assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth
President of the United
States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in
Dallas, Texas, at 12:30
p.m. Central Standard Time (18:30
UTC) in Dealey Plaza. Kennedy
fatally shot while riding with his wife Jacqueline
in a Presidential
. The ten-month investigation of
the Warren Commission
1963–1964, the United
States House Select Committee on Assassinations
1976–1979, and other government investigations concluded that the
President was assassinated
by Lee Harvey Oswald
who himself was murdered
before he could stand trial. This conclusion was initially met with
support among the American public, but polls conducted from 1966
show as many as 80% of the American public hold beliefs contrary to
these findings. The assassination is still the subject of
widespread debate and has spawned numerous conspiracy
and alternative scenarios. In 1979, the House Select
Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) found both the original FBI
investigation and the Warren Commission Report to be seriously
flawed. The HSCA also concluded that there were at least four shots
fired and that it was probable that a conspiracy existed.
studies, including one by the National Academy of Sciences, have called into question the accuracy of the
evidence used by the HSCA to support its finding of four
Elm Street seen from the sixth floor
of the Texas School Book Depository
Howard Brennan sitting across from the
Texas School Book Depository.
Circle "A" indicates where he saw a man fire a rifle at the
The assassination site in 2008.
White arrows indicate the sixth floor window and the mark on
the road where Kennedy was hit the second time
Just before 12:30 p.m. CST, Kennedy’s limousine entered Dealey Plaza and slowly approached the Texas School
Book Depository. Nellie
, then the First Lady of Texas, turned around to
Kennedy, who was sitting behind her, and commented, "Mr. President,
you can't say Dallas doesn't love you," which President Kennedy
When the Presidential limousine turned and passed the Depository
and continued down Elm Street, shots were fired at Kennedy; a clear
majority of witnesses recalled hearing three shots. A minority of
the witnesses did recognize the first gunshot blast they heard as a
weapon blast, but there was hardly any reaction from a majority in
the crowd or riding in the motorcade itself to the first shot, with
many later saying they heard what they first thought to be a
firecracker or the exhaust backfire
vehicle just after the president started waving.
President Kennedy, Texas Governor John
, and Mrs. Kennedy, all, nearly simultaneously and
within one second of each other, turned abruptly from looking to
their left, to looking to their right between Zapruder film frames
155 and 169 Connally, like the president a WWII military veteran
(and unlike the president, Connally was a longtime hunter),
testified he immediately recognized the sound of a high-powered
rifle, then he turned his head and torso rightward attempting to
see President Kennedy behind him. Connally testified he could not
see the president, so he then started to turn forward again, and
that when he was about facing forward he was hit in his upper right
back by a bullet that he testified he did not hear the muzzle blast
from, then he shouted, "Oh, no, no, no. My God. They're going to
kill us all!"
Mrs. Connally testified that right after hearing her first loud,
frightening noise that came from somewhere behind her and to her
right, she immediately turned towards President Kennedy and saw him
with his arms and elbows already raised high with his hands already
close to his throat. She then heard another gunshot and John
Connally started yelling. Mrs. Connally then turned away from
President Kennedy towards her husband, then another gunshot sounded
and herself and the limousine's rear interior was covered with
fragments of brain, blood, and bone matter.
According to the Warren Commission and the House Select Committee
on Assassinations, as President Kennedy waved to the crowds on his
right with his right arm upraised on the side of the limo, a shot
entered his upper back, penetrated his neck, slightly damaged a
spinal vertabrae and the top of his right lung, exited his throat
nearly centerline just beneath his Adam's apple, then nicked the
left side of his suit tie knot. He then raised his arms and
clenched fists around his head and neck, then leaned forward and
towards his left. Mrs. Kennedy (already facing him) then put her
arms around him in concern. Governor Connally also reacted after
the same bullet
back creating an oval entry wound, impacted and destroyed four
inches of his right, fifth rib bone, exited his chest just below
his right nipple creating an oval, two-and-a-half inch sized oval,
sucking-air chest wound, entered the side of his right wrist just
above the wrist, impacted and cleanly fractured his right wrist
bone, exited just below the wrist at the inner side of his right
palm, entered his left inner thigh, and then threw off a small
piece of bullet lead that trajected further inside and embedded
into the outer layer of his left thigh bone. He then shouted, "No,
No, no. My God. They're going to kill us all!" The Warren
Commission theorized the "single bullet theory" occurred sometime
between Zapruder frames 210 and 225, while the House Select
Committee theorized it occurred exactly at Zapruder frame
According to the Warren Commission, the third and final shot took
place at Zapruder film frame 313 when the Presidential limousine
was passing in front of the John Neely
(the House Select Committee concluded that the final shot was the
fourth shot) They each concluded that the final shot entered the
rear of President Kennedy's head (the House Select Committee
determined the entry wound to be four inches higher than the Warren
Commission), then exploded out a roughly oval sized hole from his
head's rear and right side. Head matter, brains, blood, and skull
bones trajected and covered the interior of the car, the inner and
outer surfaces of the front glass windshield and raised sun visors,
the front engine hood, the rear trunk lid, the followup Secret
Service car and its driver's left arm, and motorcycle officers
riding on both sides of the president behind him. Then Mrs. Kennedy
testified she saw a piece of his skull become detached and she
quickly climbed out onto the rear trunk lid and retrieved a piece
of her husband's head matter (that she soon gave to Parkland
Hospital doctor Jenkins, and she asked, "Will this help?"). After
she crawled back into her limo seat Governor Connally heard her
say, "I have his brains in my hand."
United States Secret
agent Clint Hill
on the left front running board
followup car, immediately behind the Presidential limousine. Hill
testified he heard one shot, then, as documented in other films and
concurrent with Zapruder frame 308, he jumped off into Elm Street
and ran forward to try and get on the limo and protect the
president. (Hill testified to the Warren Commission that after he
jumped into Elm Street, he heard two more shots)After the president
had been shot in the head, Mrs. Kennedy began to climb out on the
back of the limousine, though she later had no recollection of
doing so. Hill believed she was reaching for something, perhaps a
piece of the president's skull. He jumped onto the back of the
limousine while at the same time Mrs. Kennedy returned to her seat,
and he clung to the car as it exited Dealey Plaza and sped to
Governor Connally, riding in the same limousine in a seat in front
of the President, was also critically injured but survived. Doctors
later stated that after the governor was shot, his wife pulled him
onto her lap, and the resulting posture helped close his front
chest wound (which was causing air to be sucked directly into his
chest around his collapsed right lung).
, a spectator and witness to
the assassination, also received a minor wound to his right cheek
while standing away from the Depositor's sixth floor, far-eastern
window, in front of and slightly to the right of President
Kennedy's head facing direction, and more than below the
president's head top. Tague's injury occurred when a bullet or
bullet fragment with no copper casing struck the nearby Main Street
south curb. When Tague testified to the Warren Commission and was
asked which of the three shots he remembered hearing struck him, he
stated it was the second or third shot; when the Warren Commssion
attorney pressed him further, Tague stated he was struck concurrent
with the second shot.
