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Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker OM, GCSI, CB, MD, FRS (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was one of the greatest British botanists and explorers of the 19th century. Hooker was one of the founders of geographical botany, and Charles Darwin's closest friend. He was Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kewmarker, for twenty years, in succession to his father, William Jackson Hooker, and was awarded the highest honours of British science.

Life

Early life

Hooker was born in Halesworthmarker, Suffolk. He was the second son of the famous botanist Sir William Jackson Hooker and Maria Sarah Turner, eldest daughter of the banker Dawson Turner and sister-in-law of Francis Palgrave. From age seven, Hooker attended his father's lectures at Glasgow Universitymarker where he was Regius Professor of Botany. Joseph formed an early interest in plant distribution and the voyages of explorers like Captain James Cook. He was educated at the Glasgow High School and went on to study medicine at Glasgow University, graduating M.D. in 1839. This degree qualified him for employment in the Naval Medical Service: he joined renowned polar explorer Captain James Clark Ross's Antarctic expedition to the South Magnetic Pole after receiving a commission as Assistant-Surgeon on HMS Erebus.

Marriages and children

In 1851 he married Frances Harriet Henslow (1825–1874), daughter of John Stevens Henslow. They had four sons and three daughters:

  • William Henslow Hooker (1853–1942)
  • Harriet Anne Hooker (1854–1945) married William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
  • Charles Paget Hooker (1855–1933)
  • Marie Elizabeth Hooker (1857–1863) died aged 6.
  • Brian Harvey Hodgson Hooker (1860–1932)
  • Reginald Hawthorn Hooker (1867–1944) statistician
  • Grace Ellen Hooker (1868–1873) died aged 5.


After his first wife's death in 1874, in 1876 he married Hyacinth Jardine (1842–1921), daughter of William Samuel Symonds and the widow of Sir William Jardine. They had two sons:
  • Joseph Symonds Hooker (1877–1940)
  • Richard Symonds Hooker (1885–1950).


Death and burial

Joseph Hooker died in his sleep at midnight at home on 10 December 1911 after a short and apparently minor illness. The Dean and Chapter of Westminster Abbeymarker offered a grave near Darwin's in the nave but also insisted that Hooker be cremated before. His widow, Hyacinth, declined the proposal and eventually Hooker's body was buried, as he wished to be, alongside his father in the churchyard of St Anne’s on Kew Green, within short distance of Kew Gardensmarker.

Hooker Oakmarker in Chico, Californiamarker, was named after him.

Geological Survey of Great Britain

Failing to gain an academic position at the University of Edinburgh, Hooker declined a chair at Glasgow University. Instead, he took a position as botanist to the Geological Survey of Great Britain in 1846. He began work on palaeobotany, searching for fossil plants in the coal-beds of Walesmarker. He became engaged to Frances Henslow, daughter of Charles Darwin's botany tutor John Stevens Henslow, but he was keen to continue to travel and gain more experience in the field. He wanted to travel to Indiamarker and the Himalayasmarker. In 1847 his father nominated him to travel to Indiamarker and collect plants for Kewmarker.

When Hooker returned to England, his father had been appointed director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kewmarker, and so was now a prominent man of science. William Hooker, through his connections, secured an Admiralty grant of £1000 to defray the cost of plates for his son's Botany of the Antarctic Voyages, and an annual stipend of £200 for Joseph while he worked on the flora. Hooker's flora was also to include that collected on the voyages of Cook and Menzies held by the British Museum and collections made on the Beagle. The floras were illustrated by Walter Hood Fitch (trained in botanical illustration by William Hooker), who would go on to become the most prolific Victorian botanical artist.

Hooker's collections from the voyage were described eventually in one of two volumes published as the Flora Antarctica (1844–47). In the Flora he wrote about islands and their role in plant geography: the work made Hooker's reputation as a systemist and plant geographer. His works on the voyage were completed with Flora Novae-Zelandiae (1851–53) and Flora Tasmaniae (1853–59).

Voyages

Antarctic 1839–1843

The expedition consisted of two ships, HMS Erebus and HMS Terror; it was the last major voyage of exploration made entirely under sail. Hooker was the youngest of the 128 man crew. He sailed on the Erebus and was assistant to Robert McCormick, who in addition to being the ship's Surgeon was instructed to collect zoological and geological specimens. The ships sailed on 30 September 1839. Before journeying to Antarctica they visited Madeiramarker, Tenerifemarker, Santiagomarker and Quail Island in the Cape Verdemarker archipelago, St Paul Rocksmarker, Trinidademarker east of Brazil, St Helena, and the Cape of Good Hopemarker. Hooker made plant collections at each location and while travelling drew these and specimens of algae and sea life pulled aboard using tow nets.

