General of the Armies John Joseph Pershing
(September 13, 1860 –
July 15, 1948) was a general officer
in the United States Army
Pershing is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to
the highest rank ever held in the United States Army—General of the Armies
Congressional edict passed in 1976 declared that George Washington
has never been nor will
ever be outranked). Pershing also holds the first United States
(O-1). Pershing led the American Expeditionary Force
World War I
and was regarded as a mentor
by the generation of American generals who led the United States
Army in Europe during World War II
including George C. Marshall
, Dwight D. Eisenhower
, Omar N. Bradley
and George S. Patton
John J. Pershing was born on a farm near Laclede,
father, John F. Pershing, was a businessman of German-American
ancestry who owned a general
store. When the Civil War
John F. Pershing worked as a sutler
18th Missouri Volunteer
, but he did not serve in the military.
John J. Pershing attended a school in Laclede that was reserved for
students of above-average intelligence who were also the children
of prominent citizens. Completing high school in 1878, he became a
teacher of local African-American
children. He thus gained an understanding of racial issues that
would be useful when he commanded African-American soldiers.
Pershing entered the North Missouri Normal School (now Truman State
University) in Kirksville, Missouri. Two years later, he applied to the United States
Pershing later admitted that serving in
military was secondary to attending West Point, and he had applied
because the education offered was better than in rural
West Point years
Cadet Pershing in 1886
Pershing was sworn in as a West Point cadet in the fall of 1882. He
was selected early for leadership and became successively First
Corporal, First Sergeant, First Lieutenant, and First Captain, the
highest possible cadet rank. Pershing commanded ex officio
the West Point Honor Guard that
escorted the funeral of President Ulysses S. Grant
Pershing graduated from West Point in the summer of 1886 and was
commended by the Superintendent of West Point, General Wesley Merritt
, for high leadership skills
and possessing "superb ability."
Pershing briefly considered petitioning the Army to let him study
law and delay his commission. He applied for a furlough from West
Point, but soon withdrew the request in favor of active Army duty.
He was commissioned a Second Lieutenant
United States Army
in 1886, at
age twenty-six, graduating 30th in a class of 77.
Pershing reported for active duty on September 30 1886, and was
assigned to Troop L of the 6th
U.S. Cavalry stationed at Fort
Bayard, in the New Mexico
While serving in the 6th Cavalry, Pershing
participated in several Indian
and was cited for bravery for actions against the
. During his time at Fort Stanton, Pershing and close friends Lt.
and Lt. Richard B. Paddock
were nicknamed "The Three Green
P's," spending their leisure time hunting and attending Hispanic
dances. Pershing's sister Grace married Paddock in 1890.
1887 and 1890, Pershing served with the 6th Cavalry at various
postings in California, Arizona, and
He also became an expert marksman and, in
1891, was rated second in pistol and fifth in rifle out of all
soldiers in the U.S. Army.
December 9 1890, Pershing and the 6th Cavalry arrived at Sioux City,
Iowa, where Pershing played a role in suppressing the
last uprisings of the Lakota Indians.
participated as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Wounded Knee Massacre
later, he was assigned as an instructor of military tactics at the
Pershing held this post until 1895. While
in Nebraska, Pershing attended law school and graduated in 1893.
Additionally, he formed a drill company, Company A, in 1891 that
won the Omaha Cup
. In 1893, Company A
became a fraternal organization and changed its name to the Varsity
Rifles. The group changed its name for the last time in 1894,
renaming itself the Pershing Rifles
in honor of its founder.
On October 1 1895, Pershing was promoted to first lieutenant
command of a troop of the 10th Cavalry Regiment
(one of the original Buffalo Soldier
regiments), composed of African-American soldiers under white
officers. From Fort Assinniboine in north central Montana, he
commanded an expedition to the south and southwest that rounded up
and deported a large number of Cree
Indians to Canada.
In 1897, Pershing became an instructor at West Point, where he
joined the tactical staff. While at West Point, cadets upset over
Pershing's harsh treatment and high standards took to calling him
Jack," in reference to his service
with the 10th Cavalry. This was softened (or sanitized) to the more
"Black Jack" by reporters covering
Pershing during World War I
Spanish and Philippine-American wars
Captain John J.
