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John VI, born Don John Mary Joseph Francis Javier of Paula Louis Anthony Dominic Raphael of Braganza (in Portuguese:Dom João Maria José Francisco Xavier de Paula Luís António Domingos Rafael de Bragança ;13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826) (Portuguese João ), the Clement (Port. o Clemente), King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (later changed to just King of Portugal and the Algarves, after Brazil was recognized independent in 1825) was born in Lisbonmarker in 1767. John was the 27th (or 28th according to some historians) Portuguese monarch.

Early life and regency

John was the second son of Maria Francisca of Portugal, the then Princess of Brazil and her husband (and uncle), Infante Pedro, her prince consort. His mother ascended the throne of Portugal in 1777. John's elder brother Joseph died in 1788, so John became the heir apparent and received the title of prince of Brazilmarker.

In 1799 John assumed the reins of government as prince regent in the name of his widowed mother, who had declined into mental illness (perhaps due to porphyria). He retained this position until his mother's death in 1816. John had been brought up in an ecclesiastical atmosphere and, being naturally of a somewhat weak and helpless character, was ill adapted for the responsibilities he was called on to undertake. His wife, Charlotte of Spain, dominated him. In 1807, Portugal was invaded by France. At the urging of Britain, the whole Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil, accompanied by an escort of British ships. His court in exile was established in Rio de Janeiro.

King of Portugal

In 1816 John was recognized as king of Portugal after his mother's death but he continued to reside in Brazil, which he had raised to the status of a kingdom on 16 December 1815. The consequent spread of dissatisfaction in Portugal resulted in the peaceful Revolution of 24 August 1820, and the proclamation of a constitutional government, to which John swore fidelity on his return to Portugal in 1821. In the same year, and again in 1823, he had to suppress a rebellion led by his younger son Miguel, whom he was ultimately compelled to banish in 1824.

Meanwhile his elder son and heir, Pedro, declared Brazilian independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822, and subsequently declared himself Emperor Pedro I. John refused to recognize Brazilian independence until 29 August 1825, when he restored Pedro to the succession in the belief that Brazil and Portugal would be reunited in a dual monarchy federation after his own death. John died at Lisbon on 26 March 1826, and was briefly succeeded by Pedro (as King Pedro IV). Recent tests made to John's intestines, which had been kept buried in a vase, demonstrated that he may have died due to arsenic poisoning. His nemesis, Napoleon, may have also suffered a similar fate.

A fictionalized version of much of his life is depicted in the Brazilian movie Carlota Joaquina - Princesa do Brasil.

Marriages and descendants

John married Charlotte of Spain (25 April 1775-7 December 1830 in 1785 and had several children:

Name Birth Death Notes
Maria Teresa, Princess of Beira 29 April 1793 17 January 1874 Married first her cousin Pedro Carlos de Borbón y Bragança, Infante of Spain and Portugal and second to Carlos, Infante of Spain, widower of her sister Maria Francisca.
Francisco António Pio, Prince of Beira 21 March 1795 11 June 1801
Infanta Maria Isabel 19 May 1797 26 December 1818 Married Ferdinand VII, King of Spain.
Pedro IV of Portugal, I of Brazil 12 October 1798 24 September 1834 Stayed in Brazil after Napolean Wars in Spain. Proclaimed the Independence of Brazil in 1822 and became its first monarch as Emperor Peter I. He was also King of Portugal as Peter IV in 1826.
Infanta Maria Francisca 22 April 1800 4 September 1834 Married Carlos, Infante of Spain (his first marriage).
Infanta Isabel Maria 1801 1876
Michael I 26 October 1802 14 November 1866 Known by the Liberals as the Usurper, he was King of Portugal between 1828 and 1834. He was forced to abdicate after the Liberal Wars.
Infanta Maria da Assunção 1805 1834
Infanta Ana de Jesus Maria, Duchess of Loulé 1806 1857 Married Nuno José Severo de Mendoça Rolim de Moura Barreto, Marquis and then Duke of Loulé and had issue.


Ancestors

John's ancestors in three generations
John VI of Portugal Father:
Peter III of Portugal
Father's father:
John V of Portugal
Father's father's father:
Peter II of Portugal
Father's father's mother:
Maria Sophia of Neuburg
Father's mother:
Mary Anne of Austria
Father's mother's father:
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Father's mother's mother:
Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg
Mother:
Maria I of Portugal
Mother's father:
Joseph I of Portugal
Mother's father's father:
John V of Portugal
Mother's father's mother:
Mary Anne of Austria
Mother's mother:
Infanta Mariana Victoria of Spain
Mother's mother's father:
Philip V of Spain
Mother's mother's mother:
Elisabeth of Parma


See also



References




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