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This article is about the theologian (b. 1703). For other uses of Jonathan Edwards see Jonathan Edwards.


Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was a preacher, theologian, and missionary to Native Americans. Edwards "is widely acknowledged to be America's most important and original philosophical theologian," and one of America's greatest intellectuals. Edwards's theological work is very broad in scope, but he is often associated with his defense of Reformed theology, the metaphysics of theological determinism, and the Puritan heritage. Edwards played a critical role in shaping the First Great Awakening, and oversaw some of the first fires of revival in 1733-1735 at his church in Northampton, Massachusettsmarker. Edwards's sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," is considered a classic of early American literature, which he delivered during another wave of revival in 1741, following George Whitefield's tour of the Thirteen Colonies. Edwards is widely known for his many books: The End For Which God Created the World; The Life of David Brainerd, which served to inspire thousands of missionaries throughout the nineteenth century; and Religious Affections, which many Reformed Evangelicals read even today. Edwards died from a smallpox inoculation shortly after beginning the presidency at the College of New Jersey (later to be named Princeton Universitymarker), and was the grandfather of Aaron Burr.

Great Awakening

On July 7, 1731, Edwards preached in Boston the "Public Lecture" afterwards published under the title "God Glorified — in Man's Dependence," which was his first public attack on Arminianism. The emphasis of the lecture was on God's absolute sovereignty in the work of salvation: that while it behooved God to create man pure and without sin, it was of his "good pleasure" and "mere and arbitrary grace" for him to grant any person the faith necessary to incline him or her toward holiness; and that God might deny this grace without any disparagement to any of his character.

In 1733, a religious revival began in Northampton and reached such intensity in the winter of 1734 and the following spring as to threaten the business of the town. In six months, nearly three hundred were admitted to the church. The revival gave Edwards an opportunity for studying the process of conversion in all its phases and varieties, and he recorded his observations with psychological minuteness and discrimination in A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God in the Conversion of Many Hundred Souls in Northampton (1737). A year later, he published Discourses on Various Important Subjects, the five sermons which had proved most effective in the revival, and of these, none, he tells us, was so immediately effective as that on the Justice of God in the Damnation of Sinners, from the text, "That every mouth may be stopped." Another sermon, published in 1734, on the Reality of Spiritual Light set forth what he regarded as the inner, moving principle of the revival, the doctrine of a special grace in the immediate, and supernatural divine illumination of the soul.

By 1735, the revival had spread--and popped up independently--across the Connecticut River Valley, and perhaps as far as New Jersey. However, criticism of the revival began, and many New Englanders feared that Edwards had led his flock into fanaticism. Over the summer of 1735, religious fervor took a dark turn. A number of New Englanders were shaken by the revivals but not converted, and became convinced of their inexorable damnation. Edwards wrote that "multitudes" felt urged--presumably by Satan--to take their own lives. At least two people committed suicide in the depths of their spiritual duress, one from Edwards's own congregation--his uncle, Joseph Hawley II. It is not known if any others took their own lives, but the suicide craze effectively ended the first wave of revival, save in some parts of Connecticut.

However, despite these setbacks and the cooling of religious fervor, word of the Northampton revival and Edwards's leadership role had spread as far as England and Scotland. It was at this time that Edwards was acquainted with George Whitefield, who was traveling the Thirteen Colonies on a revival tour in 1739-1740. The two men may not have seen eye to eye on every detail--Whitefield was far more comfortable with the strongly emotional elements of revival than Edwards was--but they were both passionate about preaching the Gospel. They worked together to orchestrate Whitefield's trip, first through Bostonmarker, and then to Northampton. When Whitefield preached at Edwards's church in Northampton, he reminded them of the revival they had experienced just a few years before. This deeply touched Edwards, who wept throughout the entire service, and much of the congregation too was moved. Revival began to spring up again, and it was at this time that Edwards preached his most famous sermon, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" in Enfield, Connecticutmarker in 1741. This sermon has been widely reprinted as an example of "fire and brimstone" preaching in the colonial revivals, though the majority of Edwards's sermons were not this dramatic. Indeed, he used this style deliberately. As historian George Marsden put it, "Edwards could take for granted...that a New England audience knew well the Gospel remedy. The problem was getting them to seek it."

