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General John Lambert (Autumn 1619 - March 1684) served as an Englishmarker Parliamentary general in the English Civil War.

Early life

Lambert, born at Calton Hall, Kirkby Malhammarker, near Skiptonmarker in the West Riding of Yorkshire, of a long-established family, studied law at the Inns of Court in Londonmarker. In 1639 he married Frances Lister, daughter of Sir William Lister.

Military career

In September 1642, Lambert was appointed a captain of horse in the Parliamentary army of the English Civil War, commanded by Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax. Within a year, he was colonel of a cavalry regiment, and distinguished himself at the siege of Hullmarker in October, 1643. Early in 1644 he did good service at the battles of Nantwichmarker and Bradfordmarker. At Marston Moormarker (2 July 1644) Lambert's own regiment was routed by the charge of Goring's horse; but he cut his way through with a few troops and joined Oliver Cromwell on the other side of the field.

When the New Model Army formed in the beginning of 1645, Colonel Lambert was appointed to succeed Sir Thomas Fairfax in command of the northern forces, with the title of commissary-general. Fairfax was soon replaced by Sydnam Poyntz, and under this officer Lambert served in the Yorkshire campaign of 1645, receiving a wound before Pontefractmarker. In 1646 he was given a regiment in the New Model, serving with Sir Thomas in the west of England, and he was a commissioner, with Cromwell and others, for the surrender of Oxfordmarker in the same year. "It is evident", says Charles Harding Firth (in the Dictionary of National Biography), "that he was from the first regarded as an officer of exceptional capacity and specially selected for semi-political employments".

When the quarrel between the Army and Parliament began, Lambert supported the Army's cause. He assisted Henry Ireton in drawing up the addresses and remonstrances issued by the Army, both men having had some experience in law. Early in August 1647 Lambert was sent by Fairfax as Major-General to take charge of the forces in the northern counties. His management of affairs in those parts is praised by Whitelocke. He suppressed a mutiny among his troops, kept strict discipline and hunted down the moss-troopers who infested the moorland country.

At the start of the Second English Civil War Lambert now a young general of twenty-nine, was more than equal to the situation. He had already left the sieges of Pontefract Castlemarker and Scarborough Castlemarker to Colonel Edward Rossiter, and hurried into Cumberlandmarker to deal with the English Royalists under Sir Marmaduke Langdale. With his cavalry he got into touch with the enemy about Carlislemarker and slowly fell back, fighting small rearguard actions to annoy the enemy and gain time, to Bowesmarker and Barnard Castlemarker. Langdale did not follow him into the mountains, but occupied himself in gathering recruits and supplies of material and food for the Scots. Lambert, reinforced from the midlands, reappeared early in June and drove him back to Carlisle with his work half finished. About the same time the local horse of Durhammarker and Northumberlandmarker were put into the field by Sir Arthur Hesilrige, governor of Newcastlemarker, and under the command of Colonel Robert Lilburne won a considerable success (June 30) at the River Coquetmarker.

This reverse, coupled with the existence of Langdale's force on the Cumberland side, practically compelled Hamilton to choose the west coast route for his advance, and his army began slowly to move down the long couloir between the mountains and the sea. The campaign which followed is one of the most brilliant in English history. When the Scottishmarker army under the James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton invaded England in the summer of 1648, Lambert was obliged to retreat; but Lambert continued to harass the invaders till Cromwell came up from Walesmarker and the Scottish army was destroyed in the three days' fighting at the Battle of Prestonmarker fought largely at Walton-le-Dalemarker near Prestonmarker in Lancashiremarker. After the battle Lambert's cavalry headed the chase, pursuing the defeated army, and finally surrounded it at Uttoxetermarker, where Hamilton surrendered to Lambert on August 25, 1648. Lambert then led the advance of Cromwell's army into Scotland, where he was left in charge on Cromwell's return. From December 1648 to March 1649 he was engaged in the successful siege of Pontefract Castlemarker; Lambert was thus absent from London at the time of Pride's Purge and the trial and execution of King Charles I.

