanker after agrarian radicalism…he
was a forward-looking, modernizing populist.» John Dewey and the
High Tide of American Liberalism. New York, W.W.Norton, 1995
- Who Belongs To Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Beta Kappa
website, accessed Oct 4, 2009
- New York
Times edition of January 19, 1953, page 27
- Biography at Muskingum College
- InteLex Past Masters series
- Benjamin, L.T. (2003). "Why Can't Psychology Get a Stamp?"
Journal of applied psychoanalytic studies
- Brucato, G. & Hogan, J.D. (1999, Spring). "Psychologists on
postage stamps" The General Psychologist, 34(1):65
- Zeltner, Philip N.; John Dewey's Aesthetic
Philosophy; p. 93. ISBN 9060320298
- Good (2006). A Search for Unity in Diversity: The
"Permanent Hegelian Deposit" in the Philosophy of John Dewey.
- A Common Faith, p. 42 (LW 9:29).
- John Dewey, Arthur Bentley, (1949). Knowing and the
Known. Beacon Press, Boston.
- ibid. p107-109
- ibid. p121-139
- Louis Menand. The Metaphysical Club p. 313
- Early Works, 1:128 (Southern Illinois University
Press) op cited in Douglas R. Anderson, AAR, The Journal of the
American Academy of Religion, Vol. 61, No. 2 (1993), p.
- Dewey, J. Democracy and Education: an introduction to the
philosophy of education. Chapter 1: Education as a Necessity
- Neil, J. (2005) "John Dewey, the Modern Father of Experiential
Education". Wilderdom.com. Retrieved 6/12/07.
- Heikkilä, H. and Kunelius, R. 2002. "Public Journalism and Its
Problems: A Theoretical Perspective", 
- Dewey, J. 1927. The Public and its Problems. Henry
Holt & Co., New York. pp 126.
- "John Dewey Chronology" 1934.04.08, 1936.03.12, 1940.09,
- Italics in the original. "What Humanism Means to Me," first
published in Thinker 2 (June 1930): 9-12, as part of a
series. Dewey: Page lw.5.266 [The Collected Works of John
Dewey, 1882-1953, The Electronic Edition]
- American Institute of Physics
- "Dewey Commission Report"
- "Origins of the Congress for Cultural Freedom,
1949-1950" CIA official web site
- "Dewey's Political Philosophy" Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- F. M. Alexander Constructive Conscious Control of the
Individual, E. P. Dutton & Co., 1923 ISBN
- Kimber Academy
- Caspary, William R. Dewey on Democracy. (2000) Cornell
University Press. Ithaca, NY.
- Rockefeller, Stephen. John Dewey: Religious Faith and
Democratic Humanism. (1994) Columbia University Press
Glass, The Quarterly Review of
Biology Vol. 29, No. 3 (Sep., 1954), pp. 249-250