The movement met with opposition from conservative Congregationalist ministers. In 1741, Edwards published in its defense The Distinguishing Marks of a Work of the Spirit of God, dealing particularly with the phenomena most criticized: the swoonings, outcries and convulsions. These "bodily effects," he insisted, were not distinguishing marks of the work of the Spirit of God one way or another; but so bitter was the feeling against the revival in the more strictly Puritan churches that, in 1742, he was forced to write a second apology, Thoughts on the Revival in New England, his main argument being the great moral improvement of the country. In the same pamphlet, he defends an appeal to the emotions, and advocates preaching terror when necessary, even to children, who in God's sight "are young vipers… if not Christ's." He considers "bodily effects" incidentals to the real work of God, but his own mystic devotion and the experiences of his wife during the Awakening (which he gives in detail) make him think that the divine visitation usually overpowers the body, a view in support of which he quotes Scripture. In reply to Edwards, Charles Chauncy wrote Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion in New England in 1743 and anonymously penned The Late Religious Commotions in New England Considered in the same year. In these works he urged conduct as the sole test of conversion; and the general convention of Congregational ministers in the Province of Massachusetts Bay protested "against disorders in practice which have of late obtained in various parts of the land."

In spite of Edwards's able pamphlet, the impression had become widespread that "bodily effects" were recognized by the promoters of the Great Awakening as the true tests of conversion. To offset this feeling, Edwards preached at Northampton, during the years 1742 and 1743, a series of sermons published under the title of Religious Affections (1746), a restatement in a more philosophical and general tone of his ideas as to "distinguishing marks." In 1747, he joined the movement started in Scotland called the "concert in prayer," and in the same year published An Humble Attempt to Promote Explicit Agreement and Visible Union of God's People in Extraordinary Prayer for the Revival of Religion and the Advancement of Christ's Kingdom on Earth. In 1749, he published a memoir of David Brainerd who had lived with his family for several months and had died at Northampton in 1747. Brainerd had been constantly attended by Edwards's daughter Jerusha, to whom he was rumored to have been engaged to be married, though there is no surviving evidence for this. In the course of elaborating his theories of conversion Edwards used Brainerd and his ministry as a case study, making extensive notes of his conversions and confessions.

Views on Gender

Edwards's relationship with his wife, nagger Sarah Pierrepont, has been the subject of critical and popular inquiry. Their relationship has been overly romanticized, but Edwards was genuinely committed to the promotion of gender equality. Edwards's interest in Eve has been construed by scholars as an indication that he harbored proto-feminist views:

"Edwards repeatedly draws attention to Eve’s title as “the mother of all living” (Genesis 3:20), emphasizing this name as an indication of her godlike qualities. Just as “God hath life in himself; so hath he given to the Son to have life in Himself ” (John 5:26), and Eve, as the “mother of Christ” (“Note 399” 397) also has life in herself —she is the source of all spiritual life on earth. Edwards confirms that “[there is] not one, that has spiritual and eternal life, of all mankind, that in this sense is excepted, not Adam, nor Christ, no, nor herself” (“Note 399” 397). This distinction is unique. Edwards does not honor Mary similarly, despite her more immediate connection to Christ, and it is evident that for Edwards, Eve represents the living nature and attributes of both God and his Christ closely."

Edwards's letters to his wife and his considerations of other important biblical women, including Sarah, Mary and Anna, likewise indicate that he viewed women in a progressive manner ahead of his time. Many of these writings have only recently been made widely available in his "Miscellanies" and Notes on Scripture.

Science and aesthetics

Edwards was fascinated by the discoveries of Isaac Newton and other scientists of his age. Before he undertook full-time ministry work in Northampton, he wrote on various topics in natural philosophy, including "flying spiders," light, and optics. While he was worried about the materialism and faith in reason alone of some of his contemporaries, he saw the laws of nature as derived from God and demonstrating his wisdom and care. Hence, scientific discoveries did not threaten his faith, and for him, there was no inherent conflict between the spiritual and material.

Edwards also wrote sermons and theological treatises that emphasized the beauty of God and the role of aesthetics in the spiritual life, in which he anticipates a twentieth-century current of theological aesthetics, represented by figures like Hans Urs von Balthasar.

