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Johor (Jawi script: جوهر ; also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ta'zim, or "Abode of Dignity"), also known as Johore by the British, is a Malaysianmarker state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysiamarker. It is one of the most well developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city and royal city of Johor is Johor Bahrumarker, formerly known as Tanjung Puteri (Malay for Princess' Cliff). The old state capital is Johor Lama.

Johor is surrounded by Pahangmarker to the north, Malaccamarker and Negeri Sembilanmarker to the northwest, and the Straits of Johormarker to the south which separates Johor and the Republic of Singaporemarker.

Etymology

The name "Johor" originated from the Arabic word Jauhar, 'gem/precious stone' . However the word johor is also the name of a tree shrub. Malays tend to name a place after natural objects in great abundance or having visual dominance (eg Melaka is named after a type of tree). Before the name Johor was adopted, the area south of the Muar Rivermarker to Singaporemarker island was known as Ujong Tanah or 'land's end' in Malay, due to its location at the end of the Malay Peninsula. Coincidentally, Johor is the most southern point of the Asian continental mainland.

History

The history of Modern Johor was began in the early 16th century with the foundation of the Sultanate of Johor by the Alauddin Riayat Shah II, the son of Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malaccamarker who fled from the invading Portuguese in Malacca.His former name, however, was Raja Ali. Johor sultanate is one of the two successor states of the Melaka empire. Upon Malacca's defeat to the Portuguese in 1511, Alauddin Riayat Shah II had established a monarchy in Johor which posed a constant threat to the Portuguese. The Sultanate of Perakmarker was the other successor state of Malacca and was established by Mahmud Shah's other son, Muzaffar Shah I. Johor is the only state, apart from Melaka, that has grown into an empire. During its peak, the whole of Pahangmarker and the present day Indonesian territories of the Riaumarker archipelago and part of Sumatramarker Island was under Johor's rule.

Modern Johor's establishment was characterised by a series of succession struggles interspersed with strategic alliances struck with regional clans and foreign powers to maintain its political and economic hold in the Straits. In competition with the Acehnesemarker of northern Sumatramarker and the port-kingdom of Malacca under Portuguese rule, Johor engaged in prolonged warfare with their rivals, often striking alliances with friendly Malay states and with the Dutch. In 1641, Johor in cooperation with the Dutchmarker succeeded in capturing Malacca. By 1660, Johor had become a flourishing entrepôt, although weakening and splintering of the empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century reduced its sovereignty.

In the 18th century, the Bugis of Sulawesimarker and the Minangkabau of Sumatra controlled the political powers in the Johor-Riau Empire. However, in the early 19th century, Malay and Bugis rivalry commanded the scene. In 1819, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided up into the mainland Johor, controlled by the Temenggong, and the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga, controlled by the Bugis. This is when the history of modern Johor began. In 1855, under the terms of a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor, control of the State was formally ceded to Dato' Temenggong Daing Ibrahim, with the exception of the Kesang area (Muarmarker), which was finally handed over in 1877. Temenggong Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri (later to become Johor's present-day capital) in south Johor as a major town.
Flag of Johor.
The colour blue represents the State Government, the colour red for warriors defending the state, the white crescent and 5-sided star represent the monarchy and Islam.
Temenggong Ibrahim was succeeded by his son, Dato' Temenggong Abu Bakar, who later took the title Seri Maharaja Johor. In 1886, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor. Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor (1864-1895) was the one who implemented the state constitution and developed a British-style administration system and constructed the Istana Besar, the official residence of the Sultan. For his achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title "Father of Modern Johor".

The increased demand for black pepper and gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, creating Johor's initial economic base. The Kangchu system was put in place with the first settlement of Kangkar Tebrau established in 1844. The decline of the Kangchu economy at the end of the 19th century coincided with the opening of the railway line connecting Johor Bahrumarker and the Federated Malay Statesmarker in 1909 and the emergence of rubber plantations throughout the state. Under the British Resident system, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar's successor, was forced to accept a British adviser in 1904. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British adviser to Johor. From the 1910s to the 1940s, Johor emerged as Malaya's top rubber producing state, a position it has held until recently. Johor was also until recently the largest oil palm producer in Malaysia.