Aftermath in Dealey Plaza
The Presidential limousine was passing a grassy knoll
on the north side
of Elm Street at the moment of the fatal head shot. As the
motorcade left the plaza, police officers and spectators ran up the
knoll and from a railroad bridge over Elm Street (the Triple
Underpass), to the area behind a five-foot (1.5 m) high
stockade fence atop the knoll, separating it from a parking lot. No
sniper was found. S. M. Holland, who had been watching the
motorcade on the Triple Underpass, testified that "immediately"
after the shots were fired, he went around the corner where the
overpass joined the fence but did not see anyone running from the
, a railroad switchman sitting
in a two-story tower, had an unobstructed view of the rear of the
stockade fence atop the grassy knoll during the shooting. He saw a
total of four men in the area between his tower and Elm Street: a
middle-aged man and a younger man, standing apart near the Triple
Underpass, who did not seem to know each other, and one or two
uniformed parking lot attendants. At the time of the shooting, he
saw "something out of the ordinary, a sort of milling around,"
which he could not identify. Bowers testified that one or both of
the men were still there when motorcycle officer Clyde Haygood ran
up the grassy knoll to the back of the fence. In a 1966 interview,
Bowers clarified that the two men he saw were standing in the
opening between the pergola and the fence, and that "no one" was
behind the fence at the time the shots were fired.
Meanwhile, Howard Brennan
, a steamfitter
who was sitting across the street
from the Texas School Book Depository, notified police that as he
watched the motorcade go by, he heard a shot come from above, and
looked up to see a man with a rifle make another shot from a corner
window on the sixth floor. He had seen the same man minutes earlier
looking out the window. Brennan gave a description of the shooter,
which was broadcast to all Dallas police at 12:45 p.m., 12:48 p.m.,
and 12:55 p.m.
As Brennan spoke to the police in front of the building, they were
joined by Harold Norman and James Jarman, Jr., two employees of the
Texas School Book Depository who had watched the motorcade from
windows at the southeast corner of the fifth floor. Norman reported
that he heard three gunshots come from directly over their heads.
Norman also heard the sounds of a bolt action rifle and those of
cartridges dropping on the floor above them.
Estimates of when Dallas police sealed off the entrances to the
Texas School Book Depository range from 12:33 to after 12:50
Of the 104 earwitnesses in Dealey Plaza who are on record with an
opinion as to the direction from which the shots came, 54 (51.9%)
thought that all shots came from the direction of the Texas School
Book Depository, 33 (31.7%) thought that all shots came from the
area of the grassy knoll or the Triple Underpass, 9 (8.7%) thought
all shots came from a location entirely distinct from the knoll or
the Depository, 5 (4.8%) thought they heard shots from two
locations, and 3 (2.9%) thought the shots came from a direction
consistent with both the knoll and the Depository.
Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald, reported missing to the Dallas police by his
supervisor, Roy Truly, at the Depository, was arrested an hour and
20 minutes after the assassination for killing a Dallas police
officer, J. D. Tippit
, who had
spotted Oswald walking along a sidewalk in the residential
neighborhood of Oak Cliff
. He was captured in
a nearby movie
Oswald resisted, attempting to shoot the arresting officer, Maurice
N. McDonald, with a pistol, and was forcibly restrained by the
police. He was charged with the murders of Tippit and Kennedy later
that night. Oswald denied shooting anyone and claimed he was a
. Oswald's case never came to trial
because two days later, while being escorted to a car for transfer
from Dallas Police Headquarters to the Dallas County Jail, he was
shot and killed by Dallas nightclub owner Jack
A 6.5 x
52 mm Italian Carcano M91/38
bolt-action rifle was found on the 6th floor of the Texas Book
Depository by Deputy Constable
Seymour Weitzman and Deputy sheriff
Eugene Boone soon after the assassination of President
Kennedy. The recovery was filmed by Tom Alyea of WFAA-TV.
The rifle found in the Texas School
footage shows the rifle to be a Carcano, and it was later verified
by photographic analysis commissioned by the HSCA that the rifle
filmed was the same one later identified as the assassination
weapon. Compared to photographs taken of Oswald holding the rifle
in his backyard, "one notch in the stock at [a] point that appears
very faintly in the photograph" matched, as well as the rifle's
The previous March, the rifle had been bought by Oswald under the
name "A. Hidell" and delivered to a post
Oswald rented in Dallas. According to the Warren
Commission Report, a partial palm print of Oswald was also found on
the barrel of the gun, and a tuft of fibers found in a crevice of
the rifle was consistent with the fibers and colors of the shirt
Oswald was wearing at the time of his arrest.
A bullet found on Connally's hospital gurney
and two bullet fragments found in the presidential limousine, were
Kennedy declared dead in the emergency room
The staff at Parkland Hospital's Trauma Room 1 who treated Kennedy
observed that his condition was "moribund
meaning that he had no chance of survival upon arriving at the
hospital. Dr. George Burkley, the President's personal physician,
determined the head wound was the cause of death. Dr. Burkley
signed President Kennedy's death certificate.
Johnson is sworn in as U.S.
President aboard Air Force One in Dallas
At 1:00 p.m., CST (19:00 UTC
), after all heart
activity had ceased and after a priest administered the last rites,
the President was pronounced dead. "We never had any hope of saving
his life," one doctor said. The Very Rev. Oscar L. Huber, the
who administered the last rites to
Kennedy told The New York
that the President was already dead by the time
Huber had arrived at the hospital, and he had to draw back a sheet
covering the President's face to administer the sacrament of
. Kennedy's death was officially announced by
House Acting Press Secretary Malcolm Kilduff at 1:33
CST (19:33 UTC
). Governor Connally,
meanwhile, was taken to emergency surgery, where he underwent two
operations that day.
A few minutes after 2:00 p.m. CST (20:00 UTC
and after a confrontation between Dallas police and Secret Service
agents, Kennedy's body was placed in a casket and taken from
Parkland Hospital and driven to Air Force
. The casket was then loaded aboard the airplane through the
rear door, where it remained at the rear of the passenger
compartment, in place of a removed row of seats. The body was
removed before a forensic examination could be conducted by the
Dallas County coroner (Earl Rose), which violated Texas state law
(the murder was a state crime and occurred under Texas legal
jurisdiction). At that time, it was not a federal offense to kill
the President of the United States.
been riding two cars behind Kennedy in the motorcade through Dallas
and was not injured) became President of the United States upon
Kennedy's initial incapacitation. At 2:38 p.m. Johnson took the oath
on board Air Force One just before it departed from
Force One landed at Andrews Air Force Base, just outside Washington, D.C., Kennedy's body was taken to Bethesda Naval Hospital for an immediate autopsy.
Drawing depicting the posterior head
wound of President Kennedy.