From the Cape they entered the southern ocean. Their first stop was the Crozet Islandsmarker where they set down on Possession Island to deliver coffee to sealers. They departed for the Kerguelen Islandsmarker where they would spend several days. Hooker identified 18 flowering plants, 35 mosses and liverwort, 25 lichens and 51 algae, including some that were not described by surgeon William Anderson when James Cook had visited the islands in 1772. The expedition spent some time in Hobartmarker, Van Diemen's Landmarker, and then moved on to the Auckland Islandsmarker and Campbell Islandmarker, and onward to Antarctica to locate the South Magnetic Pole. After spending 5 months in the Antarctic they returned to resupply in Hobart, then went on to Sydneymarker, and the Bay of Islandsmarker in New Zealandmarker. They left New Zealand to return to Antarctica. After spending 138 days at sea, and a collision between the Erebus and Terror, they sailed to the Falkland Islandsmarker, to Tierra del Fuegomarker, back to the Falklands and onward to their third sortie into the Antarctic. They made a landing at Cockburn Island and after leaving the Antarctic, stopped at the Cape, St Helena and Ascension Islandmarker. The ships arrived back in England on 4 September 1843; the voyage had been a success for Ross as it was the first to confirm the existence of the southern continent and chart much of its coastline.

Himalayas and India 1847–1851

On 11 November 1847 Hooker left England for his three year long Himalayan expedition; he would be the first European to collect plants in the Himalaya. He received free passage on HMS Sidon, to the Nile and then travelled overland to Suezmarker where he boarded a ship to India. He arrived in Calcuttamarker on 12 January 1848, then travelled by elephant to Mirzapurmarker, up the Ganges by boat to Siligurimarker and overland by pony to Darjeelingmarker, arriving on 16 April 1848.

Hooker's expedition was based in Darjeelingmarker where he stayed with naturalist Brian Houghton Hodgson. Through Hodgson he met British East India Company representative Archibald Campbell who negotiated Hooker's admission to Sikkimmarker, which was finally approved in 1849 (He was to be briefly taken prisoner by the Raja of Sikkim). Meanwhile, Hooker wrote to Darwin relaying to him the habits of animals in India, and collected plants in Bengalmarker. He explored with local resident Charles Barnes, then travelled along the Great Runjeet river to its junction with the Tista River and Tonglu mountain in the Singalila range on the border with Nepalmarker.
Rhododendron argenteum illustration by Walter Hood Fitch from Rhododendrons of Sikkim Himalaya.
and a sizable party of local assistants departed for eastern Nepal on 27 October 1848. They travelled to Zongri, west over the spurs of Kangchenjungamarker, and north west along Nepal's passes into Tibet. In April 1849 he planned a longer expedition into Sikkim. Leaving on 3 May, he travelled north west up the Lachen Valley to the Kongra Lama Pass and then to the Lachoong Pass. Campbell and Hooker were imprisoned by the Dewan of Sikkimmarker when they were travelling towards the Chola Pass in Tibet. A British team was sent to negotiate with the king of Sikkim. However, they were released without any bloodshed and Hooker returned to Darjeeling where he spent January and February 1850 writing his journals, replacing specimens lost during his detention and planning a journey for his last year in India.

Reluctant to return to Sikkim, and unenthusiastic about travelling in Bhutanmarker, he chose to make his last Himalayan expedition to Sylhet and the Khasi Hillsmarker in Assammarker. He was accompanied by Thomas Thompson, a fellow student from Glasgow University. They left Darjeeling on 1 May 1850, then sailed to the Bay of Bengalmarker and travelled overland by elephant to the Khasi Hills and established a headquarters for their studies in Churra where they stayed until 9 December, when they began their trip back to England.

Hooker's survey of hitherto unexplored regions, the Himalayan Journals, dedicated to Charles Darwin, was published by the Calcuttamarker Trigonometrical Survey Office in 1854, abbreviated again in 1855 and later by (The Minerva Library of Famous Books) Ward, Lock, Bowden & Co., 1891.