At the start of the Spanish-American War
, First Lieutenant
Pershing was offered a brevet
and commissioned a major of volunteers on August 26 1898.
with the 10th Cavalry (Buffalo
Soldiers) on Kettle and San
Juan Hill in Cuba and was
cited for gallantry.
(In 1919, he was awarded the Silver Citation Star
for these actions, and in
1932 the award was upgraded to the Silver
1899, after suffering from malaria, Pershing
was put in charge of the Office of Customs and Insular Affairs
which oversaw occupation forces in territories gained in the
Spanish-American War, including Cuba, Puerto
Rico, the Philippines, and Guam.
began, Pershing was ordered to Manila.
reported on August 17 1899 as a Brevet Major of Volunteers and was
assigned to the Department of Mindanao and Jolo and
commanded efforts to suppress the Philippine insurrection.
On November 27, 1900, Pershing was appointed Adjutant General of
his department and served in this posting until March 1, 1901. He
was cited for bravery for actions on the Cagayan River
while attempting to destroy a
Philippine stronghold at Macajambo
In 1901, Pershing's brevet commission was revoked, and he reassumed
his rank as captain in the Regular
. He served with the 1st Cavalry Regiment
the Philippines. He later was assigned to the 15th Cavalry Regiment
serving as an intelligence officer and participating in actions
against the Moros
. He was cited for
bravery at Lake
In June 1901, he served as Commander of
Camp Vicars in Lanao, Philippines, after the previous camp
commander had been promoted to brigadier general
Rise to General
In June 1903, Pershing was ordered to return to the United States.
President Theodore Roosevelt
taken by Pershing's ability, petitioned the Army General Staff to
promote Pershing to colonel
. At the time,
Army officer promotions were based primarily on seniority, rather
than merit, and although there was widespread acknowledgment that
Pershing should serve as a colonel, the Army General Staff declined
to change their seniority-based promotion tradition just to
accommodate Pershing. They would not consider a promotion to
or even major
This angered Roosevelt, but since the President could only name and
promote army officers in the General ranks, his options for
recognizing Pershing through promotion were limited.
Pershing was assigned as the Assistant Chief of Staff of the
Southwest Army Division stationed at Oklahoma
City, Oklahoma. In October 1904, he attended the Army War
College and then was ordered to Washington, D.C. for "general duties unassigned."
Theodore Roosevelt could not yet promote Pershing, he petitioned
the United States Congress to
authorize a diplomatic posting, and Pershing was stationed as
military attaché in Tokyo in
Also in 1905, Pershing married Helen Frances Warren,
the daughter of powerful U.S. Senator Francis
E. Warren, a
Wyoming Republican and chairman of
Military Appropriations Committee. Critics alleged
that this union greatly helped his military career.
After serving as an observer
in the Russo-Japanese War
, Pershing returned to the United
States in the fall of 1905. In a move that shocked the army
establishment, President Roosevelt employed his presidential
prerogative and nominated Pershing as a brigadier general
, a move
which Congress approved. In skipping three ranks and more than 835
officers senior to him, the promotion outraged ranking Army
officers who would state, for the rest of their careers, that
Pershing's appointment was the result of political connections and
not military abilities. However, many other officers supported
Pershing and believed that, based on his demonstrated ability to
command combat forces, the promotion to general, while unusual, was
not out of line.
Pershing briefly served as a U.S. military observer in the Balkans, an assignment which was based out of
Upon returning to the United States at the
end of 1909, Pershing was assigned once again to the Philippines,
an assignment which he served until 1912. While in the Philippines,
he served as Commander of Fort McKinley, near Manila, and also was
the governor of the Moro Province. The last of Pershing's four
children was born in the Philippines, and during this time he
became an Episcopalian
Pancho Villa, personal tragedy and the Mexican Revolution
January 1914, Pershing was assigned to command the Army 8th Cavalry Regiment in
Texas, responsible for security along the U.S.-Mexico border. In March 1916, under
the command of General Frederick
Funston, Pershing led the 8th Regiment on the failed 1916–17
Punitive Expedition into
Mexico in search of
the revolutionary leader Pancho
Pershing with his wife Helen and three
of their children.
He had met him in 1913 when he invited him to
Fort Bliss. During this time, George
served as one of
After a year at Fort Bliss, Pershing decided to take his family
there. The arrangements were almost complete, when
on the morning of August 27, 1915, he received a telegram telling
him of a tragic fire in the Presidio of San Francisco, where a lacquered floor blaze had rapidly spread,
resulting in the smoke inhalation deaths of his wife, Helen, and
three young daughters.
