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John Alec Entwistle (9 October 1944 – 27 June 2002) was an English bass guitarist, songwriter, singer, and horn player, who was best known as the bass guitarist for the rock band The Who. His aggressive lead sound influenced rock bass players.

Entwistle's lead instrument approach used pentatonic lead lines, and a then-unusual trebly sound created by roundwound RotoSound steel bass strings. He had a collection of over 200 instruments by the time of his death, reflecting the different brands he used over his career: Fender and Rickenbacker basses in the 1960s, Alembic's basses in the 1970s, Warwick in the 1980s, and Status all-graphite basses in the 1990s.

Birth and early career

John Alec Entwistle was born in Chiswickmarker, a London suburb, in 1944 and attended Acton County Grammar School. He joined the Middlesex Youth Orchestra and his initial music training was on trumpet, french horn, and piano, all three of which would figure into his later rock playing. In the early 1960s, he played in several traditional jazz and dixieland outfits. He formed a duo called The Confederates with schoolmate Pete Townshend, and later joined Roger Daltrey's band The Detours; playing a major role in encouraging Townshend's budding talent on the guitar, and insisting that Townshend be admitted to the Detours as well. After changes in personnel, Daltrey had fired all members of his band with the exception of Entwistle, Townshend, and the drummer, although it was only because he could not find one with enough talent to replace Doug Sandom. Daltrey relinquished the role of guitar to Townshend, becoming frontman and lead singer in the band, after dropping all other bandmates in favour of Keith Moon as drummer, as the band considered several changes of name, performing as the High Numbers, and finally settling on the name The Who.

Entwistle picked up two nicknames during his tenure as a musician. He was nicknamed "The Ox" because of his strong constitution and seeming ability to "eat, drink or do more than the rest of them." Bill Wyman, bassist for the Rolling Stones, described him as "the quietest man in private but the loudest man on stage." While his bandmates went crazy and leapt and moved about on the stage, with Townshend and Moon smashing their instruments on numerous occasions, Entwistle stood by calmly and quietly, while plucking the strings very fast, which earned him the name "Thunderfingers" by his bandmates and some fans of the Who.

Entwistle's wry and sometimes dark sense of humor clashed at times with Pete Townshend's more introspective work. Though he continued to contribute material to all of The Who's albums, with the exception of Quadrophenia, his frustration with having his material recorded by the band, only to relinquish the position of vocalist to Daltrey, was a large part of the reason he became the first member of the band to release a solo record, Smash Your Head Against the Wall (1971). The only member of the band to have had formal training, he contributed backing vocals and performed on the french horn (heard in "Pictures of Lily"), trumpet, bugle, and Jew's harp, as well as lead vocalist on rare occasions, usually on his composition, the only exceptions being the first verse of "Happy Jack" and Ivor's part on "A Quick One, While He's Away". Examples are on Tommy, ("Cousin Kevin", "Fiddle About"), on the live favourite "Heaven and Hell", and on Who's Next ("My Wife"). He layered several horns to create the brass as heard on songs such as "5:15", among others, and for concerts, arranged a horn section for concerts and performed all pieces himself while recording the Who's studio albums.

In the mid 1960s, Entwistle was one of the first to make use of Marshall stacks. Pete Townshend later remarked that John started using Marshalls in order to hear himself over drummer Keith Moon's drums, and Townshend himself also had to use them just to be heard over John. They both continued expanding and experimenting with their rigs, until (at a time when most bands used 50-100w amps with single cabinets) they were both using twin Stacks with new experimental prototype 200w amps.

Entwistle playing at Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto 1976
This, in turn, also had a strong influence on the band's contemporaries at the time, with Cream and the Jimi Hendrix Experience both following suit. Ironically, although they pioneered and directly contributed to the development of the "classic" Marshall sound (at this point their equipment was being built/tweaked to their personal specifications), they would only use Marshalls for a couple of years. Entwistle eventually switched to using a Sound City rig in search of his perfect sound, with Townshend also switching later on.

Entwistle also experimented throughout his career with "bi-amping," where the high and low ends of the bass sound are sent through separate signal paths, allowing for more control over the output. At one point his rig became so loaded with speaker cabinets and processing gear that it was dubbed "Little Manhattan," in reference to the towering, skyscraper-like stacks, racks and blinking lights.

His "full treble, full volume" approach to bass sound was originally supposed to be captured in the bass solo to "My Generation". According to Entwistle, his original intention was to feature the distinctive Danelectro Longhorn bass, which had a very twangy sound, in the solo, but the strings kept breaking. Eventually, he recorded a simpler solo using a pick with a Fender Jazz Bass strung with LaBella tapewound strings. This solo bass break is important as it is one of the earliest bass solos (if not the first) captured on a rock record. A live recording of The Who exists from this period (c. 1965), with Entwistle playing a Danelectro on "My Generation", giving an idea of what that solo would have sounded like.