Palestine 1860

This trip was taken in the autumn of 1860, with Daniel Hanbury. They visited and collected in Syria and Palestine; no full-length report was published, but a number of papers were written. Hooker recognised three phytogeograpical divisions: Western Syria and Palestine; Eastern Syria and Palestine; Middle and Upper mountain regions of Syria.

Morocco 1871

Hooker visited Morocco from April to June 1871, in the company of John Ball, George Maw and a young gardener from Kew, called Crump.

Western United States 1877

This was undertaken with his friend Asa Gray, the leading American botanist of the day. They wished to investigate the connection between the floras of eastern United States and those of eastern continental Asia and Japan; and the line of demarkation between Arctic floras of America and Greenland. As probable causes they considered the Glacial periods and an earlier land connection with an Arctic continent. "A difficult question was why in the great mountain chains of the Western United States there appeared to be only a few botanical enclaves of plants of eastern-Asiatic afinities among plants of Mexican and more southern types."

Hooker visited a number of cities and botanical institutions before moveing west and climbing to 9,000 ft to camp at La Vetamarker. From Fort Garland they climbed the Sierra Blanca at 14,500 ft. After returning to La Veta, they went beyond Colorado Springsmarker to Pike's Peak. Next to Denvermarker and Salt Lake Citymarker for an excursion into the Wasatch mountains. A journey of 29 hours took them to Renomarker and Carson Citymarker, then Silver City and ten days by wagon across the Sierra Nevada. Thus they came to the Yosemite and Calaveras Grovemarker, and ended up in San Franciscomarker. Hooker was back in Kew with 1,000 dried specimens by October.

Some idea of the delights he encountered (trivia from his journal & letters):
  • Hooker met and talked to Brigham Young, whom he described as respectable and well-spoken. The new religion did not meet with Hooker's approval: "All the school children are brought up to believe in him [Brigham Young], and in a lot of scripture history as useless and idle as that taught in our schools."


  • Of Georgetownmarker: the "finger-tip of civilisation" where "the people sleep without locks to their doors, the fire-engines are well-manned and in capital order, and there is no end of food".


  • "The New Englandersmarker are most like us in language, speech and habits... The Americans are great and promiscuous eaters... beds are remarkably clean and good, but the pillows are too soft."


His views on the flora of Colorado and Utah: There are two temperate, and two cold or mountain floras, viz: 1. a prarie flora derived from the eastward; 2. a so-called desert and saline flora derived from the west; 3. a sub-alpine; 4. an alpine flora, the two latter of widely different origin, and in one sense proper to the Rocky Mountain ranges.

His overview of North American flora contained these elements:
Polar area, from the Behring Strait to Greenlandmarker.
British North American flora, south of the Arctic flora, in five meridional belts.
United States flora, in belts:
:The Great Eastern Forest region, from the Atlantic to beyond the Mississippimarker.
:The Prairie region.
:The Sink region, confined to gullies of the mountains.
:The Sierra Nevada.


Darwin and evolution

While on the Erebus, Hooker had read proofs of Charles Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle provided by Charles Lyell and had been very impressed by Darwin's skill as a naturalist. They had met once, before the Antarctic voyage embarked. After Hooker's return to England, he was approached by Darwin who invited him to classify the plants that Darwin had collected in South America and the Galápagos Islandsmarker. Hooker agreed and the pair began a life-long friendship. On 11 January 1844 Darwin mentioned to Hooker his early ideas on the transmutation of species and natural selection, and Hooker showed interest.. In 1847 he agreed to read Darwin's "Essay" explaining the theory, and responded with notes giving Darwin calm critical feedback. Their correspondence continued throughout the development of Darwin's theory and in 1858 Darwin wrote that Hooker was "the one living soul from whom I have constantly received sympathy".

Richard Freeman wrote: "Hooker was Charles Darwin's greatest friend and confidant". Certainly they had extensive correspondence, and they also met face-to-face (Hooker visiting Darwin). Hooker and Lyell were the two people Darwin consulted (by letter) when Wallace's famous letter arrived at Down House, enclosing his paper on natural selection. Hooker was instrumental in creating the device whereby the Wallace paper was accompanied by Darwin's notes and his letter to Asa Gray (showing his prior realization of natural selection) in a presentation to the Linnean Society. Hooker was the one who formally presented this material to the Linnean Society meeting in 1858. In 1859 the author of The Origin of Species recorded his indebtedness to Hooker's wide knowledge and balanced judgment.

In December 1859, Hooker published the Introductory Essay to the Flora Tasmaniae, the final part of the Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. It was in this essay (which appeared just one month after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species), that Hooker announced his support for the theory of evolution by natural selection, thus becoming the first recognised man of science to publicly back Darwin.