During World War II, Johor Bahrumarker became the last city on the Malay peninsula to fall to the Japanese. General Yamashita Tomoyuki had his headquarters on top of Bukit Serene and coordinated the downfall of Singaporemarker.

Johor gave birth to the Malay opposition which derailed the Malayan Unionmarker plan. Malays under Dato' Onn Jaafar's leadership formed the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) in Johor on 11 May 1946. (UMNO is currently the main component party of Malaysia's ruling Barisan Nasional coalition.) In 1948, Johor joined the Federation of Malayamarker, which gained Independence in 1957.

State Anthem

The Johor state anthem is called "Lagu Bangsa Johor".

Allah peliharakan Sultan

'Nugerahkan dia

Segala kehormatan

Sihat dan ria

Kekal dan makmur

Luaskan kuasa

Naungkan kami

Rakyat dipimpini

Berzaman lagi

Dengan merdeka bersatu hati

Allah berkati Johor

Allah selamatkan Sultan.



Geography

Johor is the 5th largest state by land area and 3rd most populated state in Malaysia, with a total land area and estimated population of 19,984 km2 and 3,300,000 respectively.

In the official census of 2000, the population of Johor was 2.75 million with 54% Malays, 35% Chinese, 7% Indians and 4% others. It is the southernmost state in Peninsular Malaysiamarker, and is located between the 1°20"N and 2°35"N latitudes. The highest point in Johor is Gunung Ledangmarker (1276 m). Gunung Ledang is also known as Mount Ophir. Johor also has a 400 km coastline on both the East and the West coasts.

Johor has 8 large islands with numerous smaller ones, namely Pulau Aurmarker, Pulau Besar, Pulau Dayang, Pulau Lima, Pulau Pemanggilmarker, Pulau Rawa, Pulau Sibumarker, Pulau Tengah and Pulau Tinggimarker.

Climate

Johor has a wet equatorial climate with monsoon rain from November until February blowing from the South China Seamarker. The average annual rainfall is 1778 mm with average temperatures ranging between 25.5 °C (78 °F) and 27.8 °C (82 °F). Humidity is between 82 and 86%.

On 19 December 2006, a continuous heavy downpour occurred in Johor, which led to the 2006-2007 Malaysian floods. Many towns such as Muarmarker, Kota Tinggimarker and Segamatmarker were seriously flooded with water levels as high as above ground level recorded in some areas. 15 lives were lost and many possessions destroyed, and this resulted in huge financial losses in Johor. More than 100,000 victims were evacuated to flood relief centres.

Links to Singapore

Malaysia's new Customs Complex (Sultan Iskandar Complex) at Johor Bahru
The water pipeline at the causeway which provides much of Singapore's water supply.
Johor is linked to Singapore via two road connections: the Johor-Singapore Causewaymarker and the Malaysia-Singapore Second Linkmarker. The Causeway also carries a railway line, which is now part of the main rail route linking Singapore with Thailand via Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Butterworth.

The Johor-Singapore Causewaymarker (length: 1038 m) was designed by Messrs Coode, Fizmaurice, Wilson and Mitchell of Westminstermarker, while the construction contract was awarded to Topham, Jones & Railton Ltd of Londonmarker. It started in 1909 as a railway link by Johor State Railway to connect Johor Bahru to Singapore, then the administrative headquarters of British interests in South-East Asia. Construction of the road section started in 1919 and was completed in 1923.

The causeway has been a source of contention ever since Singapore seceded from Malaysia in 1965. Stagnating water caused by the Causeway has raised health concerns in Johor. Malaysia proposed to replace the causeway with a bridge, allowing water, tide movement and ship movement from Pasir Gudang, the older port in Johor to the new port in Gelang Patah through the Straits of Johor. Singapore rejected this proposal, after which Malaysia came up with the idea of what became known as "the crooked half-bridge", 25m above water level, and descending halfway to link up with the low-level causeway. The railway was to have a swing bridge. The scheme was part of the Gerbang Selatan Bersepadu project. It had been previously announced that the bridge project would go ahead, even without the agreement of the Singaporean government. The bridge would become a straight bridge if the Singaporean government accepted the project. Construction work on the bridge stopped, however, on the orders of the former Prime Minister, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, who cited the unwillingness of Malaysia to sell sand and allow the use of Malaysian airspace by Singapore as a return for Singaporean consent to the bridge's construction.