Only his six-year-old son Warren was
saved. Many who knew Pershing said he never recovered from their
deaths. After the funerals at Lakeview Cemetery in
Wyoming, Pershing returned to Fort Bliss with his son,
Warren, and his sister Mae, and resumed his duties as commanding
World War I
At the start of the United States' involvement in World War I
President Woodrow Wilson
considered mobilizing an army
to join the fight. Frederick
, Pershing's superior in Mexico, was being considered
for the top billet as the Commander of the American Expeditionary
Force (AEF) when he died suddenly from a heart attack on February
19, 1917. Following America's entrance into the war, Wilson, after
a short interview, named Pershing to command, a post which he
retained until 1918. Pershing, who was a major general
, was promoted to
full general (the first since Philip
in 1888) in the National Army
, and was made responsible
for the organization, training, and supply of a combined
professional and draft Army and National Guard force that
eventually grew from 27,000 inexperienced men to two Armies (a
third was forming as the war ended) totalling over two million
Pershing exercised significant control over his command, with a
full delegation of authority from Wilson and Secretary of War Newton D. Baker
. Baker, cognizant of the endless
problems of domestic and allied political involvement in military
decision making in wartime, gave Pershing unmatched authority to
run his command as he saw fit. In turn, Pershing exercised his
prerogative carefully, not engaging in issues that might distract
or diminish his command. While earlier a champion of the
African-American soldier, he did not champion their full
participation on the battlefield, understanding widespread racial
attitudes among white Americans generally, plus Wilson's
reactionary views on race and the political debts he owed to
southern Democratic law makers.
George C. Marshall
served as one of Pershing's top
assistants during and after the war. Pershing's initial chief of
staff was businessman James Harbord
who later took a combat command but worked as Pershing's closest
assistant for many years and remained extremely loyal to Pershing.
departing from Fort
Jay at Governors Island in New York Harbor under top secrecy in May 1917,
Pershing arrived in France in June 1917.
Pershing at General Headquarters in
Chaumont, France, October 1918.
In a show of
American presence, part of the 16th Infantry Regiment marched
through Paris shortly after his arrival. Pausing at Gilbert du Motier,
marquis de La Fayette
's tomb, he was reputed to have uttered
the famous line "Lafayette, we are here." The morale-boosting line
was in fact spoken by his aide, Colonel Charles E. Stanton
. American forces were deployed in
France in the autumn of 1917.
World War I: 1918 and full American participation
In early 1918, entire divisions were beginning to serve on the
front lines alongside French troops. Pershing insisted
that the AEF fight as units under American command rather than
being split up by battalions to augment British and French regiments
and brigades (although the U.S.
27th and 30th divisions,
loaned during the desperate days of spring 1918, fought with the
British/Australian/Canadian Fourth Army until the end of the war,
taking part in the breach of the Hindenburg Line
In October 1918, Pershing saw the need for a dedicated military
police corps and the first US Army MP School was established at
Autun, France. For this, he is considered the "founding father" of
Because of the effects of trench warfare on soldiers' feet, in
January, 1918, Pershing oversaw the creation of an improved
, the "1918 Trench Boot,"
which became known as the "Pershing
" upon its introduction.
American forces first saw serious action during the summer of 1918,
contributing eight large divisions, alongside 24 French ones, at
the Second Battle of the
. Along with the Fourth Army's victory at Amiens
, the Franco-American victory
at the Second Battle of the Marne marked the turning point of the
war on the Western
In August 1918 the U.S.
had been formed,
first under Pershing's direct command and then by Hunter Liggett
, when the U.S. Second Army
under Robert Bullard
was created. After a quick victory
at Saint-Mihiel, east of
Verdun, some of the more bullish AEF commanders had hoped to push
on eastwards to Metz, but this
did not fit in with the plans of the Allied Supreme Commander,
Marshal Foch, for three simultaneous
offensives into the "bulge" of the Western Front (the other two
being the Fourth Army's breach of the Hindenburg Line and an
Anglo-Belgian offensive, led by Plumer's Second Army, in
Instead, the AEF was required to redeploy and,
aided by French tanks, launched a major offensive northwards in
very difficult terrain at Meuse-Argonne
. Initially enjoying
numerical odds of eight to one, this offensive eventually engaged
35 or 40 of the 190 or so German divisions on the Western Front,
although to put this in perspective, around half the German
divisions were engaged on the British Expeditionary
(BEF) sector at the time.