When Cromwell was appointed to the command of the war in Scotland (July 1650), Lambert went with him as major-general and second in command. He was wounded at Musselburghmarker, but returned to the front in time to take a conspicuous share in the victory of Dunbarmarker. He himself repulsed a surprise attack by the Covenanters at the battle of Hieton, Hamiltonmarker on 1 December 1650. In July 1651 he was sent into Fifemarker to get in the rear and flank of the Scottish army near Falkirkmarker, and force them to decisive action by cutting off their supplies. This mission, in the course of which Lambert won an important victory at Inverkeithingmarker, was so successful that Charles II, as Lambert had foreseen, made for England. Lambert's part in the general plan of the resulting Worcester campaign was carried out brilliantly, and in the crowning victory of Worcestermarker he commanded the right wing of the English army, and had his horse shot under him. Parliament granted him lands in Scotland worth £1000 per annum.

Political career

In October 1651 Lambert was made a commissioner to settle the affairs of Scotland, and on the death of Ireton he was appointed lord deputy of Irelandmarker (January 1652). He made extensive preparations; parliament, however, reconstituted the Irish administration and Lambert refused to accept office on the new terms. He then began to oppose the Rump Parliament. In the Council of Officers he headed the party desiring representative government, as opposed to Harrison who favoured an oligarchy of "God-fearing" men, but both hated the Rump of the Long Parliament, and joined in urging Cromwell to dissolve it by force.

At the same time Lambert was consulted by the parliamentary leaders as to the possibility of dismissing Cromwell from his command, and on 15 March, 1653 Cromwell refused to see him, speaking of him contemptuously as "bottomless Lambert". On 20 April, 1653, however, Lambert accompanied Cromwell when he dismissed the Council of State, on the same day as the forcible expulsion of the parliament.

Lambert now favoured the formation of a small executive council, to be followed by an elective parliament whose powers should be limited by a written instrument of government. As the ruling spirit in the Council of State, and the idol of the army, he was seen as a possible rival of Cromwell for the chief executive power, while the royalists for a short time had hopes of his support. He was invited, with Cromwell, Harrison and John Desborough, to sit in the nominated "Barebones Parliament" of 1653; and when the unpopularity of that assembly increased, Cromwell drew nearer to Lambert. In November 1653 Lambert presided over a meeting of officers, when the question of constitutional settlement was discussed, and a proposal made for the forcible expulsion of the nominated parliament. On 12 December, 1653, the parliament resigned its powers into Cromwell's hands, and on December 13 Lambert obtained the consent of the officers to the Instrument of Government, in the framing of which he had taken a lead. He was one of the seven officers nominated to seats in the council created by the Instrument.

In the foreign policy of the Protectorate Lambert called for alliance with Spainmarker and war with Francemarker in 1653, and he firmly withstood Cromwell's design for an expedition to the West Indiesmarker. In the debates in parliament on the Instrument of Government in 1654 Lambert proposed that the office of Lord Protector should be made hereditary, but was defeated by a majority which included members of Cromwell's family. In the parliament of this year, and again in 1656, Lord Lambert, as he was now styled, sat as member for the West Riding. He was one of the major-generals appointed in August 1655 to command the militia in the ten districts into which it was proposed to divide England, and who were to be responsible for the maintenance of order and the administration of the law in their several districts.

Lambert took a prominent part in the Committee of Council which drew up instructions to the administrative major-generals. He was the organiser of the system of police which these officers were to control. Samuel Gardiner conjectures that it was through divergence of opinion between the protector and Lambert in connection with these "instructions" that the estrangement between the two men began. At all events, although Lambert had himself at an earlier date requested Cromwell to take the royal dignity, when the proposal to declare Oliver king was started in parliament (February 1657) he at once opposed it.

A hundred officers headed by Charles Fleetwood and Lambert waited on the protector, and begged him to put a stop to the proceedings. Lambert was not convinced by Cromwell's arguments, and their complete estrangement, personal as well as political, followed. On his refusal to take the oath of allegiance to the protector, Lambert was deprived of his commissions, receiving instead a pension of £2000 a year. He retired from public life to Wimbledonmarker; but shortly before his own death Cromwell sought a reconciliation, and Lambert and his wife visited Cromwell at Whitehallmarker.