At the historic debate on evolution held at the Oxford University Museummarker on 30 June 1860, Bishop Samuel Wilberforce, Benjamin Brodie and Robert FitzRoy spoke against Darwin's theory, and Hooker and Thomas Henry Huxley defended it. According to Hooker's own account, it was he and not Huxley who delivered the most effective reply to Wilberforce's arguments.

Hooker acted as president of the British Association at its Norwichmarker meeting of 1868, when his address was remarkable for its championship of Darwinian theories. He was a close friend of Thomas Henry Huxley, a member of the X-Club (which dominated the Royal Society in the 1870s and early 1880s), and the first of the three X-Clubbers in succession to become President of the Royal Society. In 1862, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Kew



By his travels and his publications, Hooker built up a high scientific reputation at home. In 1855 he was appointed Assistant-Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kewmarker, and in 1865 he succeeded his father as full Director, holding the post for twenty years. Under the directorship of father and son Hooker, the Royal Botanical gardens of Kew rose to world renown. At the age of thirty, Hooker was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1873 he was chosen its President (till 1877). He received three of its medals: the Royal Medal in 1854, the Copley in 1887 and the Darwin Medal in 1892. He continued to intersperse work at Kew with foreign exploration and collecting. His journeys to Palestine, Morocco and the United States all produced valuable information and specimens for Kew.

He started the series Flora Indica in 1855, together with Thomas Thompson. Their botanical observations and the publication of the Rhododendrons of Sikkim-Himalaya (1849–51), formed the basis of elaborate works on the rhododendrons of the Sikkimmarker Himalayamarker and on the flora of India. His works were illustrated with lithographs by Walter Hood Fitch.

His greatest botanical work was the Flora of British India, published in seven volumes starting in 1872. On the publication of the last part in 1897, he was promoted Knight Grand Commander of the Star of India, the highest rank of the Order (he had been made a Knight Commander twenty years before). Ten years later, on attaining the age of ninety in 1907, he was awarded the Order of Merit.

He was the author of numerous scientific papers and monographs, and his larger books included, in addition to those already mentioned, a standard Students Flora of the British Isles and a monumental work, the Genera plantarum (1860–83), based on the collections at Kew, in which he had the assistance of George Bentham. His collaboration with George Bentham was especially important. Bentham, an amateur botanist who worked at Kew for many years, was perhaps the leading botanical systematist of the 19th century. The Handbook of the British flora, begun by Bentham and completed by Hooker, was the standard text for a humdred years. It was always known as 'Bentham & Hooker'.

In 1904, at the age of 87, Hooker published A sketch of the Vegetation of the Indian Empire. He continued the compilation of his father Sir William Jackson Hooker's project, Icones Plantarum (Illustrations of Plants), producing volumes eleven through nineteen.

Attacks on Hooker and on Kew

The Herbarium at Kew was founded in 1853, and quickly grew in size and importance. At the time, Richard Owen was the Superintendant of the natural history departments of the British Museummarker, reporting only to the Head of the British Museum. Hooker, appointed in 1855 as Assistant Director of Kew, was the man most responsible for bringing foreign specimens to Kew.

“There is no doubt that rivalry resulted between the British Museum, where there was the very important Herbarium of the Department of Botany, and Kew. The rivalry at times became extremely personal, especially between Joseph Hooker and Owen… At the root was Owen’s feeling that Kew should be subordinate to the British Museum (and to Owen) and should not be allowed to develop as an independent scientific institution with the advantage of a great botanic garden.”


The relationship between the two men continued to deteriorate after Hooker became a supporter of Darwin’s views and a member of the X-Club, who set out to get their way with the Royal Society. In 1868 Hooker had proposed that the whole of the huge herbarium collection of Joseph Banks should be moved from the British Museum to Kew, a reasonable idea, but a threat to Owen's plans for a museum in South Kensigton to house the natural history collections. Hooker cited mismanagement at the British Museum as a justification.

After Joseph had succeeded his father as Director, in 1865, the independence of Kew was seriously threatened by the machinations of a Member of Parliament, Acton Smee Ayrton, whose appointment as First Commissioner of Works by Gladstone in 1869 was greeted in The Times with the prophecy that it would prove "another instance of Mr. Ayrton's unfortunate tendency to carry out what he thinks right in as unpleasant a manner as possible". This was relevant because Kew was funded by the Board of Works, and the Director of Kew reported to the First Commissioner. The conflict between the two men lasted from 1870 to 1872, and there is a voluminous correspondence on the Ayrton Episode held at Kew.