When he arrived in Europe, Pershing had openly scorned the slow
of the previous three
years on the Western Front, believing that American soldiers' skill
with the rifle would enable them to avoid costly and senseless
fighting over a small area of no man's
. This was regarded as unrealistic by British and French
generals, and (privately) by a number of American generals such as
Army Chief of Staff Tasker H.
and his own Hunter Liggett.
The AEF had done well in the relatively open warfare of the Second
Battle of the Marne, but the eventual U.S. casualty rates against
German defensive positions in the Argonne (120,000 U.S. casualties
in six weeks, against 35 or 40 German divisions) were not
noticeably better than those of the Franco-British offensive on the
two years earlier (600,000
casualties in four and a half months, versus 50 or so German
divisions). More ground was gained, but then the German Army was in
worse shape than in previous years.
Some writers have speculated that Pershing's frustration at the
slow progress through the Argonne was the cause of two incidents
which then ensued. First, he ordered the U.S. First Army to take
"the honor" of recapturing Sedan, site of
defeat in 1870; the
ensuing confusion (an order was issued that "boundaries were not to
be considered binding") exposed U.S. troops to danger not only from
the French on their left, but even from one another, as the 1st
Division tacked westward by night across the path of the 42nd
(accounts differ as to whether Douglas MacArthur was really
mistaken for a German officer and arrested).
had been away from headquarters the previous day, had to sort out
the mess and implement the instructions from Supreme Commander
Marshal Foch, allowing the French to recapture the city; he later
recorded that this was the only time during the war in which he
lost his temper.
Second, Pershing sent an unsolicited letter to the Allied Supreme
War Council, demanding that the Germans not be given an armistice
and that instead, the Allies should push on and obtain an
unconditional surrender. Although in later years, many, including
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
, felt that Pershing had had
a point, at the time, this was a breach of political authority.
Pershing narrowly escaped a serious reprimand from Wilson's aide,
, and later
time of the Armistice, another
U.S.-French offensive was due to start on November 14, thrusting
towards Metz and into Lorraine,
to take place simultaneously with further BEF advances through
memoirs, Pershing claimed that the U.S. breakout from the Argonne
at the start of November was the decisive event leading to the
of an armistice, because it made untenable the Antwerp-Meuse
line. This is probably an exaggeration; the
outbreak of civil unrest and naval mutiny in Germany, the collapse
of Bulgaria, Turkey, and
following Allied victories in Salonika, Syria, and Italy, and the Allied victories on the
Western Front were among a series of events in the autumn of 1918
which made it clear that Allied victory was inevitable, and
diplomatic inquiries about an armistice had been going on
President Wilson was keen to tie matters
up before the mid-term elections, and the other Allies did not have
the strength to defeat Germany without U.S. help, so had little
choice but to follow Wilson's lead.
American successes were largely credited to Pershing, and he became
the most celebrated American leader of the war. Critics, however,
claimed that Pershing commanded from far behind the lines and was
critical of commanders who personally led troops into battle.
saw Pershing as
a desk soldier, and the relationship between the two men
deteriorated by the end of the war. Similar criticism of senior
commanders by the younger generation of officers (the future
generals of World War II
) was made in
the British and other armies, but in fairness to Pershing, although
it was not uncommon for brigade commanders to serve near the front
and even be killed, the state of communications in World War I made
it more practical for senior generals to command from the rear. He
controversially ordered his troops to continue fighting after the
armistice was signed. This resulted in 3,500 U.S. casualties on the
last day of the war, an act which was regarded as murder by several
officers under his command.
Pershing as Army Chief of Staff
In 1919, in recognition of his distinguished service during World
War I, the U.S.
the President to promote Pershing to General of the Armies
of the United States
, the highest rank possible for any member
of the United States armed forces, which was created especially for
him and one that only he held at the time (General George Washington
promoted to a higher grade of this rank by President Gerald Ford
in 1976). Pershing was authorized to
create his insignia for the new rank and chose to wear four gold
stars for the rest of his career, which separated him from the four
(temporary) silver stars worn by Army Chiefs of Staff, and even the
five star General of
insignia worn by Marshall, MacArthur, Bradley,
Eisenhower, and H. 'Hap' Arnold
in World War II (Pershing
outranked them all).