Animosity between previous leaders of both countries has abated with the rise of new leaders, Abdullah Badawi as Malaysian Prime Minister replacing Mahathir Mohamad and Lee Hsien Loong in Singapore replacing Goh Chok Tong. It has renewed talks and improved relations between countries.

Some analysts have concluded that replacing the causeway with a bridge would allow a creation of a comprehensive port system linking Johor Port and Tanjung Pelepas Port in Johor; some go on to suggest that this presents a threat to Singapore's port activity, thus explaining the initial reluctance of Singapore to agree to the causeway's replacement.

The second road connection, the Malaysia-Singapore Second Linkmarker, was completed in October 1997; the link consists of a 1920 m twin-deck bridge supporting a dual-three lane carriageway linking Kampong Ladang in Tanjung Kupang, Johor, to Jalan Ahmad Ibrahim in Tuas, Singapore.

Government and politics

Monarchy

Sultan's Palace in Johor Bahru


Johor is a constitutional monarchy. Johor was the first state in Malaysia to adopt the constitutional monarchy system via Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor (Johor State Establishment Constitution) written by Sultan Abu Bakar. The constitutional head of Johor is the Sultan. This hereditary position can only be held by a member of the Johor Royal Family, who is descended from Sultan Abu Bakar. The State's Sultan since 1981 has been Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj.

Johor was the first state and currently the only state in Malaysia that has its own military force called Johor Military Force or 'Timbalan Setia Negeri'. It is a private army of the Sultan of Johor located at Johor Bahru City.

State government

See also: Breakdown of State Seats Representatives, elected in 2008


The state government is headed by the Chief Minister or Menteri Besar. The current Chief Minister is Dato' Abdul Ghani Othman, a former civil servant. The Chief Minister is assisted by 10 members executive council (exco), whose members are selected from the state assembly members.

The legislative branch of Johor's government is the Johor State Assembly. The state assembly makes laws in matters regarding the state. Members of the Assembly are elected by citizens every five years by universal suffrage.

Districts

The State of Johor is divided into the districts of:

  • Johor Bahru 1817.8 km², population 1,370,738 (2005)
    • Majlis Bandaraya Johor Bahru (Abbreviation as MBJB or City Hall of Johor Bahru. It is includes area of Johor Bahru Downtown, Tampoi, Pelangi, Pasir Pelangi, Rinting, Tasek Utara, Pandan, Permas Jaya, Kangkar Tebrau, Kempas, Larkin, Majidee, Mount Austin, Kawasan Tebrau) (website: http://www.mbjb.gov.my)


    • Majlis Perbandaran Johor Bahru Tengah (MPJBT It is includes area of Masai, Plentong, Ulu Tiram, Gelang Patah, Skudai, Pulai, Nusajaya, Lima Kedai (http://www.johordt.gov.my/mpjbt/bm/utama/kaw_pentd.htm)


    • Majlis Perbandaran Pasir Gudang (MPPG is includes area of Pasir Gudang Industrial Estate, Taman Kota Masai, Taman Pasir Putih, Air Biru, Taman Tanjung Langsat, Taman Scientex, Taman Nusa Damai, Kampung Kong Kong, Kampung Sg. Tiram)(http://www.mppg.gov.my/)




  • Pontian 919.5 km², population: 160,722 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Pontian


  • Kota Tinggimarker 3488.7 km², population: 212,558 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Kota Tinggi


  • Kluangmarker 2851.8 km², population: 295,373 (2005)
    • Majlis Perbandaran Kluang (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kluang Utara)


    • Majlis Daerah Simpang Renggam (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kluang Selatan)


  • Segamatmarker 2851.26 km², population: 198,142 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Segamat (Majlis Daerah Segamat Utara) (Covered area of Jementah, Buloh Kasap, Batu Enam and Gemas Baharu)


    • Majlis Daerah Labis (previously known as Majlis Daerah Segamat Selatan) (Covered area of Tenang Station, Chaah, Bekok and Pekan Air Panas)