Ayrton behaved in an extraordinary way, interfering and approaching Hooker’s colleagues behind his back, apparently with the aim of getting Hooker to resign, when the expenditure on Kew could be curtailed and diverted. Ayrton actually took staff appointments out of Hooker's hands. He seemed not to value the scientific work, and to believe Kew should be just an amusement park.

"My life has become utterly detestable and I do long to throw up the Directorship. What can be more humiliating than two years of wrangling with such a creature!"


Finally, Hooker asked to be put in communication with Gladstone’s private secretary, Algernon West. A full statement was drawn up over the signatures of Darwin, Lyell, Huxley, Tyndall, Bentham and others. It was laid before Parliament by John Lubbock, and additional papers laid before the House of Lords. Lord Derby called for all the correspondence on the matter. The Treasury supported Hooker and criticised Ayrton’s behaviour.

One extraordinary fact emerged. There had been an official report on Kew which had not previously been seen in public. Ayrton had caused this to be written by Richard Owen. Hooker had not seen it, and so had not been given right of reply. However, the report was amongst the papers laid before Parliament, and it contained the most unscrupulous attack on both the Hookers, and suggested (amongst much else) that they had mismanaged the care of their trees, and that their systematic botany was nothing more than "attaching barbarous binomials to foreign weeds". The discovery of this report no doubt helped to sway opinion in favour of Hooker and Kew (there was debate in the press as well as Parliament). Hooker replied to the Owen report point by point in a factual manner, and his reply placed with the other papers on the case. When Ayrton was questioned about it in the debate led by Lubbock, he replied that “Hooker was too low an official to raise questions of matter with a Minister of the Crown”.

The outcome was not a vote in the Commons, but a kind of truce until, in August 1874, Gladstone transferred Ayrton from the Board of Works to the office of Judge Advocate-General, just before his government fell. Ayrton failed to get re-elected to Parliament. From that moment to this, the value of the Botanic Gardens has never been seriously questioned again. In the midst of his troubles, Hooker had been elected as President of the Royal Society in 1873. This showed publicly what his fellow scientists thought of him.

Major publications

  • 1844–1859: Flora Antarctica: the botany of the Antarctic voyage. 3 vols, 1844 (general), 1853 (New Zealand), 1859 (Tasmania). Reeve, London.
  • 1846–1867: Handbook of the New Zealand flora
  • 1849: Niger flora
  • 1849–1851: The Rhododendrons of Sikkim-Himalaya
  • 1854: Himalayan Journals, or notes of a naturalist, in Bengal, the Sikkim and Nepal Himalayas, Khasia Mountains ...
  • 1855: Illustrations of Himalayan plants
  • 1855: Flora indica, with Thomas Thomson
  • 1858: with George Bentham, Handbook of the British flora. ("Bentham & Hooker")
  • 1859: A century of Indian orchids
  • 1862–1883: with George Bentham, Genera plantarum
  • 1870; 1878: The student's flora of the British Isles. Macmillan, London.
  • 1872–1897: The flora of British India
  • 1898–1900: Handbook to the Ceylon flora
  • 1904–1906: An epitome to the British Indian species of Impatiens