There was a movement to make Pershing President of the United
in 1920, but he refused to actively campaign. In a
newspaper article, he said that he "wouldn't decline to serve" if
the people wanted him, and this made front page headlines. Though
Pershing was a Republican, many of his party's leaders considered
him too closely tied to the policies of the Democratic Party's
Wilson. The Republican nomination went to Senator Warren G. Harding
of Ohio, who won
the 1920 presidential
In 1921, Pershing became Chief of Staff of the
United States Army
, serving for three years. He created the
, a proposed national
network of military and civilian highways. The Interstate Highway System
instituted in 1956 bears considerable resemblance to the Pershing
map. In 1924, then 64 years old, Pershing retired from active
military service, yet continued to be listed on the active duty
rolls as part of his commission as General of the Armies.
November 1, 1921, Pershing was in Kansas City to take part in the groundbreaking ceremony for the
Memorial that was being constructed there.
present that day were Lieutenant General Baron Jacques of Belgium,
Admiral David Beatty
of Great Britain, Marshal Ferdinand
of France and General Armando
of Italy. One of the main speakers was Vice President
. In 1935,
bas-reliefs of Pershing, Jacques, Foch and Diaz by sculptor
were added to the
On October 2, 1922, amidst several hundred officers, many of them
combat veterans of World War I, Pershing formally established the
(ROA) as an organization at the Willard Hotel in
Washington, D.C. ROA is a 75,000-member, professional association
of officers, former officers, and spouses of all the uniformed
services of the United States, primarily the Reserve and United
States National Guard. It is a congressionally chartered
Association that advises the Congress and the President on issues
of national security on behalf of all members of the Reserve
During the 1930s, Pershing maintained a private life but was made
famous by his memoirs, My Experiences in the World
, which were awarded the 1932 Pulitzer Prize
for history. He was
also an active Civitan
Pershing was an outspoken advocate of aid for the United
Kingdom during World War
In 1944, with the creation of the new five star rank
General of the Army
was acknowledged as the highest ranking officer of the United
States military. When asked if this made Pershing a six star
General, Secretary of
War Henry L. Stimson
commented that it did not, since
Pershing never wore more than four stars but that Pershing was
still to be considered senior to the present five star generals of
World War II.
In July 1944, Pershing was visited by Free
leader General Charles de
. When Pershing, by then semi-senile, asked after the
health of his old friend, Marshal Philippe Pétain
(who was heading the
pro-German Vichy regime), de Gaulle replied tactfully that when he
last saw him, the Marshal was well.
15, 1948, Pershing died of coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure at the
Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C.
(his home after 1944).
buried in Arlington National Cemetery, near the grave sites of the soldiers he commanded
in Europe, after a state
It was during his initial assignment in the American West that his
mother died. On March 16, 1906, Pershing's father died.
Colonel Francis Warren Pershing (1909-1980), John J. Pershing's
son, served in the Second World War
as an advisor to the Army Chief of Staff, General George C. Marshall
. After the War he continued with
his financial career and founded a stock brokerage firm (Pershing
& Company). He was father to two sons, Richard W. Pershing
(1942-1968) and John Warren Pershing III (1941-1999). Richard
Pershing served as a 2nd Lieutenant (O1) in the 502nd Infantry
and was killed in action on
February 17, 1968, in Vietnam
Pershing III served as a special assistant to former Army Chief of
Staff General Gordon R. Sullivan
, also attaining the rank of
(O6). He helped shape Army and Army
nationwide. Col. Pershing died of cardiovascular disease in
Pershing Memorial Museum and Leadership Archives
Since 1930, the Pershing Park Memorial Association (PPMA),
headquartered in Pershing's hometown of Laclede, Missouri, has been
dedicated to preserving the memory of General Pershing's
extraordinary military history. The history of the Association, and
the Pershing Boyhood Home Complex in Laclede can been viewed at
Summary of service
Dates of rank
|No Insignia in 1886
Lieutenant, United States
Army: August 1886
United States Army: October 1895
||Brevet major of
Volunteers, U.S. Army: August 1898
||Captain, U.S. Army
(reverted to permanent rank): June 1901
General, United States Army: September 1906
United States Army: May 1916
||General, National Army, Army of the United
States: October 1917
||General of the Armies of the
United States, Army of the United States: September 3,
As there was no prescribed insignia for this rank, General Pershing
chose the four stars of a full general, except in gold. The rank
has been argued to be equivalent to "6-star" general. According to
the biography Until the Last Trumpet Sounds by Gene Smith,
Pershing never wore the rank on his uniform.