Late career

Toward the end of his career, he formed "The John Entwistle Band" with longtime friend, drummer Steve Luongo. Godfrey Townsend (no 'h', no relation to Pete Townshend) played guitar and sang lead vocals. In 1996, the band went on the "Left for Dead" tour with Alan St. Jon on keyboards. After Entwistle toured with The Who for Quadrophenia in 1996-97, the Entwistle band set off on the "Left for Dead - the Sequel" tour in late 1998, now with Gordon Cotten on keyboards. After this second venture, the band released an album of highlights from the tour, called Left for Live. In 1995 Entwistle also toured and recorded with Ringo Starr in one of the incarnations of Ringo's "All-Starr Band". This one also featured Billy Preston, Randy Bachman, and Mark Farner. In this ensemble, he played and sang "Boris the Spider" as his Who showpiece, along with "My Wife". Towards the end of his career he used a Status Graphite Buzzard Bass, which he designed. In 1999, 2000, and early 2002, John played as part of The Who.

In 2001 he played in Alan Parsons' Beatles tribute show "A Walk Down Abbey Road". The show also featured Ann Wilson of Heart, Todd Rundgren, David Pack of Ambrosia, Godfrey Townsend on guitar, Steve Luongo on drums, and John Beck on keyboards. Between that tour and his prior tour with Ringo, Entwistle joked that he had played "Yellow Submarine" more often than Paul McCartney. That year he also played with The Who at The Concert for New York City. He also joined forces again with "The John Entwistle Band" for an 8 gig tour. This time Chris Clark was on Keyboards. In January-February 2002 John played his last concerts with The Who in a handful of dates in England, the last being 8 February in London's Royal Albert Hallmarker. In late 2002, an expanded 2-CD Left for Live Deluxe was released, highlighting The John Entwistle Band performances.

Death

Entwistle died in a hotel room at the Hard Rock Hotel and Casinomarker in Las Vegas on 27 June 2002 one day before the scheduled first show of The Who's 2002 US tour. He had gone to bed that night with a stripper, who woke at 10 am to find Entwistle cold and unresponsive. Although Entwistle's female companion was not identified at the inquest she is known to be Alison Rowse, 32, who dances under the stage name Sianna at the city's Deja Vu club. A self-confessed Who groupie, she would meet up with the rock star whenever he was in town. The Clark Countymarker medical examiner determined that death was due to a heart attack induced by an undetermined amount of cocaine. Though the amount in Entwistle's bloodstream was not great, the drug caused his coronary arteries, already damaged due to a pre-existing heart condition, to contract. Entwistle used cocaine throughout much of his adult life.

His funeral was held at Saint Edward's Church in Stow-on-the-Woldmarker, Gloucestershiremarker, England, on 10 July 2002. He was cremated and his ashes buried privately. A memorial service was held on 24 October 2002 at St. Martin-in-the-Fields, Trafalgar Square, London. Entwistle's collection of guitars and basses was auctioned at Sotheby's in London by his son, Christopher Entwistle, to meet anticipated duties on his father's estate. Joy Division/New Order bassist Peter Hook is among those who acquired some of Entwistle's basses at the auction.

His mansion in Stow-on-the-Wold in the Cotswoldsmarker and a number of his personal effects were later sold off to meet the demands of the Inland Revenue. While The Who, including Entwistle and Moon, recorded with a multitude of instruments, they always performed as a four-piece band. Following his death, Moon was replaced not only by Small Faces/Faces drummer Kenney Jones and Zak Starkey (son of Ringo Starr), but The Who also added keyboardist John "Rabbit" Bundrick to the live band. Similarly, when Entwistle died, his place in the live band was filled by Pino Palladino, with second guitarist Simon Townshend (Pete Townshend's brother) having been added at rehearsals just weeks before Entwistle's death.

Welsh-born bassist Pino Palladino, who played on several of Pete Townshend's solo records, took over for Entwistle on stage when The Who resumed their postponed U.S. tour following his funeral. Pete Townshend and Roger Daltrey spoke at length about their reaction to Entwistle's death. Some of their comments can be found on the The Who Live in Boston DVD. Geddy Lee, of the band Rush, dedicated their performance of the song Between Sun and Moon to Entwistle on the opening night of their Vapor Trails tour which began the following night on 28 June 2002 in Hartford, Conn.marker

Technique

Entwistle's technique ranged from using fingers, plectra and tapping to utilizing harmonics in his passages. He would change the style of play between songs and even during songs to change the sound he produced. His fingering technique would involve pressing down on the string hard and releasing in an attempt to reproduce a trebly, twangy sound. Note however, that he would change his thumb position from pickup, to the E string and occasionally even allowing his thumb to float near the pickup. His plectrum technique would involve holding the plectrum between his thumb and forefinger, with the rest of his fingers outstretched for balance.

Entwistle's playing style was rarely captured well in the studio. He was better heard in concert, where he and guitarist Pete Townshend frequently exchanged roles, with Entwistle providing rapid melodic lines and Townshend anchoring the song with rhythmic chord work. Indeed, Townshend noted that Entwistle did the rhythmic timekeeping in the band, doing the role of the drummer. Moon, on the other hand, with all his flourishes around the kit, was like a keyboard player. In 1989, Entwistle pointed out that, according to modern standards, "The Who haven't a proper bass player."