When Richard Cromwell was proclaimed protector (3 September 1658), his chief difficulty lay with the army, over which he exercised no effective control. Lambert, though holding no military commission, was the most popular of the old Cromwellian generals with the rank and file of the army, and it was very generally believed that he would install himself in Oliver Cromwell's seat of power. Richard Cromwell's adherents tried to conciliate him, and the royalist leaders made overtures to him, even proposing that Charles II should marry Lambert's daughter. Lambert at first gave a lukewarm support to Richard Cromwell, and took no part in the intrigues of the officers at Fleetwood's residence, Wallingford House. He was a member of the Third Protectorate Parliament which met in January 1659, and when it was dissolved in April under compulsion of Fleetwood and Desborough, he was restored to his commands. He headed the deputation to Lenthall in May 1659 inviting the return of the Rump Parliament, which led to the tame retirement of Richard Cromwell; and he was appointed a member of the Committee of Safety and of the Council of State.

When the parliament, in an attempt to control the power of the army, withheld from Fleetwood the right of nominating officers, Lambert was named one of a council of seven charged with this duty. The parliament's evident distrust of the soldiers caused much discontent in the army; while the absence of authority encouraged the royalists to make overt attempts to restore Charles II, the most serious of which, under Sir George Booth and the earl of Derby, was crushed by Lambert near Chestermarker on 19 August 1659. He promoted a petition from his army that Fleetwood might be made lord-general and himself major-general. The republican party in the House took offence. The Commons (12 October 1659) cashiered Lambert and other officers, and retained Fleetwood as chief of a military council under the authority of the speaker. On the next day Lambert caused the doors of the House to be shut and the members kept out. On 26 October a new Committee of Safety was appointed, of which he was a member. He was also appointed major-general of all the forces in England and Scotland, Fleetwood being general.

Lambert was now sent with a large force to meet George Monck, who was in command of the English forces in Scotland, and either negotiate with him or force him to terms. Monck, however, marched southward. Lambert's army began to melt away, and he was kept in suspense by Monck till his whole army deserted and he returned to London almost alone. Monck marched to London unopposed. The excluded Presbyterian members were recalled. Lambert was sent to the Towermarker (3 March 1660), from which he escaped a month later. He tried to rekindle the civil war in favour of the Commonwealth by issuing a proclamation calling on all supporters of the "Good Old Cause" to rally on the battlefield of Edgehill. But he was recaptured on 22 April at Daventry by Colonel Richard Ingoldsby, a regicide who hoped to win a pardon by handing Lambert over to the new regime . He was kept imprisoned in the Tower of London and then transferred to Castle Cornetmarker on the island Guernseymarker.

On the Restoration Lambert was exempted from prosecution by an address of both Houses of the Convention Parliament to the king, but the Cavalier Parliament in 1662 charged him with high treason. In April 1662 General Lambert was, with Sir Henry Vane, brought to England and tried in June 1662. On 25 July a warrant was issued to Lord Hatton, the governor of Guernsey, to take into his custody "the person of John Lambert, commonly called Colonel Lambert, and keep him a close prisoner as a condemned traitor until further orders." On 18 November following, directions were given from the king to Lord Hatton to "give such liberty and indulgence to Colonel John Lambert within the precincts of the island as will consist with the security of his person".

Later life

In 1667 Lambert was transferred to Drake's Islandmarker in Plymouth Soundmarker, at the entrance to the Hamoazemarker, and he died there during the severe winter of 1683-84. The site of his grave is now lost but he was laid to rest at St Andrews Church in Plymouthmarker on 28 March 1684.


He was the author of the Instrument of Government , the first written constitution in the world codifying sovereign powers. The Instrument of Government was replaced in May 1657 by England's second, last, and extinct codified constitution, the Humble Petition and Advice.

It has been said that Lambert's nature had more in common with the royalist than with the puritan spirit. Vain and ambitious, he believed that Cromwell could not stand without him; and when Cromwell was dead, he imagined himself entitled to succeed him. As a soldier he was far more than a fighting general and possessed many of the qualities of a great general. He was an able writer and speaker, and an accomplished negotiator and took pleasure in quiet and domestic pursuits. He learnt his love of gardening from Lord Fairfax, who was also his master in the art of war. He painted flowers, besides cultivating them, and was accused by Mrs Hutchinson of "dressing his flowers in his garden and working at the needle with his wife and his maids". On his death bed, some Catholic detractors claim that he renounced Protestantism, however the Cromwell association has disproved this myth.


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