The autopsy (about 8 to 11 p.m.
on November 22) was followed
by embalming and cosmetic funeral preparation (about 11 p.m. to 4
a.m.) in the morgue at Bethesda, in a room adjacent to the autopsy
theater. This was done by a team of private mortuary personnel, who
made an unusual trip to the hospital for this procedure. The
autopsy of President Kennedy performed the night of November 22 at
the Bethesda Naval Hospital led the three examining pathologists to
conclude that the bullet wound to the head was fatal, and the
bullet had entered slightly above and 2.5 cm to the right of
the external occipital
, exiting through the right side of the skull above
the ear and "carrying with it portions of cerebrum
, skull and scalp."
The report addressed a second missile which "entered Kennedy's
upper back above the shoulder blade, passed through the strap
muscles at the base of his neck, bruising the upper tip of the
right lung without puncturing it, then exiting the front (anterior)
neck," in a wound that was destroyed by the tracheotomy
incision. This autopsy finding was
not corroborated by the President's personal physician, Dr.
Burkley, who recorded, on the death certificate, a bullet to have
hit Kennedy at "about" the level of the third thoracic vertebra
. Supporting this
location along with the bullet hole in the shirt worn by Kennedy
and the bullet hole in the suit jacket
worn by Kennedy (Image)
which show bullet holes between below
Kennedy's collar (Image)
. However, photographic analysis of the
motorcade, including a new pre-assassination film released in
February 2007 (color film)
, shows that the President's jacket
was bunched below his neckline, and was not lying smoothly along
his skin, so the clothing measurements have been subject to
historical criticism as being untrustworthy on the matter of the
exact location of the back wound. Dr. J. Thornton Boswell's face
sheet diagram from the autopsy sheet is sometimes used to support a
lower back wound (Image)
. However, in 1966 Boswell noted that this
drawing was never intended to be scale-exact, and he re-drew it for
the benefit of The Baltimore
on November 25, 1966, placing an X at the higher spot
. Boswell stated that his measurements of from
the ear and shoulder properly locate the wound, and these are
inconsistent with a wound at the third thoracic vertebra. Moreover,
all three Bethesda doctors authenticated for the HSCA
autopsy photographs showing an entry wound at the level of C6 (the
sixth cervical vertebra
, at the
base of the neck), which is the entry level as determined by the
HSCA investigation on the basis of photographic and X-ray evidence
from the autopsy.
Later federal agencies such as the Assassination Records Review
criticized the autopsy on several grounds including
destruction from burning of the original draft of the autopsy
report and notes taken by Cmdr. James Humes at the time of the
autopsy, and failure to maintain a proper chain of custody of all
of the autopsy materials.
The President's body was brought back to the White House and placed
in the East Room in a closed casket for 24 hours but was
opened privately and briefly viewed during this time by the Kennedy
family and some close friends. The Sunday following the
assassination, his flag-draped closed casket was moved to the
viewing. Throughout the day and night, hundreds of thousands lined
up to view the guarded casket.
Representatives from over 90 countries,
including the Soviet
Union, attended the funeral on November 25 (which was
his son's third birthday).
service, the casket was taken by caisson to Arlington
National Cemetery for burial.
Recordings of the assassination
stations broadcast the assassination
live because the area through which the motorcade was traveling was
not considered important enough for a live broadcast. Most media
crews were not even with the motorcade but were waiting instead at
the Dallas Trade Mart in anticipation of Kennedy's arrival. Those
members of the media who were with the motorcade were riding at the
rear of the procession.
The Dallas police were recording their radio transmissions over two
channels. A frequency designated as Channel One was used for
routine police communications. A second channel, designated Channel
Two, was an auxiliary channel, which was dedicated to the
president's motorcade. Up until the time of the assassination, most
of the broadcasts on this channel consisted of Police Chief Jesse
Curry's announcements of the location of the motorcade as it wound
through the streets of Dallas.
Looking south, with the pergola and
knoll behind the photographer: the X on the street marks the
approximate position of the final head shot (photo taken in July
President Kennedy's last seconds traveling through Dealey Plaza
were recorded on silent 8 mm film
26.6 seconds before, during, and immediately following the
assassination. This famous film footage was taken by garment
manufacturer and amateur cameraman Abraham Zapruder
, in what became known as
the Zapruder film
. Frame enlargements
from the Zapruder film were published by Life magazine
shortly after the
assassination. The footage was first shown publicly as a film at
the trial of Clay Shaw
and on television in 1975.
Zapruder was not the only one who photographed at least part of the
assassination. A total of 32 photographers were in Dealey Plaza.
Amateur movies taken by Orville Nix
(shown on television
in New York on November 26, 1963), and Charles Bronson (not
) captured the fatal shot,
although at a greater distance than Zapruder. Other motion picture
films were taken in Dealey Plaza at or around the time of the
shooting by Robert Hughes, F. Mark Bell, Elsie Dorman, John Martin
Jr., Patsy Paschall, Tina Towner, James Underwood, Dave Wiegman,
, Thomas Atkins, and an unknown
woman in a blue dress on the south side of Elm Street. Still photos
were taken by Phillip Willis
, Hugh W. Betzner Jr.,
Wilma Bond, Robert Croft, and many others. The lone professional
photographer in Dealey Plaza who was not in the press cars was
, photo editor for the
An unidentified woman, nicknamed the Babushka Lady
by researchers, might have been
filming the presidential motorcade during the assassination because
she was seen apparently doing so on film and photographs taken by
Previously unknown, color footage filmed on the assassination day
by George Jefferies was released on February 20, 2007 by the Sixth
Floor Museum, Dallas, Texas. The film does not include depiction of
the actual shooting, having been taken roughly 90 seconds
beforehand and a couple of blocks away. The only detail relevant to
the investigation of the assassination is a clear view of Kennedy's
bunched suit jacket, just below the collar, which has led to
different calculations about how low in the back Kennedy was first
shot (see discussion above).
After arresting Oswald and collecting physical evidence at the
crime scenes, the Dallas Police held Oswald at the police
headquarters for interrogation. Oswald was questioned all afternoon
about both the Tippit shooting and the assassination of the
President. He was questioned intermittently for approximately
12 hours between 2:30 p.m., on November 22, and 11 a.m., on
November 24. Throughout this interrogation Oswald denied any
involvement with either the assassination of President Kennedy or
the murder of Patrolman Tippit. Captain Fritz of the homicide and
robbery bureau did most of the questioning, keeping only
rudimentary notes. Days later he wrote a report of the
interrogation from notes he made afterwards. There were no
stenographic or tape recordings. Representatives of other law enforcement
agencies were also present, including the FBI and the
Secret Service, and occasionally participated in the
Several of the FBI agents present wrote
contemporaneous reports of the interrogation.
During the evening of November 22, the Dallas Police Department
tests on Oswald's hands
and right cheek in an apparent effort to determine, by means of a
scientific test, whether Oswald had recently fired a weapon. The
results were positive for the hands and negative for the right
cheek. However, because of the unreliability of these tests, the
Warren Commission did not rely on the results of the test in making
Oswald provided little information during his questioning.