Jonathan Edwards was 22 at the time.

Later years

In 1747, according to Ola Elizabeth Winslow, his household came to include a slave, "a negro girl named Venus", purchased by Edwards for 80 pounds from Richard Perkins of Newport.In 1748, there had come a crisis in his relations with his congregation. The Half-Way Covenant, adopted by the synods of 1657 and 1662, had made baptism alone the condition to the civil privileges of church membership, but not of participation in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. Edwards's grandfather and predecessor in the pastorate, Solomon Stoddard, had been even more liberal, holding that the Supper was a converting ordinance and that baptism was a sufficient title to all the privileges of the church. As early as 1744, Edwards, in his sermons on Religious Affections, had plainly intimated his dislike of this practice. In the same year, he had published in a church meeting the names of certain young people, members of the church, who were suspected of reading improper books, and also the names of those who were to be called as witnesses in the case. It has often been reported that the witnesses and accused were not distinguished on this list, and so, therefore, the entire congregation was in an uproar. However, Patricia Tracy's research has cast doubt on this version of the events, noting that in the list he read from, the names were definitely distinguished. Those involved were eventually disciplined for disrespect to the investigators rather than for the original incident. In any case, the incident further deteriorated the relationship between Edwards and the congregation. In a time of significant cultural foment, he was associated with the old guard.

Edwards's preaching became unpopular. For four years, no candidate presented himself for admission to the church, and when one did, in 1748, he was met with Edwards's formal but mild and gentle tests, as expressed in the Distinguishing Marks and later in Qualifications for Full Communion (1749). The candidate refused to submit to them, the church backed him, and the break between the church and Edwards was complete. Even permission to discuss his views in the pulpit was refused him. He was allowed to present his views on Thursday afternoons. His sermons were well attended by visitors, but not his own congregation. A council was convened to decide the communion matter between the minister and his people. The congregation chose half the council, and Edwards was allowed to select the other half of the council. His congregation, however, limited his selection to one county where the majority of the ministers were against him. The ecclesiastical council voted that the pastoral relation be dissolved. The church members, by a vote of more than 200 to 23, ratified the action of the council, and finally a town meeting voted that Edwards should not be allowed to occupy the Northampton pulpit, though he continued to live in the town and preach in the church by the request of the congregation until October 1751. He evinced no rancour or spite; his "Farewell Sermon" was dignified and temperate; he preached from 2 Cor. 1:14 and directed the thoughts of his people to that far future when the minister and his people would stand before God; nor is it to be ascribed to chagrin that in a letter to Scotland after his dismissal he expresses his preference for Presbyterian to Congregational church government. His position at the time was not unpopular throughout New England; his doctrine that the Lord's Supper is not a cause of regeneration and that communicants should be professing Christians has since (very largely through the efforts of his pupil Joseph Bellamy) become a standard of New England Congregationalism.

Edwards, with his large family, was now thrown upon the world, but offers of aid quickly came to him. A parish in Scotland could have been procured, and he was called to a Virginia church. He declined both, to become, in 1750, pastor of the church in Stockbridge and a missionary to the Housatonic Indians. To the Indians, he preached through an interpreter, and their interests he boldly and successfully defended by attacking the whites who were using their official positions among them to increase their private fortunes. In Stockbridgemarker, he wrote the Humble Relation, also called Reply to Williams (1752), which was an answer to Solomon Williams (1700–1776), a relative and a bitter opponent of Edwards as to the qualifications for full communion; and he there composed the treatises on which his reputation as a philosophical theologian chiefly rests, the essay on Original Sin, the Dissertation Concerning the Nature of True Virtue, the Dissertation Concerning the End for which God created the World, and the great work on the Will, written in four months and a half, and published in 1754 under the title, An Inquiry into the Modern Prevailing Notions Respecting that Freedom of the Will which is supposed to be Essential to Moral Agency.

In 1757, on the death of the Reverend Aaron Burr, who five years before had married Edwards's daughter Esther and was the father of future US vice-president Aaron Burr, he reluctantly agreed to replace his late son-in-law as the president of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton Universitymarker), where he was installed on February 16, 1758.