  • Muarmarker 2346.12 km², population: 373,587 (2005)
    • Majlis Perbandaran Muar (previously known as Majlis Daerah Muar Selatan) (Covered area of Bukit Pasir, Bukit Bakri, Parit Jawa, others)


  • Ledang 970.24 km², population: 58,501 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Tangkak (previously known as Majlis Daerah Muar Utara)(Covered area of Bukit Gambir, Sagil, Serom, Kesang, others)


  • Batu Pahat 1878 km², population: 382,175 (2005)
    • Majlis Perbandaran Batu Pahat (previously known as Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Barat)(The capital of the district is Batu Pahat marker,also known as Bandar Penggaram)


    • Majlis Daerah Yong Peng (previously known as Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Timur)


  • Mersingmarker 2838.6 km², population: 73,920 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Mersing
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Economy

Iskandar Malaysia

The Iskandar, Johor (also known as Iskandar Development Region and South Johor Economic Region), encompassing Johor Bahrumarker,Johor Bahru Tengah, Kulaijaya, Pasir Gudang and Nusajayamarker is a major development zone in Johor. It is named after the present sultan, Iskandar Al-haj. At 2215 km², it is two-and-a-half times bigger than Singapore and 48 times the size of Putrajayamarker. It is intended to draw investment and business to Johor and will be among the biggest development projects in Malaysia. As part of the project, the state administrative capital will be moved to Nusajayamarker.

Education



Johor has several institutions of higher learning. It has three universities, namely Universiti Teknologi Malaysia situated in Skudai, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat ( UTHM), Universiti Teknologi MARA Johor ( UiTM) in Segamatmarker and several polytechnics. Johor also has a teaching college called Maktab Perguruan Temenggung Ibrahim. It has one non-profit community college called Southern College situated in Skudai. Southern College was established in 1990 owing to the generous support from the communities. It is the first non-profit community college in the country wholly funded by public donation and is open to Malaysian students of all races.

Johor Education Foundation (Yayasan Pelajaran Johor) also establish tertiary education oppurtunity in Johor state. It offers studies from various field such as engineering, business, economics & hospitality for all Malaysian as well as qualified students from anywhere around the world.

At the primary level, Muslim Johorean students are required to attend Islamic religious school in addition to national school. Many Malay Johoreans have competent skills in Jawi script, the official script in Johor since 1885, which is still used in Islamic religious and Malay cultural matters.

Transportation hubs

Ports

Johor has three ports, the Pasir Gudang Port, the Port of Tanjung Pelepas and the Tanjung Langsat Port.

Airports

Johor has one international airport (30 km away from JB city centre), The Sultan Ismail International Airport in Senai (01’38’26’ N, 103’40’13’ E). It was opened on 6 June 1974 and has been expanded several times since. Currently, it has a 5-million passenger capacity, with a parallel taxiway under construction.

The airport is a regional hub of AirAsia, a regional low-cost no-frills airline. Malaysia Airlines also operate flights from Senai airport to some local and international destinations.

Tourism

Major tourist attractions

Among the popular tourist destinations in Johor are:
  • Tebrau - Arulmigu Sri RajaKaliamman Glass Temple- The Worlds first Hindu Glass Temple
  • Desaru - beaches & golf courses along the South China Sea
  • Johor Bahrumarker - shopping, night market, colonial/royal district
  • Endau Rompin National Park - pristine jungle
  • Kota Tinggimarker 34 meter waterfall.
  • Kukupmarker - a fishing village with seafood restaurants built over water
  • Muarmarker - picturesque riverside town
  • Seribuat Archipelago - islands with beautiful beaches, coral reefs
  • Tanjung Piaimarker - the southernmost tip of mainland Asia
  • Danga Bay - The new waterfront city
  • Pekan Air Panas - hot springs, waterfall, local fruits available
  • Bandar Nusajayamarker - new administration of Johor Government
  • Pulau Dayang - major diving attraction, snorkeling, fishing
  • Gunung Ledangmarker - legendary mountain/highest peak in South of Peninsula Malaysia, famous of mountain hiking
  • Ayer Panas Waterfall - Malaysian "Jiu Zai Kou" with crystal clear water from the peak of Gunung Ledang
  • Tangkakmarker - hometown of famous "Tangkak Beef Noodle", shopping paradise for fabric, served best handmade noodle in the world
  • Pulau Kukus - This island is close to Pulau Sibu Tengah and popular for snorkeling activity


National parks and forest reserves

Johor is also noted for its national parks. Johor currently has five national parks, with a combined area of more than 700 km² and several smaller recreational forest. Almost all recreational parks are based around a mountain. Johor also has the third largest mangrove forest reserve in Peninsular Malaysia (167 km²).

Mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Dijulang

Culture

The culture of Johor is influenced by visitors and traders throughout history. A major influence was the Bugis - who first set foot in Malaysia in Johor before continuing on to Melakamarker, Linggi, Selangormarker, Pahangmarker and Terengganumarker - Javanesemarker and the Arabs. They had a powerful impact on the politics of Johor, Pahang, Terengganu and Selangor. The strong Arab influence is apparent in art performances like Zapin and Hamdolok, musical instruments like gambus. Other visible legacies in Johor Bahrumarker are the Arabic names of places such as Wadi Hana and Wadi Hassan in areas populated by the Arab community from Hadhramaut in the southeast of Yemenmarker. Wadi means valley in Arabic.

Language

The Johorean' s Malay, also known as Johor-Riau Malay and originally spoken in Johor, Riaumarker, Malaccamarker and Singaporemarker, has been adopted as the basis for both the Malaysianmarker and Indonesianmarker national languages, Malay and Indonesian, respectively. Due to Johor's location at the confluence of trade routes within and without the Malay Archipelago, as well as the former economic might and influence of Malacca and Johor, the dialect spread as the region's lingua franca since the 15th century; hence the adoption of the dialect as the basis for the national languages.

Clothing

  • Cekak Musang and Teluk Belanga are types of collar design for the male garment 'baju melayu'. It is said that Teluk Belanga was designed by Sultan Abu Bakar in 1866 to commemorate the shift of Johor's capital from Teluk Belanga to Johor Bahru. The Teluk Belanga design is a simple hemmed round collar with a stiff stitching called 'tulang belut' or 'eel's spine', with a loop at the end to fit a 'kancing'. This collar design creates an exposed neck in contrast to the neck-covering Cekak Musang design that is a raised stiff collar of about 1-2 cm with an opening down to the chest. The collar ends have matching holes to fit buttons.
  • Kurung Johor
  • Kurung Riau
  • Belah kebaya panjang


Songs

Tanjung Puteri is the song most commonly associated with Johor.
Tanjung Puteri

Tambak Johor Tanjung Puteri

Selat Tebrau airnya biru

Di Pantai Lido tepian mandi

Sepanjang masa di hari minggu

Atas bukit Tanjung Puteri

Taman hiburan indah berseri

Pemandangan menawan hati

Jalan tambak hubungan negeri

(chorus)

Tanjung Sekijang nun di kuala

Tempat nelayan mengail gelama

Istana Hinggap di Kuala Danga

Pantai berkelah keluarga diRaja

Dari Tebrau orang berakit

Singgah Stulang membeli kopi

Pusara si Bongkok di lereng bukit

Di tepi pantai Tanjung Puteri



Dances

Zapin dance

Zapin is a dance form which is popular in Malaysia, especially in the state of Johor. It is believed to have been introduced by Muslim missionaries from the Middle East in the 14th century.

In the old days only males were allowed to perform it, but nowadays female dancers are included. It used to be performed exclusively for religious ceremonies but through the years it has become a form of traditional entertainment.

The dancers usually perform in pairs and are accompanied by a traditional music ensemble normally consisting of the gambus, accordion, violin, marwas (bongos), rebana (drum) and dok.

There are various types of Zapin in Johore namely Zapin Melayu, Zapin Pekajang, Zapin Tenglu, Zapin Pulau, Zapin Parit Mastar, Zapin Lenga and so on. These variants are caused by the districts and on how the dance is performed.