Frequently, however, he was confronted with evidence which he could
not explain, and he resorted to statements which were found to be
false. Dallas authorities were not able to complete their
investigation into the assassination of Kennedy because of
interruptions from the FBI and the murder of Oswald by Jack Ruby
The FBI was the first authority to complete an investigation. On
November 24, 1963, just hours after Oswald was murdered, FBI
Director, J. Edgar Hoover
, said that he wanted "something
issued so we can convince the public that Oswald is the real
." On December 9, 1963, only
17 days after the assassination, the FBI report was issued and
given to the Warren Commission. Then, the FBI stayed on as the
primary investigating authority for the commission.
The FBI stated that only three bullets were fired during the
assassination; the Warren Commission agreed with the FBI
investigation that only three shots were fired but disagreed with
the FBI report on which shots hit Kennedy and which hit Governor
Connally. The FBI report claimed that the first shot hit President
Kennedy, the second shot hit Governor Connally, and the third shot
hit Kennedy in the head, killing him. In contrast, the Warren
Commission concluded that one of the three shots missed, one of the
shots hit Kennedy and then struck Connally, and a third shot struck
Kennedy in the head, killing him.
Criticism of FBI
The FBI's murder investigation was reviewed by the House Select
Committee on Assassinations in 1979. The congressional Committee
- The Federal Bureau of Investigation adequately investigated Lee
Harvey Oswald prior to the assassination and properly evaluated the
evidence it possessed to assess his potential to endanger the
public safety in a national emergency.
- The Federal Bureau of Investigation conducted a thorough and
professional investigation into the responsibility of Lee Harvey
Oswald for the assassination.
- The Federal Bureau of Investigation failed to investigate
adequately the possibility of a conspiracy to assassinate the
- The Federal Bureau of Investigation was deficient in its
sharing of information with other agencies and departments.
The FBI has received added scrutiny by Kennedy assassination
researchers because of the actions of FBI agent James Hosty. Hosty appeared in Oswald's address
book. The FBI provided to the Warren Commission a typewritten
transcription of Oswald's address book, in which Hosty's name and
phone number were omitted. Two or three weeks before the
assassination, Oswald went to the FBI office in Dallas to meet with
Hosty, and when he found that Hosty was not in the office at the
time, Oswald left an envelope for Hosty with a letter inside.
After Oswald was murdered by Jack Ruby,
Hosty's supervisor ordered Hosty to destroy the letter, and he did
so by tearing the letter up and flushing it down the toilet. Months
later, when Hosty testified before the Warren Commission, he did
not disclose this connection with Oswald. This information became
public later and was investigated by the U.S. House Select
Committee on Assassinations.
Criticism of Secret Service
Sgt. Davis, of the Dallas Police Department, believed he had
prepared stringent security precautions, in an attempt to prevent
demonstrations like those marking the Adlai Stevenson visit from happening again.
The previous month, Stevenson, the United
States Ambassador to the United Nations, was assaulted by an
anti-UN demonstrator. But Winston Lawson of the Secret Service, who
was in charge of the planning, told the Dallas Police not to assign
its usual squad of experienced homicide detectives to follow
immediately behind the President's car. This police protection was
routine for both visiting presidents and for motorcades of other
visiting dignitaries. Police Chief Jesse
Curry later testified that had his men been in place, the
murder might have been prevented, because they carried submachine
guns and rifles to take out any attackers, or at least they might
have been able to stop Oswald before he left the building.
The Warren Commission presents its
report to President Johnson
The first official investigation of the assassination was
established by President Johnson on November 29, 1963, a week after
the assassination. The commission was headed by Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United
States and became universally (but unofficially) known as the
In late September 1964, after a 10-month investigation, the Warren
Commission Report was published. The Commission concluded that it
could not find any persuasive evidence of a domestic or foreign
conspiracy involving any other person(s), group(s), or
country(ies). The Commission found that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the
murder of Kennedy, and that Jack Ruby
acted alone in the murder of Oswald. The theory that Oswald acted
alone is informally called the Lone gunman theory. The commission
also concluded that only three bullets were fired during the
assassination and that Oswald fired all three bullets from the
Texas School Book Depository behind the motorcade. The Commission
also laid out several scenarios concerning the timing of the shots,
but that the three shots were fired in a time period ranging from
approximately 4.8 to in excess of 7 seconds.
The commission also concluded that:
- one shot likely missed the motorcade (it could not determine
which of the three),
- the first shot to hit anyone struck Kennedy in the upper back,
exited near the front of his neck and likely continued on to cause
all of Governor Connally's injuries, and
- the last shot to hit anyone struck Kennedy in the head, fatally
It noted that three empty shells were found in the sixth floor in
the book depository, and a rifle identified as the one used in the
shooting – Oswald's Italian military surplus 6.5x52 mm Model
91/38 Carcano – was found hidden nearby. The Commission offered as
a likely explanation that the same bullet that wounded Kennedy also
caused all of Governor Connally's wounds. This theory has become
known as the "single bullet
theory" or the "magic" bullet theory (as it is commonly
referred to by its critics and detractors). The Commission also
looked into other matters beside who killed the President and
criticized weaknesses in security, which has resulted in greatly
increased security whenever the President travels.
Public response to the Warren Report
Almost immediately after the Warren Commission Report was issued,
several researchers began seriously questioning its conclusions. A
multitude of books and articles criticizing the Warren Commission's
findings have been written. The Commission's conclusions have also
gradually but continually lost widespread acceptance from the
American public and various prominent government officials. Yet
subsequent reinvestigations by special panels on the Kennedy
assassination have, with one exception – the HSCA's controversial
Dictabelt evidence – come to the same main conclusions as the
Warren Commission did in 1964.
Ramsey Clark Panel
In 1968 a panel of four medical experts appointed by Attorney General Ramsey Clark met in Washington, D.C. to examine
various photographs, X-ray films, documents, and other evidence
pertaining to the death of President Kennedy. The Clark Panel
determined that Kennedy was struck by two bullets fired from above
and behind him, one of which traversed the base of the neck on the
right side without striking bone and the other of which entered the
skull from behind and destroyed its upper right side.
President's Commission on CIA activities within the United
States was set up under President Gerald Ford in 1975 to investigate the
activities of the CIA
within the United States. The commission was led by Vice President
Nelson Rockefeller, and is
sometimes referred to as the Rockefeller Commission.
Part of the commission's work dealt with the Kennedy assassination,
specifically the head snap as seen in the Zapruder film (first shown to the general
public in 1975), and the possible presence of E. Howard Hunt
and Frank Sturgis in Dallas. The
commission concluded that neither Hunt nor Sturgis were in Dallas
at the time of the assassination, and that the head snap did not
necessarily imply a shot from the front.
