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Sir John Richardson (November 5, 1787June 5, 1865) was a Scottishmarker naval surgeon, naturalist and arctic explorer.

Richardson was born at Dumfriesmarker. He studied medicine at Edinburgh University , and became a surgeon in the navy in 1807. He traveled with John Franklin in search of the Northwest Passage on the Coppermine Expedition of 1819–1822. Richardson wrote the sections on geology, botany and icthyology for the official account of the expedition.

Franklin and Richardson returned to Canadamarker between 1825 and 1827, again traveling overland to the Arctic Oceanmarker. The natural history discoveries of this expedition were so great that they had to be recorded in two separate works, the Flora Boreali-Americana (1833-40), written by William Jackson Hooker, and the Fauna Boreali-Americana (1829-37), written by Richardson, William John Swainson, John Edward Gray and William Kirby.

At the British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in 1842, Richardson described the diving apparatus and treatment of diver Roderick Cameron following an injury that occurred on the 14th of October 1841 during the salvage operations on the HMS Royal George.

Richardson was knighted in 1846. He traveled with John Rae on an unsuccessful search for Franklin in 1848-49, describing it in An Arctic Searching Expedition (1851). He retired to the Lake Districtmarker in 1855, and is buried at St Oswald's Church Grasmeremarker.

He also wrote accounts dealing with the natural history, and especially the ichthyology, of several other Arctic voyages, and was the author of Icones Piscium (1843), Catalogue of Apodal Fish in the British Museum (1856), the second edition of Yarrell's history of British Fishes (1860), The Polar Regions (1861). and Arctic Ordeal: The Journal of John Richardson Edited by C. Stuart Houston (1984).

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