Standard author abbreviation

References

  1. Huxley, Leonard 1918. Life and letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker OM GCSI. London, Murray.
  2. Turrill W.B. 1963. Joseph Dalton Hooker: botanist, explorer and administrator. Nelson, London.
  3. Endersby, J. 2004. Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton (1817–1911). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press
  4. Desmond. 1999. p 91
  5. Ward, P. 2001. Antarctic expedition, 1839-1843, James Clark Ross
  6. Desmond, R. 1999. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker: Traveller and Plant Collector. Antique Collectors' Club and The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew ISBN 1-85149-305-0 p 18
  7. Desmond. 1999. p 36-42
  8. Desmond. 1999. p 85
  9. Letter number 1558: To J.D. Hooker. 10 March 1854. The Darwin Correspondence Online Database.
  10. Sanyal, R. B. (1896) Hours with Nature. S.K. Lahiri and Co. Page 34
  11. History of Darjeeling Darjeelingnews.net
  12. Turrill W.B. 1963. Joseph Dalton Hooker. Nelson, London. p110–113
  13. Hooker J.D. and Ball. John 1878. Journal of a tour in Morocco and the Great Atlas. London.
  14. Turrill 1963, p165.
  15. Turrill 1963, p167–168.
  16. Hooker J.D. 1877. Nature, 16.
  17. Hooker J.D. 1879. The distribution of the North American flora. Proceedings of the Royal Institution, 8.
  18. Hooker had met Darwin for the first time before leaving on the Erebus. Apparently, they met in Trafalgar Square (Turrill 1963, chapter 5 Hooker and Darwinism, p74, but without quoting source). The voyages of HMS Beagle and HMS Erebus (& Terror) coincided at several points; for example, they both visited the Falkland Isles, Australia (Sydney, at least), and New Zealand.
  19. Freeman, Richard Broke 1978. Charles Darwin: a companion. Dawson, Kent.
  20. Jensen, J. Vernon 1991. Thomas Henry Huxley: communicating for science. U. of Delaware Press, Newark. [Chapter 3 is an excellent survey, and its notes gives references to all the eyewitness accounts except Newton: see notes 61, 66, 67, 78, 79, 80, 81, 84, 86, 87, 89, 90, 93, 95: p208-211]
  21. Wollaston AFR 1921. Life of Alfred Newton: late Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Cambridge University 1866-1907, with a Preface by Sir Archibald Geikie OM. Dutton, NY. p118–120
  22. Huxley to Dr FD Dyster, 9th September 1860, Huxley Papers 15.117.
  23. .
  24. Thomson, Keith Stewart (2000). " Huxley, Wilberforce and the Oxford Museum", American Scientist, May-June 2000. Retrieved on 07 January 2009.
  25. G. Bentham and J.D. Hooker, Genera plantarum London, A. Black (1862-1883), Botanicus, Missouri Botanical Garden Library
  26. Isely, Duane. 1994 One hundred and one botanists Iowa State University Press.
  27. Turrill, p90. This rivalry between the two institutions is even more important than the characters of the two men. Owen's character was widely traduced after his treatment of Gideon Mantell, and Hooker was "impulsive and somewhat peppery in temper". Charles Darwin: Barlow, Nora 1958. The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, 1809-1882: with original omissions restored. Murray, London. p105
  28. Endersby, Jim 2008. Imperial nature: Joseph Hooker and the practices of Victorian science. Chicago. Also, same author, Endersby, J. 2004. Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton (1817–1911). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford.
  29. Huxley L. 1918. The Life and Letters of Joseph Dalton Hooker OM, GCSI. vol 2, Chapter XXXV The Ayrton Episode, p161.
  30. There were, and still are, substantial private bequests from time to time.
  31. Letter 8176 in the Darwin Correspondence Project (full text not yet available).
  32. Hooker to Bentham, 2 February 1972, in Huxley L. 1918. The Life and Letters of Joseph Dalton Hooker OM, GCSI. vol 2, Chapter XXXV The Ayrton Episode, p165.
  33. An important Treasury Minute, dated July 24, admits the justice of Dr. Hooker's remonstrance. It was very plain speaking to say that "the Lords of the Treasury are not surprised that in various cases Dr. Hooker should have thought that he had just cause of complaint", and "they direct so decidedly that in all matters connected with the scientific branch of the Gardens Dr. Hooker's opinion should be followed, subject only to the consideration of expense, and lay down so distinctly his right to be consulted in all matters relating to the management of the establishment". Huxley L 1918, vol 2, p173.
  34. Turrill, p124.
  35. Turrill, p90. Richard Owen was Ayrton's main supporter, and "attacked Hooker right and left". No doubt he remembered Hooker's 1868 proposal to seize the Banks herbarium.
  36. In the Commons, 8 August 1872 (Hansard)
  37. Turrill, p125.


Sources

  • Huxley, Leonard 1918. Life and Letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker OM GCSI. London, Murray.
  • Turrill W.B. 1953. Pioneer plant geography: the phytogeographical researches of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker. The Hague.
  • Turrill W.B. 1959. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, past and present. London.
  • Turrill W.B. 1963. Joseph Dalton Hooker: botanist, explorer and administrator. Nelson, London.
  • Allen, Mea 1967. The Hookers of Kew 1785-1911.
  • Desmond, Ray 2006. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker: travellor and plant collector. Antique Collectors Club, Suffolk.
  • Endersby, Jim 2008. Imperial nature: Joseph Hooker and the practices of Victorian science. Chicago.


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