United States House Select Committee on Assassinations
Fifteen years after the Warren Commission issued its report, a
congressional committee named the United States House Select
Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) reviewed the Warren Commission
report and the underlying FBI report on which the Commission
heavily relied. The Committee criticized the performance of both
the Warren Commission and the FBI for failing to investigate
whether other people conspired with Oswald to murder President
Kennedy. The Committee Report concluded that:
"[T]he FBI's investigation of whether there had been a conspiracy
in President Kennedy's assassination was seriously flawed. The
conspiracy aspects of the investigation were characterized by a
limited approach and an inadequate application and use of available
resources." (footnote 12)
The Committee found the Warren Commission's investigation equally
flawed: "[T]he subject that should have received the Commission's
most probing analysis — whether Oswald acted in concert with or on
behalf of unidentified co-conspirators the Commission's
performance, in the view of the committee, was in fact flawed."
The Committee believed another primary cause of the Warren
Commission's failure to adequately probe and analyze whether or not
Oswald acted alone arose out of the lack of cooperation by the CIA.
Finally, the Committee found that the Warren Commission
inadequately investigated for a conspiracy because of: "[T]ime
pressures and the desire of national leaders to allay public fears
of a conspiracy."
The committee concluded that Oswald fired three shots at President
John F. Kennedy. The second and third shots he fired struck the
President. The third shot he fired killed him. The HSCA agreed with
the single bullet theory but concluded that it occurred at a time
during the assassination that differed from what the Warren
Commission had theorized. Their theory, based primarily on
Dictabelt evidence, was that President Kennedy was assassinated
probably as a result of a conspiracy. They proposed that four
shots had been fired during the assassination; Oswald fired the
first, second, and fourth bullets, and that (based on the acoustic
evidence) there was a high probability that an unnamed second
assassin fired the third bullet, but missed, from President
Kennedy's right front, from a location concealed behind the grassy
knoll picket fence.
Many years after the House Select Committee on Assassinations
issued its report, the attorney G. Robert Blakey for the House
Select Committee on Assassinations issued a statement to the news
media calling into question the honesty of the CIA in its dealings
with the Committee and the accuracy of the information given to
Response to the Dictabelt evidence
Blakey told ABC News that the conclusion
that a conspiracy existed in the assassination was established by
both witness testimony and acoustic evidence:
The shot from the grassy knoll is not only supported by
the acoustics, which is a tape that we found of a police motorcycle
broadcast back to the district station.
It is corroborated by eyewitness testimony in the
There were 20 people, at least, who heard a shot from
the grassy knoll.
The sole acoustic evidence relied on by the committee to support
its conclusion of a fourth gunshot (and a gunman on the grassy
knoll) in the JFK assassination, was a Dictabelt recording alleged
to be from a stuck transmitter on a police motorcycle in Dealey
Plaza during the assassination. The evidence was presented by Mark
R. Weiss and Ernest Aschkenasy, acoustical experts from Queens College, who were part of the 1974
panel that concluded that the 18½ minute gap in the Watergate tapes was because that section was
After the committee finished its work, however, an amateur
researcher listened to the recording and discovered faint crosstalk
of transmissions from another police radio channel known to have
been made a minute after the assassination. Further, the
Dallas motorcycle policeman thought to be the source of the sounds
followed the motorcade to the hospital at high speed, his siren
blaring, immediately after the shots were fired. Yet the recording
is of a mostly idling motorcycle, eventually determined to have
been at JFK's destination, the Dallas Trade Mart, miles from Dealey
years later, in 1981, a special panel of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) disputed the evidence of a fourth shot,
contained on the police Dictabelt. The panel concluded it
was simply random noise, perhaps static, recorded about a minute
after the shooting while Kennedy's motorcade was en route to
The NAS experts, headed by physicist Norman F. Ramsey of Harvard,
reached that conclusion after studying the sounds on the two radio
channels Dallas police were using that day. Routine transmissions
were made on Channel One and recorded on a Dictaphone machine at
police headquarters. An auxiliary frequency, Channel Two, was
dedicated to the president's motorcade and used primarily by Dallas
Police Chief Jesse Curry; its transmissions were recorded on a
separate Gray Audograph disc
The conclusion by the NAS was then rebutted in 2001 in a Science
and Justice article by D.B. Thomas, a government scientist and JFK
assassination researcher. Thomas concluded the HSCA finding of a
second shooter was correct and that the NAS panel's study was
flawed. Thomas surmises that the Dictaphone needle jumped and
created an overdub on Channel One. In response to Thomas's
findings, Michael O'Dell concluded in his report that the prior
reports relied on incorrect timelines and made unfounded
assumptions that, when corrected, do not support the identification
of gunshots on the recording.
In 2003, ABC News aired the results of their investigation of the
assassination in a news-documentary program called Peter Jennings Reporting: The Kennedy
Assassination — Beyond Conspiracy. Based on computer diagrams
and recreations done by Dale K.
Myers, ABC News concluded that the
sound recordings on the Dictabelt could not have come from Dealey
Plaza and that the Police Officer H.B.
McLain was correct in his assertions
that he had not yet entered Dealey Plaza at the time of the
In 2005, an article in Science
& Justice by Ralph Linsker, Richard Garwin, Herman Chernoff, Paul Horowitz, and Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.
re-analyzed the acoustic synchronization evidence, rebutting
Thomas' 2001 argument as well as correcting errors in the 1982 NAS
report, while supporting the NAS report's finding that the sounds
alleged to be gunshots occurred about a minute after the
assassination. Followup articles in Science & Justice
have been published.
Sealing of assassination records
the Warren Commission's records were submitted to the National Archives in 1964. The unpublished portion of those
records was initially sealed for 75 years (to 2039) under a
general National Archives policy that applied to all federal
investigations by the executive branch of government, a period
"intended to serve as protection for innocent persons who could
otherwise be damaged because of their relationship with
participants in the case.” The 75-year rule no longer exists,
supplanted by the Freedom of
Information Act of 1966 and the
JFK Records Act of 1992. By 1992, 98% of the Warren Commission
records had been released to the public. Six years later, at the
conclusion of the Assassination Records Review
Board's work, all Warren Commission records, except those
records that contained tax
return information, were available to the public with only
minor redactions. The
remaining Kennedy assassination related documents are scheduled to
be released to the public by 2017, twenty-five years after the
passage of the JFK Records Act. The Kennedy autopsy photographs and
X-rays were never part of the Warren Commission records and were
deeded separately to the National Archives by the Kennedy family in
1966 under restricted conditions.
Several pieces of evidence and documentation are described to have
been lost, cleaned, or missing from the original chain of evidence
(e.g., limousine cleaned out on November 24, Connally's clothing
cleaned and pressed, Oswald's military intelligence file destroyed
in 1973, Connally's Stetson hat and shirt sleeve gold cufflink
Jackie Kennedy's blood-splattered pink and navy Chanel suit that she wore on the day of the
assassination is in climate controlled storage in the National
Archives. Jackie wore the suit for the remainder of the day,
stating "I want them to see what they have done" when asked aboard
Air Force One to change into another outfit. Not included in the
National Archives are the white gloves and pink pillbox hat she was
Assassination Records Review Board
Records Review Board was not commissioned to make any findings
or conclusions. Its purpose was to release documents to the public
in order to allow the public to draw its own conclusions. From 1992
until 1998, the Assassination Records Review Board gathered and
unsealed about 60,000 documents, consisting of over 4 million
pages. All remaining documents are to be released by 2017.