General Pershing lands in France in
- 1882: Cadet, United States Military Academy
- 1886: Troop L, Sixth Cavalry
- 1891: Professor of Tactics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
- 1895: Commanding Officer, 10th Cavalry Regiment
- 1897: Instructor, United States Military Academy, West
- 1898: Major of Volunteer Forces, Cuban Campaign,
- 1899: Officer-in-Charge, Office of Customs and Insular
- 1900: Adjutant General, Department of Mindanao and Jolo,
- 1901: Battalion Officer, 1st Cavalry and Intelligence Officer,
15th Cavalry (Philippines)
- 1902: Officer-in-Charge, Camp Vicars, Philippines
- 1904: Assistant Chief of Staff, Southwest Army Division,
- 1905: Military attaché, U.S. Embassy, Tokyo, Japan
- 1908: Military Advisor to American Embassy, France
- 1909: Commander of Fort McKinley, Manila, and governor of Moro
- 1914: Brigade Commander, 8th Army Brigade
- 1916: Commanding General, Mexican Punitive Expedition
- 1917: Commanding General for the formation of the National Army
- 1918: Commanding General, American Expeditionary Forces,
- 1921: Chief of Staff of the United States Army
- 1924: Retired from active military service
Chief Commissioner assigned by the United States in the arbitration case for the provinces of
Tacna and Arica between
Peru and Chile.
Awards and decorations
Pershing's ribbons as worn during
World War I
United States decorations
In 1932, seven years after Pershing's retirement from active
service, his silver citation star was upgraded to the Silver Star Medal
and he became eligible for the
. In 1941, he was
retroactively awarded the Army of Occupation of
for service in Germany following the close of
World War I.
General Pershing's ribbons as they
would appear today
(Does not include all foreign awards)
Signature of John Pershing as General
of the Armies
- The National Society of Pershing
Rifles, founded by General Pershing, continues on today as
America's premier undergraduate military fraternal
- The Military Order
of the World Wars was also founded by General Pershing.
- The M26 Pershing main battle tank
was an American heavy tank introduced in 1945 that is widely
considered the best US tank of World War
- Pershing Square in New York City is on 42nd Street at Park Avenue in
front of Grand
Square in Downtown Los Angeles is named in honor of the General.
- Pershing Park in Washington, D.C. features the Pershing Memorial.
- 39th Street in Chicago was renamed after General Pershing as
Pershing Road. The six story warehouse complex housing the War
Department's General Depot of the Quartermaster Corps in Chicago
had been located at 1819 W. 39th St.
- General Pershing Street in the Uptown section of New Orleans is
named in honor of the General, running parallel to Napoleon Avenue
from Tchoupitoulas at the Mississippi River to its terminus at
Octavia Street in Fontainbleau.
- Pershing Avenue in Orlando,
Florida a main artery on the city's southeast side, close
to the airport.
- Pershing State Park, located between the north-central Missouri
communities of Laclede and Meadville, is named in his honor.
Great Pershing Balloon
Derby at Brookfield, Missouri is named in his honor and is held over the Labor Day weekend each year.
- The John J. Pershing Military and Naval Science Building
on the campus of the University of
University, he is the namesake of the Pershing Society,
Pershing Hall, Pershing Arena and the Pershing
is a Pershing Hall named in his honor at his alma mater, the
States Military Academy at West Point, New York.
- In honor of Pershing's service to his country, the Pershing tank and Pershing missile were later named after
- Nicknamed 'The Leader of All'.
- The 2nd Brigade of the 1st Cavalry Division is
nicknamed "Black Jack."
County, in the state of Nevada, is named
in his honor.