Kuda Kepang

Kuda kepang is a dance or game performed by Johoreans, especially of Javanese descent. Kuda kepang is a legless horse-shaped puppet that is straddled by the performers. Usually, a troupe of performers consists of 10 to 15 people. It is performed at wedding ceremonies and cultural celebrations. There are several possible origins of Kuda Kepang. It is said to derive from the struggles of “Wali Songo”, a group of nine Islamic preachers in Java. Others said it originated from the movement of horses commanded by Ali, the fourth Muslim Caliph. There are several dance rhythms or patterns: the 'Sola', 'Selendang', 'Pak Tani', 'Pucuk Rebung', 'Perjuangan', and 'Mempertahankan Diri'. The bobbing movement of the performers and their horse puppet is called 'Lenggang Kiprah'.

The musical instruments used in kuda kepang performance are 'angklong', 'gendang', 'gong', 'kinong', 'jidor', 'soron kecil' and 'bonang'.

Legends

Legend of Badang

This is a story of Badang, a slave who gained super human strength by eating the vomitous of a river spirit. He used this to win his release from his master. Contrary to popular belief, Badang was born in Sayong Pinang, Johor, not Singapore or Temasik as it was known then. Upon hearing his strength, he was summoned by the Seri Rama Wira Kerma of Temasik where he displayed his skills. Challengers were sent by foreign kingdoms to defeat him. Among them were King of Kalinga I from India who sent Nadi Bijaya Pikrama, a fierce wrestler, and the noblemen of Perlak who sent Benderang. Badang emerged victorious from both fights and eventually stayed in Temasik until his death.

Legend of Malim Deman

Malim Deman is a king in Segamatmarker who was in love with Princess Santan Bertapis. The princess was kidnapped by a spirit and Malim Deman swore that as long as the princess is not returned, the Segamat area shall experience floods for all eternity. However, with modern town planning and irrigation, flooding is now a rare occurrence in Segamat.

Legend of Gunung Ledang

See main article Legend of Gunung Ledang

Awang's spear returned to Dayang

Lembing Awang Pulang ke Dayang (Awang's spear Returned to Dayang) is an incident that occurred in Parit Raja, Muarmarker.

It occurred in 1776 when a man called Awang returned to Padang (now known as Parit Raja, Muar) after more than 3 years abroad to marry his fiancee Dayang. Upon his return, he found out that another man called Bachok @ Pa'achok had told Dayang of Awang's death and she was to be married to him the next day. Awang showed up at the wedding and using a twin spear given by Raja Bugis, he speared Bachok in the stomach. Bachok, fatally injured, grabbed the spear in his stomach and speared his best man. The man then speared the next man he saw and this was repeated until the 99th person was speared. It was Dayang's father who was protecting Dayang. He did not continue the repeated spearing and died. Awang ran away to Endaumarker and Dayang did not marry another until she died.

Hamdolok

Hamdolok originated from the exposure of Middle East culture introduced by Arabs in Johor. It is a traditional theatre performed during weddings and festivals. It is a blend of artistic characters of both the Middle-East and local Malay communities. Instruments used include the gambus, tambourine, maracas and conga drums. It was also inspired by the Bedouin celebrating the birth of Islamic prophet Muhammad playing musical instruments and reciting poetry.

Cuisine

Dishes and cuisine in Johor are influenced by Arabs and the surrounding Malay archipelago. Some of the dishes are a unique blend of ingredients not found anywhere else in Malaysia. Due to their difficult and sometimes complicated recipes, some can only be sampled during celebrations and state banquets.

  • Laksa Johor is a cuisine originated from Johor. It differs from Laksa Penang by having coconut milk added during cooking. It also differs from other laksas by using spaghetti instead of rice-based noodles.


  • Mee Bandung Muar is also a dish originated from Johor, specifically from Muarmarker. The term 'bandung' is not derived from Bandungmarker, Indonesiamarker but is a term for anything that is mixed from many ingredients. One of the most important ingredient is dried shrimp.


  • Penganan Kacau keledek is a dessert normally reserved for the Johor monarch and elites. It is made from sweet potatoes, a lot of eggs (at least 40), fresh coconut milk (not instant ones) and huge amounts of sugar. It is mixed together and stirred on a simmering heat for at least 4 hours.


  • Mee rebus is the famous noodle dish which consists of Mee (a spaghetti like mixture of flour, salt and egg) and is served with a tangy, spicy brown sauce. Usually crumbs and boiled eggs are added.