Assassination conspiracy theories
A handbill circulated on November 21,
1963, in Dallas one day before the assassination of John F.
An official investigation by the House Select Committee on
Assassinations (HSCA), conducted from 1976 to 1979, concluded that
Oswald assassinated President Kennedy as a result of a probable
conspiracy. This conclusion of a likely conspiracy contrasts with
the earlier conclusion by the Warren Commission that the President
was assassinated by a lone gunman.
In the ensuing four decades since the assassination, theories have
been proposed or published that detail organized conspiracies to
kill the President. These theories implicate, among others,
Cuban President Fidel Castro,
the anti-Castro Cuban community, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, the Mafia,
the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI), the Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA), E. Howard Hunt, and the Eastern Bloc – or perhaps some combination of
Others claim that Oswald was not involved at all. Shortly after his
arrest, Oswald insisted he was a "patsy."
Oswald never admitted any participation in the assassination and
was murdered two days after being taken into police custody.
Some polls have indicated a large number of Americans are
suspicious of official government conclusions – primarily the
Warren Commission's findings – regarding the assassination. A 2003
ABC News poll found that 70% of respondents suspected there was an
assassination plot.These same polls also show that there is no
agreement on who else may have been involved.
The motorcade consisted of numerous cars, police motorcycles and
- The pilot car, a white Ford sedan: Dallas Police Deputy Chief
George L. Lumpkin, Dallas homicide detectives Billy L. Senkel and
F.M. Turner, and Lt. Col. George Whitmeyer, commander of the local
Army Intelligence reserve
- Three two-wheel Dallas police motorcycle officers under the
command of Sgt. S. Q. Bellah.
- Five two-wheel motorcycle officers.
- The lead car, an unmarked white Ford police sedan: Dallas
Police Chief Jesse Curry (driver),
Secret Service Agent Winston Lawson
(right front), Sheriff Bill Decker (left
rear), Agent Forrest Sorrels (right
- Two-wheel motorcycle officer Sgt. Stavis "Steve" Ellis.
presidential limousine, known to the Secret Service as SS-100-X
(with District of
Columbia license plate GG 300), a dark blue 1961 Lincoln Continental convertible: Agent
Bill Greer (driver), Agent Roy Kellerman (right front), Nellie Connally (left middle), Texas
Governor John Connally (right middle), First Lady Jacqueline
Kennedy (left rear), President Kennedy (right rear).
- Four Dallas Police motorcycle escorts, two on each side of the
presidential limousine, flanking the rear bumper: Billy Joe Martin
and Robert W. “Bobby” Hargis (left), and James M. Chaney and
Douglas L. Jackson (right).
- Halfback (a Secret Service code name), a black 1956 Cadillac
convertible: Agent Sam Kinney (driver),
Agent Emory Roberts (right front),
Agent Clint Hill (left front running
board), Agent Bill McIntyre (left rear
running board), Agent John D. Ready (right front running board),
Agent Paul Landis (right rear running
board), Presidential aide Kenneth
O'Donnell (left middle), Presidential aide David Powers (right middle), Agent George Hickey (left rear), Agent Glen Bennett (right rear).
- 1961 light blue Lincoln
four door convertible: Hurchel Jacks of the Texas Highway Patrol
(driver), Agent Rufus Youngblood
(right front), Senator Ralph
Yarborough (left rear), Lady Bird
Johnson (center rear), Vice-President Lyndon Johnson (right rear).
- Varsity (Secret Service code name), a white 1963 Mercury Monterey hardtop: Joe H. Rich
of the Texas Highway Patrol (driver), Vice Presidential aide
Cliff Carter (front middle), Secret
Service agents Jerry Kivett (right
front), Warren W. "Woody" Taylor (left rear), and Thomas L. "Len" Johns
- White 1964 Mercury Comet
convertible: Texas Highway Patrolman Milton T. Wright (driver),
Dallas mayor Earle Cabell and his wife
Elizabeth, and Congressman Ray
- National press pool car (on loan from the telephone company), a
blue-gray 1960 Chevrolet Bel Air
sedan: telephone company driver; assistant White House press
secretary Malcolm Kilduff (right
front); Merriman Smith,
UPI (middle front); Jack
Bell, AP; Robert Baskin, Dallas Morning News; Bob Clark, ABC News (rear).
- First camera car, a yellow or off-white 1964 Chevrolet Impala Convertible: a Texas
Ranger (driver); David Wiegman Jr., NBC; Thomas
Jr., CBS; Thomas "Ollie" Atkins, White House photographer; John Hofan, an NBC sound engineer;
Cleveland Ryan, a lighting technician.
- Second camera car, a blue-gray 1964 Chevrolet Impala
convertible: Frank Cancellare, UPI; Cecil Stoughton, White House
photographer; Henry Burroughs, AP; Art Rickerby, Life magazine; Donald C. “Clint” Grant,
Dallas Morning News.
- Dallas Police motorcycle escorts H.B. McLain and Marion L.
- Third camera car, a Chevrolet convertible: driver from the
Texas Department of
Public Safety; photographer Robert H. Jackson, The Dallas Times Herald;
photographer Tom Dillard, Dallas
Morning News; Jimmy Darnell, WBAP-TV, Fort Worth; Mal Couch,
WFAA-TV/ABC ; James R. Underwood, KRLD-TV.
- First car of Congressmen.
- Second car of Congressmen.
- Third car of Congressmen.
- VIP staff car carrying a governor's aide and the military and
Air Force aides to the president.
- Dallas Police motorcycle escorts J.W. Courson and C.A.
- First White House press bus: Mary Barelli Gallagher, Jacqueline
Kennedy's personal secretary; Pamela Turnure, Jacqueline Kennedy's
press secretary; Marie Fehmer Chiarodo, the Vice President's
secretary; Liz Carpenter, staff
director for Lady Bird Johnson; Jack
Valenti, in charge of press relations during President
Kennedy's visit to Texas; Robert
MacNeil, NBC News; and a few
- Local press car with four Dallas Morning News
- Second White House press bus.
- Dallas Police motorcycle escorts R. Smart and B.J. Dale.
- Chevrolet sedan: Evelyn Lincoln,
the President's personal secretary; Dr. George Burkley, the
President's personal physician.
- 1957 black Ford hardtop: Two representatives from Western Union.
- 1964 white Chevrolet Impala: White House Signal Corps officer Art
Bales; Army Warrant
Officer Ira Gearhart.
- 1964 white-top, dark-body Chevrolet Impala.
- Third White House press bus: staff and members of the Democratic Party.
- 1963 black and white Ford police car.
- Solo three-wheel Dallas Police motorcycle escort.
