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Col. John Stevens, III (1749 - March 6 1838) was an American lawyer, engineer and an inventor.

Life and career

[[File:StevensEstate.jpg|thumb|right|1808 engraving of John Stevens estate, Castle Point, Hoboken (now the site of Stevens Institute of Technologymarker).]]Stevens was born in New York, New Yorkmarker, the son of John Stevens (1715-1792), a prominent New Jerseymarker politician who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress, and Elizabeth Alexander, daughter of New York lawyer and statesman James Alexander. His sister, Mary Stevens (d. 1814), married Robert R. Livingston, the first Chancellor of the State of New York.

He graduated King's College (which became Columbia University) in May 1768.

At age 27 he was appointed a Captain in Washington's army, and was afterwards treasurer of New Jerseymarker, and bought at public auction from the state of New Jersey land which had been confiscated from a Tory landowner. The land, described as "William Bayard's farm at Hoebuck" comprised approximately what is now the city of Hobokenmarker. Stevens built his estate at Castle Point, on land that would later become the site of Stevens Institute of Technologymarker (bequeathed by his son Edwin Augustus Stevens).

In 1802 he built a screw-driven steamboat, and in 1806 he built the Phoenix, a steamboat that ultimately sailed from Hoboken to Philadelphiamarker in 1809, thereby becoming the first steamship to successfully navigate the open ocean.

On October 11, 1811, Stevens' ship the Juliana, began operation as the first steam-powered ferry (service was between New York, New Yorkmarker, and Hoboken, New Jerseymarker). The first railroad charter in the U.S. was given to Stevens and others in 1815 for the New Jersey Railroad. He designed and built a steam locomotive capable of hauling several passenger cars at his estate in Hoboken, New Jerseymarker in 1825.The invention of the steam engine helped begin the modern railroads and trains. He helped develop United States patent law.

Family

On October 17, 1782, he married Rachel Cox, a descendant of the Langeveldts (Longfields) who originally settled New Brunswick, New Jerseymarker.

They had eleven children:



References

  1. "Hoboken, Castle Point", Historic Houses of New Jersey (1902).
  2. The Cox Family in America (1912), pp. 223-7.


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