  • Arisa - A unique chicken dish that is very rare nowadays, and is normally served to the royalties and social elites of Johor at formal functions and celebrations.


  • Satay - is a popular food in Malaysia. Made from marinated meat or chicken and burnt on charcoal grill. Cooked satay is dipped in special peanut sauce. A favourite Malay food in Johor, mostly found in Johor Bahrumarker and Muarmarker.


  • Telur pindang - Eggs boiled together with herbs and spices, popular during wedding feasts in Johor.


  • Roti Jala or Roti Kirai(Wendy Li) - The name is derived from the Malay word 'roti' (bread) and 'jala' (net). A special ladle with a five-hole perforation used to make the bread looks like a fish net (picture in the works). It is usually eaten spicy with curry or sweet with 'serawa'. Serawa is made from a mixture of boiled coconut milk, brown sugar and pandan leaf.


  • Nasi Beriani Gam - A biryani rice dish originating from India with a cooking method very similar to Hyderabad biryani but with spices adjusted to suit the Malay palate. This dish is very popular in Batu Pahat District.




  • Kacang Pol- This dish is influenced by Arab Culture where special baked bread was served with special sauce and a 'sunny side up' egg.
  • Pisang Salai or Gimpi smoked banana cooked into perfection
  • Otak-otak - Steamed/Grilled fish cake usually served wrapped in sticks of coconut leaves. Two of the most popular varieties are Otak-otak Muar (spicy) and Otak-otak Gelang Patah (sweet).
  • Mee Soto - This Indonesian origin food is very popular in Johor. People may have change noodles with rice or vermicelli rice according to their preference. Combination of either noodle, rice or vermicelli rice is added with peanut, beansprout and chicken meat. These combination then is poured with special soup. This soup was made from chicken stock and some other spice. Enjoy it while its hot.
  • Mee Bakso - This is almost identical with soto, only this dish have meatball instead of slices of chicken meat.
  • Burasak - It is a type of Buginese food.
  • Halwa Maskat This dessert type food may be originated from muscat, Oman.
  • Kerutup ikan - Fish is steamed with variety of local fragrant leaves.
  • Pecal - It is a Javanese traditional cuisine which consists of long beans, slice of cucumber, beansprout, tauhu, tempe mix with special peanut sauce.
  • Tauhu bakar- it is made from soybean where it is burnt on a grill and cut into cubes and dip with special sauce.
  • Pendaram
  • Mee Siput - It is a mixture of flour that will expand in term of size when deep fried.
  • Rojak Petis - It is a combination of local vegetables mix with special black colored sauce made mostly from shrimp(Otak Udang).
  • ABC - ABC is abbreviation of 'Air Batu Campur' or known as Ice Kacang Johor. It is a special desserts created from shaved ice added with corn, jelly, redbeans, groundnut, syrup, pasteurized milk, and liquid chocolate.


Javanese-influenced cuisine

There are a few Johorean dishes with Javanese influences. These include lontong, nasi ambeng and bontrot or berkat - both traditionally served after feasts like wedding ceremonies, Yasinan and others; and ungkep.

References

  1. Ancient names of Johor, 2 March 2009, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
  2. Roads to fame, Fauziah Ismail, Johor Buzz, New Straits Times
  3. Ancient temple steeped in history, Peggy Loh, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
  4. Mother Nature hits back, December 29, 2006, The Star
  5. An army of its own, Fauziah Ismail, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
  6. About Southern College, Message from the Executive Advisor, retrieved February 21, 2009
  7. Folk dance with religious origin, 14 April 2005, Peggy Loh, Travel Times, New Straits Times
  8. Kenali Gaya: Mata lalat, tulang belut bezakan baju Melayu, Berita Harian Online, September 2008
  9. Little touches for unique dishes, GEETHA KRISHNAN, June 26, 2006, The Star
  10. Hidangan dan Masakan Johor, 11 December 2006, Official Portal of the Johor State Government


Bibliography

  • Trocki, Carl A., Prince of Pirates: the Temenggongs and the Development of Johor and Singapore, 1784-1885, University of Hawaii Press, 1979, ISBN 9789971693763 ISBN 9971693763


External links




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