Reaction to the assassination
In America and around the world, there was a stunned reaction to
the assassination. Schools across the U.S. dismissed their students
early, and 54% of Americans stopped their normal activities on the
day. In the days following people wept, lost their appetite, had
difficulty sleeping, and suffered nausea, nervousness, and
The event left a lasting impression on many people. It is said that
everyone remembers where they were when they heard about the
Kennedy assassination, as with the Japanese
attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 before it, and the attacks waged on September 11, 2001
Not all recreational and sporting events scheduled for the day of
the assassination and during the weekend after were cancelled.
Those that went on shared the sentiment NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle expressed in deciding to play NFL
games that weekend: "It has been traditional...to perform in times
of great personal tragedy."
Artifacts, museums and locations today
serving as Air Force One is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air
Force in Dayton, Ohio where tours of the aircraft are
offered including the rear of the aircraft where Kennedy's casket
was placed and the location where Mrs. Kennedy stood in her blood
stained pink dress while Lyndon
B. Johnson was sworn in
as president. The 1961 Lincoln Continental limousine is at
the Henry Ford
Museum in Dearborn, Michigan.
from the trauma room at Parkland Memorial Hospital where
Kennedy was pronounced dead, including a gurney, was purchased by
the federal government from the hospital in 1973 and stored by the
National Archives an underground Archives facility in Lenexa,
Kansas. The first lady's pink suit along with the
autopsy report and X-rays are stored in National Archives facility
in College Park, Maryland and access is controlled by a
representative of the Kennedy family. The rifle used by
Oswald, his diary, bullet fragments, and the windshield of
Kennedy's limo are also stored at the Archives.The catafalque which Kennedy's coffin rested on while
he lain in state in the capitol is on display at the United
States Capitol Visitor Center.
acre park within Dealey
Plaza, the buildings facing it, the overpass, and a
portion of the adjacent railyard including the railroad switching
tower were designated part of the Dealey Plaza
Historic District by the National Park Service on October 12,
1993. Much of the area is accessible to visitors including
the park and grassy knoll. Though still an active city street, the
spot where the presidential limo was located at the time of the
shooting is approximately marked with an X on the street.
Book Depository now draws over 325,000 each year to the Sixth Floor
Museum at Dealey Plaza operated by the Dallas County Historical
Foundation. Visitors may see a recreation of the sniper’s
nest where the rifle were found on the sixth floor the
Some items were intentionally destroyed by the U.S. Government at
the direction of Robert F.
Kennedy such as the casket used
to transport Kennedy's body aboard Air Force One from Dallas to
Washington which was dropped by the Air Force into the sea in an
area which would be dangerous for looters to attempt to retrieve
it. Other items such as the hat worn by Jack Ruby the day he shot
Lee Harvey Oswald and the toe tag on Oswald's corpse are in the
hands of private collectors and have sold for tens of thousands at
- Gary Langer, Legacy of Suspicion, ABC News, November 16,
- Jarrett Murphy, 40 Years Later: Who Killed JFK?, CBS News,
November 21, 2003.
- National Academy of Sciences, Report of
the Committee on Ballistic Acoustics.
- Warren Commission Testimony of Nellie Connally,
vol. 4, p. 147.
- Warren Commission Testimony of John B.
Connally, vol. 4, pp. 131–132.
- Dealey Plaza Earwitnesses
- Although some close witnesses, dependent on their viewing
angle, recalled seeing the limousine slow down, nearly stop, or
completely stop, the Warren Commission, based on the Zapruder film,
found that the limousine had an average speed of 11.2 miles
per hour over the 186 ft of Elm Street immediately preceding
the fatal head shot. Warren Commission Report, chapter 2, p. 49
- Additional research from the Zapruder film determined the car's
speed to specifically slow from 14.4 mph to 8.3 mph. See
the "Limo Speed" notation, written on the upper right Main Street
area available on the Dealey Plaza map by Donald Roberdeau.
- Graph of Head-facing Directions, Head-facing Changes, &
Head-facing Changes in Speeds of the Kennedy's and Connally's at
the Start of the Attack by Donald Roberdeau.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Mrs. John Connally
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Jacqueline Kennedy
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 1: Summary and Conclusions, p.
- HSCA Report, p. 41–46.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Governor John Connally.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Dr. Shaw.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Bobby Hargis. Interview
of Abraham Zapruder, WFAA-TV, Dallas, Texas, November 22,
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of John B. Connally, vol. 4, p.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Mrs. John B. Connally, vol. 4, p.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Clinton J. Hill.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Jacqueline Kennedy.
- Zapruder film: frames 370, 375, 380, 390.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. II, p. 140, Testimony of Clinton J. Hill.
- James Tague: Warren Commission testimony,
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Clyde Haygood.
- See photos 4, 7, and 8, Up by the Triple Underpass 1.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 6, pp. 244–245, Testimony of S. M. Holland. Photographs of the Triple Underpass and rear fence
- See photo 1, Up by the Triple Underpass 1.
- Warren Commission Report, p. 74, Commission Exhibit 2118,
View From North Tower of Union Terminal Company,
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Lee E. Bowers, Jr.
- Dale K. Myers, Secrets of a Homicide: Badge Man –
The Testimony of Lee E. Bowers, Jr.
- Transcript of filmed interview of Lee Bowers, Jr., p.124, Roll
GH600, from Rush to Judgment, in the papers of Emile de
Antonio, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 3, p. 143, Testimony of Howard Brennan.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 3, p. 145, Testimony of Howard Brennan.
- History in Real Time: The JFK Assassination Dallas Police
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 17, p. 209, CE 494, Photograph of James Jarman, showing his position at
a fifth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 17, p. 202, CE 485, Photograph of Harold Norman, Bonnie Ray Williams,
and James Jarman, Jr. showing their positions on the fifth floor of
the Texas School Book Depository as the motorcade passed.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Bonnie Ray
Williams. Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of James Jarman,
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Harold
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Welcome Eugene Barnett.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Forrest V. Sorrels.
- Not included in the 51.9% are two earwitnesses who though the
shots came from the TSBD, but from a lower floor or at street
level, and who are thus included in the 8.7%. Included in the 31.7%
is a witness who thought the shots came from "the alcove near the
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. III, p. 230, Testimony of Roy Truly
- Tippit murder affidavit: text, cover. Kennedy murder affidavit: text, cover.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 20, p. 366, Kantor Exhibit No. 3 — Handwritten notes made by
Seth Kantor concerning events surrounding the
- Lee Oswald claiming innocence (film),
- Lee Oswald's Midnight Press Conference,
- John F. Kennedy Assassination Homepage :: Warren
Commission :: Report :: Page 645
- Tom Alyea, "Facts and Photos"
- HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. VI, p.
- Warren Commission Report Chapter 4 -
- The Assassin
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Purchase of Rifle by Oswald.
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Oswald's Palmprint on Rifle Barrel.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 4, Testimony of Lt. J. C. Day.