Entwistle also developed what he called a "typewriter" approach to playing the bass. It involved positioning the right hand over the strings so all four fingers could be used to tap percussively on the strings, causing them to strike the fretboard with a distinctive twangy sound. This gives the player the ability to play three or four strings at once, or to use several fingers on a single string. It allowed him to create passages that were very percussive and melodic. He used this approach to mimic the fills used by his drummers in band situations, sometimes sending the fills back at the drummers faster than the drummers themselves could play them.

This method is unique and should not be confused with the hammer-on tapping techniques of Eddie Van Halen and Stu Hamm or the slapping technique of Larry Graham, and in fact pre-dates these other techniques. A demonstration of this approach to bass playing can be seen on a video called John Entwistle - Master Class, part of Arlen Roth's Hot Licks instructional series, as well as Mike Gordon's film, Rising Low. Demonstrated in Mike Gordon's film, Rising Low is John's tendency to use his fore, middle and ring fingers on his right hand when playing. This would allow him to create "clusters of notes" in his bass lines, as well as play triplets with relative simplicity. Notable in his left-handed technique is his use of slides, positioning the left hand for octaves and his use of the pentatonic scale.

Entwistle identified his influences as a combination of his school training on French horn, trumpet, and piano (giving his fingers strength and dexterity). Musicians who influenced him included rock & roll guitarists Duane Eddy and Gene Vincent, and American soul and R&B bassists such as James Jamerson. Like Jamerson, Entwistle is credited as a pioneer on the bass guitar. In turn, Entwistle has been a massive influence on the playing styles and sounds used by generations of bass players that have followed him and continues to top 'best ever bass player' polls in musicians magazines. In 2000, Guitar magazine named him "Bassist of the Millennium" in a readers' poll.

Equipment

This is a list of Entwistle's amps and guitars in chronological order of which he used them.



Who songs

He wrote and/or sang lead vocals on some songs for The Who, including:
  • "The Ox" (instrumental, with Pete Townshend, Keith Moon and Nicky Hopkins) - My Generation, 1965
  • "In the City"(credited to Entwistle/Moon) - B-Side to "I'm a Boy", 1966
  • "I've Been Away" - B-Side to "Happy Jack" in the UK, 1966
  • "Boris the Spider" - A Quick One, 1966
  • "Whiskey Man" - A Quick One, 1966
  • "Doctor, Doctor" - B-Side to "Pictures of Lily", 1967
  • "Heinz Baked Beans" - The Who Sell Out, 1967
  • "Medac" - The Who Sell Out, 1967
  • "Silas Stingy" - (lead vocal by Entwistle and Daltrey) The Who Sell Out, 1967
  • "Someone's Coming" (lead vocal by Roger Daltrey) - B-Side to "I Can See for Miles" in the UK, 1967, and to "Magic Bus" in the USA, 1968
  • "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" - B-Side to "Call Me Lightning" in the USA, 1968, and to "Magic Bus" in the UK, 1968
  • "Cousin Kevin" (multitracked harmony by Entwistle) - Tommy, 1969
  • "Fiddle About" - Tommy, 1969
  • "Heaven and Hell" - B-Side to "Summertime Blues", 1970)
  • "My Wife" - Who's Next, 1971
  • "When I Was a Boy" - B-Side to "Let's See Action", 1971
  • "We Close Tonight" - (written by Townshend, Keith Moon sings parts of this song, and Entwistle sings the rest), recorded in 1973 but not released until 1998 on the expanded version of Odds and Sods
  • "Postcard" - Odds and Sods, 1974
  • "Success Story" (verses sung in harmony with Daltrey, bridge by Entwistle) - The Who By Numbers, 1975
  • "Had Enough" (lead vocal by Daltrey) - Who Are You, 1978
  • "905" - Who Are You, 1978
  • "Bogey Man" - Unreleased demo for "Who Are You", played by only Entwistle and Moon, was also later used as the theme song for Van Pires
  • "Trick of the Light" (lead vocal by Daltrey) - Who Are You, 1978
  • "The Quiet One" - Face Dances, 1981
  • "You" (lead vocal by Daltrey) - Face Dances, 1981
  • "It's Your Turn" (lead vocal by Daltrey) - It's Hard, 1982
  • "Dangerous" (lead vocal by Daltrey) - It's Hard, 1982
  • "One at a Time" - It's Hard, 1982
  • "Twist and Shout" - Live from Toronto, 1982


Discography

Solo releases



Collaborations



Compilations



Notes

  1. infoplease.com
  2. johnentwistle.com Bassist of the Millennium
  3. Martin Hickman, Stripper found Entwistle dead after heart attack triggered by cocaine, The Independent, December 12, 2002, Accessed February 6, 2009.
  4. Guitar Player's Chris Jisi in 1989


External links




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