Burlington and Quincy Railroad named a diesel engined streamliner train after him in 1939 known as the
- Various streets, civic center, schools and towns are today
named in honor of John J. Pershing; including Pershing Ave. in
Saint Louis, MO, Pershing Middle School in
Houston, Texas, Pershing Elementary School in Berwyn, IL, Pershing
Elementary School in West Milwaukee, WI, Pershing High School in
Detroit, Michigan, and Pershing Drive in North Omaha and Florence, Nebraska. Pershing Avenue in
Saint Louis was previously known as Berlin Avenue, but was
fittingly changed in light of the public's displeasure with German
activities at the time.; J.H.S. 220 in Brooklyn, New
York is named in honor of John J. Pershing.
- Pershing Ave. named after him in Fort Riley, KS and Phoenix,
- General Pershing Boulevard in Oklahoma City, on the Oklahoma
State Fairgrounds, is named after him. It was formerly part of Main
Street and turns into such after a mile past the Fairgrounds.
- A riderless horse was named in
honor of Pershing, "Black Jack."
This horse was used for many years in funerals for Heads-of State,
- Plaza Pershing was established in Zamboanga City, Philippines
to honor him with his victory over Muslim insurgents.
- Pershing Arena on the Campus of Truman State University in
Kirksville, MO (his former college) is named in honor of John J.
- Pershing Road serves as the northern border to The Liberty
Memorial (Official National World War I Memorial) in Kansas City,
Boulevard Pershing is on the Western edge
of Paris, France and
runs past the Palais des Congrès near the Porte Maillot.
the major streets in the area (the XVIe arrondissement) are named after notable French military figures,
including Avenue Foch, named after Marshall Foch, and at either end
of Boulevard Pershing, streets named after the Marshals of France Gouvion Saint-Cyr and
Koenig. It reflects the
immense popularity of the American troops who first arrived in the
French capital in 1916.
Pershing Center, a 4526-seat
multi-purpose arena located in downtown Lincoln, NE, is named in honor of Pershing.
- Pershing Hall  on the campus of Montana
State University - Northern located in Havre, Montana, is named in his honor.
- John Joseph Pershing was also a Freemason. He was a member of
Lincoln Lodge No.19, Lincoln, Nebraska.
- The Pershing Building in Kansas City, Missouri is located on
- General Pershing is also honored by B Troop (Black Jack Troop)
5/15 Cavalry Regiment at Fort Knox KY. The home of Armor and
Cavalry where brand new 19D Cavalry Scouts are trained. A parade
field in front of the B Troop barracks is called "Pershing Field"
in honor of the late General, and a placard of his works lies in
- Pershing Blvd. in Cheyenne, Wyoming is a main road which
connects F.E Warren AFB with the rest of the city.
- Donald Smythe, Guerrilla Warrior: The Early Life of John
J. Pershing (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1973)
- Donald Smythe, Pershing: General of the Armies
(Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1986) ISBN
- Frank E. Vandiver, Black Jack: The Life and Times of John
J. Pershing - Volume I (Texas A&M University
Press, Third printing, 1977) ISBN 0-89096-024-0
- Frank E. Vandiver, Black Jack: The Life and Times of John
J. Pershing - Volume II (Texas A&M University
Press, Third printing, 1977) ISBN 0-89096-024-0
- Richard Goldhurst, Pipe Clay and Drill: John J.
Pershing, the classic American soldier, (Reader's Digest
- Gene Smith, Until the Last Trumpet Sounds: The Life of
General of the Armies John J. Pershing (Wiley, New
York, 1998) ISBN 978-0471246930
- Frank E. Vandiver, Black Jack: The Life and Times of John
J. Pershing - Volume I (Texas A&M University Press, Third
printing, 1977) ISBN 0-89096-024-0 , 67.
- Bak, Richard, Editor. "The Rough Riders" by Theodore Roosevelt.
Page 172. Taylor Publishing, 1997.
- 8th Cavalry Regiment - Early History
- e.g., David Trask (1993)
- Frank E. Vandiver, Black Jack: The Life and Times of John
J. Pershing - Volume I (Texas A&M University Press, Third
printing, 1977) ISBN 0-89096-024-0 and Black Jack: The Life and
Times of John J. Pershing - Volume II (Texas A&M
University Press, Third printing, 1977) ISBN 0-89096-024-0
- Hamill, John et al.. Freemasonry: A Celebration of the Craft.
JG Press 1998. ISBN 1572152672