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Fibers on Rifle.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 21, p. 467, Shaneyfelt Exhibit
No. 24, Chart prepared by Lyndal L. Shaneyfelt establishing
identity of shirt worn by Oswald at the time of his
- Warren Commission Report Chapter 3 -
- History Matters Archive - MD 6 - White House Death
Certificate (Burkley - 11/23/63), pg
- Testimony Of Dr. Robert Nelson Mcclelland
- Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 110, Number 3,
January 2007, pp.380-393 (retrieved 20 October 2008)
- Kilduff was serving as the press secretary because the chief
press secretary, Pierre Salinger, was traveling to Japan with
Secretary of State Dean
Rusk and other Cabinet officers.
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 8: The Protection of the
President, Recommendations, pp. 454–455.
- Bugliosi, pp. 92f–93f.
- United States Constitution, Article II, Section 1,
- Warren Exhibit 387: Autopsy Protocol, President Kennedy
- Was Kennedy's Jacket Bunched When He Was Hit in the Back?
- The JFK Assassination Single Bullet Theory
- Final Report of the Assassination Records Review
- Final Report of the Assassination Records Review
Board, Chapter 6, Part II
- Assassination Archives & Research Center v. The LMH
- Rick Friedman, "Pictures of the Assassination Fall to Amateurs
on Street", Editor and Publisher, Nov. 30, 1963, p. 17. “A
World Listened and Watched”, Broadcasting, Dec. 2, 1963,
p. 37. Maurice W. Schonfeld, "The Shadow of a Gunman," Columbia
Journalism Review, July-August, 1975.
- A different person than the so-called "Babushka Lady."
- Warren Commission Report pp. 181
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of J.W. Fritz. Captain Fritz told the Warren
Commission that “I kept no notes at the time” of his several
interrogations of Oswald (4 H 209). However, many years later,
someone discovered a little over two and a half pages of Fritz’s
contemporaneous handwritten notes at the National Archives.
Fritz also said that “several days later” he wrote more extensive
notes of the interrogations (4 H 209).
- Warren Commission Report, Report of Capt. J.W. Fritz, Dallas Police
Department, p. 13.
- Warren Commission Report, Statements of Oswald During Detention.
- Warren Commission Report, Reports of Agents of the Federal Bureau of
- Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U.S.
House of Representatives, p. 244.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony Of Jesse Edward Curry.
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 3.
- 1968 Panel Review of Photographs, X-Ray Films, Documents
and Other Evidence Pertaining to the Fatal Wounding of President
John E Kennedy on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas.
- Rockefeller Commission Report.
- Were Watergate Conspirators Also JFK Assassins?
- Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U.S.
House of Representatives, Findings — CIA.
- Spartacus Educational, House Selection Committee on
- Mark R. Weiss and Ernest Aschkenasy, An Analysis of Recorded Sounds Relating to the
Assassination of President John F. Kennedy, 1979.
- D.B. Thomas, Echo correlation analysis and the acoustic evidence in the
Kennedy assassination revisited.
- George Lardner Jr., Study Backs Theory of 'Grassy Knoll'.
- Michael O'Dell, The acoustic evidence in the Kennedy
- Frank Warner, More Kennedy assassination facts in: Oswald acted
- Ralph Linsker, Richard L. Garwin, Herman Chernoff, Paul
Horowitz, Norman F. Ramsey. Synchronization of the acoustic
evidence in the assassination of President Kennedy. Science and Justice 45(4):207-26 (2005).
- Science & Justice 46(3):199 (2006); Correspondence by Thomas; Reply by Linsker et al..
- Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History, endnotes, p.
- National Archives Deputy Archivist Dr. Robert Bahmer, interview
in New York Herald Tribune, December 18, 1964, p.24
- Final Report of the Assassination Records Review
Board (1998), p.2.
- ARRB Final Report, p. 2. Redacted text includes
the names of living intelligence sources, intelligence gathering
methods still used today and not commonly known, and purely private
- Assassination Records Review Board, exhibit MD 112, Deed-of-Gift Letter from Burke Marshall (Kennedy
Family Attorney) to Lawson B. Knott, Jr. (Administrator of General
Services) dated October 29, 1966.
- HSCA Record 180-10075-10174, January 6, 1964, p.4, memo from
Secret Service chief James J. Rowley to Warren Commission general
counsel J. Lee Rankin. Before the interior of the limousine was
cleaned, it was photographed, and a metal detector was used to find
- Warren Commission Hearings, vo. 5, pp. 63-65, Testimony of Robert A. Frazier.
- HSCA Report, pp.222–224.
- Delia M. Rios, Newshouse News Service, November 22, 2003
In Mrs. Kennedy's Pink Suit, an indelible
memory of public grief.
- James Chace, "Betrayals and Obsession," NY Times,
October 25, 1987, on Joan Didion's book MIAMI
- Joan Didion, "MIAMI," New York, Simon & Schuster, 238pp.
- ABC News: JFK assassination public opinion overview
- Warren Commission Testimony of F.M. Turner, April 3,
1964. Detective Senkel's surname is misspelled as "Shekel" in
Turner's Warren Commission testimony.
- Statement of Winston G. Lawson, December 1,
1963. Warren Commission Testimony of Forrest V. Sorrels, May
- Interview of Stavis Ellis by Larry A. Sneed, No More
Silence: An Oral History of the Assassination of President
Kennedy, University of North Texas Press, 2002, p. 144.
- Warren Commission Testimony of B.J. Martin,
April 3, 1964. Warren Commission Testimony of Bobby W. Hargis, April
8, 1964. Gary Savage, JFK First Day Evidence, Shoppe
Press, 1993, p. 363. ISBN 0-963-81165-7.
- Statement of Emory P. Roberts, November 29,
1963. Statement of Samuel A. Kinney, November 30, 1963.
- [Statement of Hurchel Jacks], November 28, 1963. Statement of Rufus W. Youngblood, November 29,
- Statement of Joe Henry Rich, November 28, 1963.
Statement of Jerry D. Kivett, November 29,
1963. Statement of Thomas L. Johns, November 29, 1963.
Report of Clifton C. Carter, May 20, 1964.
- Statement of Milton T. Wright, November 28, 1963.
Warren Commission Testimony of Earle Cabell,
July 13, 1964.
- Warren Commission Testimony of Robert Hill
Jackson. Warren Commission Testimony of Tom C. Dillard, April
- Transcript, Marie Fehmer Chiarodo Oral History
Interview II, August 16, 1972, by Joe B. Frantz, Internet Copy,
Lyndon B. Johnson Library.
- BBC ON THIS DAY | 22 | 1963: 'Stunned into silence'
by JFK's death
- Historical Perspectives - Americans' reactions to
Kennedy assassination, September 11 terrorist attacks, charted -
Brief Article - Statistical Data Included | American Demographics |
Find Articles at BNET.com
- Mourning population: Some considerations of
historically comparable assassinations - Death Studies
- Where Were You When President Kennedy Was Shot?: Memories and
Tributes to a Slain President, Abigail Van Buren (Pauline
Phillips), Andrews Mcmeel Pub, December 1994, ISBN