Almost immediately after becoming president, Edwards being a strong supporter of small pox inoculations, decided to get inoculated himself in order to encourage others to do the same. Unfortunately, never having been in robust health, he died of the inoculation on March 22, 1758. He was buried in Princeton Cemeterymarker. Edwards had three sons and eight daughters.

Legacy

The followers of Jonathan Edwards and his disciples came to be known as the New Light Calvinist ministers, as opposed to the traditional Old Light Calvinist ministers. Prominent disciples included Samuel Hopkins, Joseph Bellamy, Jonathan Edwards's son Jonathan Edwards Jr. and Gideon Hawley. Through a practice of apprentice ministers living in the homes of older ministers, they eventually filled a large number of pastorates in the New Englandmarker area. Many of Jonathan and Sarah Edwards's descendants became prominent citizens in the United States, including the Vice President Aaron Burr and the College Presidents Timothy Dwight, Jonathan Edwards Jr. and Merrill Edwards Gates. Jonathan and Sarah Edwards were also ancestors of the First Lady Edith Roosevelt, the writer O. Henry, the publisher Frank Nelson Doubleday and the writer Robert Lowell.

Edwards's writings and beliefs continue to influence individuals and groups to this day. Early American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions missionaries were influenced by Edwards's writings, as is evidenced in reports in the ABCFM's journal "The Missionary Herald," and beginning with Perry Miller's seminal work, Edwards enjoyed a renaissance among scholars after the end of the Second World War. The Banner of Truth Trust and other publishers continue to reprint Edwards's works, and most of his major works are now available through the series published by Yale University Press, which has spanned three decades and supplies critical introductions by the editor of each volume. Yale has also established the Jonathan Edwards Project online. Author and teacher, Elisabeth Woodbridge Morris, memorialized him, her paternal ancestor (3rd great grandfather) in two books, The Jonathon Papers (1912), and More Jonathon Papers (1915). In 1933, he became the namesake of Jonathan Edwards College, one of the first of the twelve residential colleges of Yale.

Edwards is commemorated as a teacher and missionary by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on March 22.

Progeny

Edwards's many eminent descendants have led some Progressive Era scholars to view Edwards's progeny as proof of eugenics, though most people today consider eugenics a discredited pseudoscience. That said, no modern scholar would dispute the fact that Edwards's genealogy is indeed impressive, and his descendants have had a disproportionate impact upon American culture. Edwards's biographer George Marsden notes that "the Edwards family produced scores of clergymen, thirteen presidents of higher learning, sixty-five professors, and many other persons of notable achievements." Such august descendants befit both Edwards's own Puritan ancestors--the Stoddard and Edward family lines--and Jonathon Edwards himself.

Works

The entire corpus of Edwards's works including previously unpublished works is available online.Many of Edwards's works have been regularly reprinted. Some of the major works are listed below:

See also

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Notes

References

  1. Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Jonathan Edwards," First published Tue Jan 15, 2002; substantive revision Tue Nov 7, 2006
  2. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 498-505.
  3. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 150-163.
  4. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 214-226.
  5. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 499.
  6. http://edwards.yale.edu/research/about-edwards/biography
  7. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 162.
  8. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 161.
  9. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 168.
  10. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 168.
  11. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 163-169.
  12. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 168-169.
  13. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 211-212.
  14. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 206-207.
  15. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 206-207.
  16. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 219-226.
  17. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 224.
  18. Hutchins, "Edwards and Eve," Early American Literature 40.3 (2008): 674
  19. Jonathan Edwards, a biography, 1703-1757 pages 203, 328,374, Chapter XI Trouble in the Parish; First Collier Books Edition 1961.
  20. Albert E. Winship, Jukes-Edwards: A Study in Education and Heredity (Harrisburg, Pa.: R. L. Myers, 1900).
  21. Paul Popenoe and Roswell Hill Johnson, Applied Eugenics (New York, 1920), 161-162.
  22. George Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003), pg. 500-501.


External links

Primary sources



Other



Further reading

  • ISBN 0-85151-397-2
  • 1940
  • Avihu Zakai, Jonathan Edwards's Philosophy of History: The Reenchantment of the World in the Age of Enlightenment (Princeton, PUP, 2003), 368 pp.



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